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You must have access to audio/video recording equipment (a microphone/webcam, camcorder with digital file capabilities, or cell phone with a high-quality camera/microphone) to complete this assignment.

You must have access to audio/video recording equipment (a microphone/webcam, camcorder with digital file capabilities, or cell phone with a high-quality camera/microphone) to complete this assignment..

Present the PowerPoint presentation designed in Assignment 3. As a reminder, the content should focus on some aspect of social media use in the workplace. Potential examples include the importance of companies embracing social media, advertising through social media, policies involving social media, proper professional communication through social media platforms, or any number of other angles.The presentation must be submitted using one of the following methods:Recorded live narration of the PowerPoint slides.A video recording of the student presenting the presentation (submitted in an appropriate video format like .mov / .mp4 and uploaded to the OneDrive).A video link uploaded to YouTube and submitted through Blackboard (links that do not work at the time of grading will be scored as a 0).A scheduled live presentation to the instructor (subject to schedule availability). The PowerPoint presentation must adhere to the following requirements:Content:Address some aspect of social media in the workplace.Present in a clear, logical manner.Include the PowerPoint presentation from Assignment 3.Be appropriately paced. Total time should not exceed ten minutes in length.Assume your target audience is familiar with the overall concept of social media.Delivery:Follow the professional presentation requirements from Chapter 12 (pages 202-224) in BCOM7.Clearly deliver the presentation content (audio).Wear appropriate professional attire (if using video option) and provide high resolution audio (if using narrated PowerPoint option).Clarity / Mechanics:Focus on clarity, writing mechanics, and professional language/style requirements.Run spell/grammar check before submitting. Your assignment must be completed in PowerPoint (using either .PPT or .PPTX format) [for narrated PowerPoint option]. Uploaded video file (either .mov or mp4 file) or functioning YouTube link [for video option]. Your professor may provide additional instructions.
Assignments must be submitted through the online course shell only.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Plan, create, and evaluate professional documents.Write clearly, coherently, and persuasively using proper grammar, mechanics, and formatting appropriate to the situation.Deliver professional information to various audiences using appropriate tone, style, and format.Develop presentation skills for use in the professional environment.
You must have access to audio/video recording equipment (a microphone/webcam, camcorder with digital file capabilities, or cell phone with a high-quality camera/microphone) to complete this assignment.

File Transfer Protocol is a standard network protocol used mainly in transferring files from one computer to another through the internet, it can also be used to manipulate or exchange files over a TCP/IP based network such as a local area network (LAN) or via the internet. One general use of FTP is to make download and upload of files very easy without directly dealing with the client or server operating system. This means an authorised remote FTP user is able to carry out some extra tasks as editing a file, change a file name, move file from one directory to another and much more (Zadjali, 2010). In most cases, a vast majority of people or organizations who use FTP often have some shared large files which relate to a particular project stored on a file server, access to these remote files are mainly derived through authenticated FTP client or an anonymous user. FTP, without its flaws has proved to be very effective in file transfer (upload and download) and this feature is particularly vital to carry out some much needed tasks since there are tendencies that continuous communication with the satellite is unavoidable. FTP is as a result of an RFC (request for comment) first drafted in the 1970s and has only gone through some few changes. With this in mind, we can have further discussions on how FTP works, have a little discussion on its flaws, and finally see what can be done to avoid some of the well-known draw backs of FTP. FTP has evolved from its original purpose of just a file transferring protocol to a tool used for a far wider range of functions on the World Wide Web and in specialized application with some revision releases as the years passes by, therefore in our own case FTP can be used as a means of sending or manipulating a file containing critical code that is vital to the operation and or functioning of the satellite system whenever the need arises. How FTP Works Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are the backbone of the internet; TCP is responsible for or manages data transfer while IP helps to direct traffics to internet addresses. “FTP is an underling of TCP and shuttles files back and forth between FTP server and FTP client”, for FTP to work properly it requires that two ports be opened; one is the listening port of the server usually on port 21, this port listens for an incoming connection from the client machine. A successful connection from the client to this port then forms the control stream through which commands from the client machine are passed to the server and in return replies are collected. The FTP server on the other hand then opens a corresponding port connection to the client usually on port 20 for data transfer, the separation of ports for commands and data transfer makes FTP more effective (Oxbridge Graduate, -). When using the normal “active mode” the FTP client relays to the server all the information needed for the server to communicate back; some of the basic information includes the port number and IP address upon which it will listen to receive corresponding information from the FTP server. This information sent from the client, that is the PORT and IP are sent as an argument to the FTP server in a format “H1,H2,H3,H4,P1,P2”. Each of the given field represents 8bits of the host IP, followed by the data port chosen by the client machine. For example a client that has an IP address listening on port number 49154 for the data connection from the server will usually send a command “PORT 192,168,0,1,192,2”. The port field is then interpreted as P1*256 P2 of which in this example is calculated as 192*256 2=49154. Normally the in-built firewall on our systems prevents internet sites or external system from initiating file transfer to our computer (the computer behind the router), and this is the way “passive mode” of the FTP server works. To get around this obstacle one must make use of the PASV command which help to reverse the FTP process; this reverse process allows the computer behind the firewall initiate the transfer process by sending the PASV command to which the server in return would reply with a something like “299 Entering Passive Mode (,192,52)” (Oxbridge Graduate, -). PASV FTP can also be used as a security measure to prevent unwanted external files from being downloaded into the system. In the real sense, when using passive mode, the FTP server opens a dynamic port and sends the client machine all necessary information to facilitate the connection, these are the port number on which it is listening and the IP address to connect to (this information usually is a 16 bit value split into a high and low bites as described above) and wait for the client to initiate the connection. Connection in this case requires that the client binds the source port of the connection to a dynamic port. While data is either being uploaded or downloaded through the data stream, the control stream always remains idle and such scenario can cause some problem especially if the files being transmitted is large. A system firewall is designed to time out/terminate sessions after a lengthy period of idleness, meaning although the large file is expected to go through but may be terminated because of the time it will take for the transfer to be completed causing an error (Oxbridge Graduate, -). Effect of Latency on FTP Latency or network delay can be considered as the amount of time delay caused by every element involved in the transfer of data/packet through a particular network path beginning from the initiation point to the destination device. The time taken for each sent packet to be acknowledged is measured as Round Trip Time (RTT) or Round Trip Latency, and latency RTT causes FTP to slow down considering the time it will take for satellite communication to be established and file transfer to be acknowledged, this can be into hundreds or thousands of milliseconds of RTT depending on the bandwidth capacity and the orbiting distance of our satellite. TCP/IP is as of today the most widely deployed internet protocol in existence, consequently FTP being the protocol responsible for file transfer and operates underneath TCP has been found to inherit the drawbacks of TCP/IP. (Unlimi-Tech Software Inc., 2010) One way Latency R S SIN Round Trip Latency ACK Figure : A typical TCP session showing round trip latency Major Acting Elements of Latency Latency as a factor is mainly made up of three (3) major elements that can significantly impact the end-to-end latency, these elements include: Queuing delay Propagation delay Serialization delay Queuing delay is the total sum of all delays caused whenever packets are received, stored and transmitted using queues. This form of delay has been found to be the most variable form of delay in modern networks, and it also depends on the queue length and the number of queues in that particular route; for instance in a congested and heavily loaded network the queue will be long and the queuing delay will be directly proportional to the queue. In several cases this alone will contribute the greatest in the overall latency, but considering networks that are less congested this delay would often not have any meaningful impact (TCPing, 2007). Propagation delay is the time it will take a packet/signal to physically navigate a given path; this delay is linked directly with the distance between a sending and receiving device. Even on a high performing network, the overall latency is commonly affected by the propagation delay and hence cannot be considerably reduced. How consistent the propagation delay is can be greatly dependent on the route signals have to navigate. A direct connection (static route) would in most cases ensure an equally constant latency since no route changes is required but on the other hand a dynamic route will tend to result to more latency variation (TCPing, 2007). Serialization delay is the necessary delay required of a sender to transmit a packet or signal onto the outbound queue, for an available bandwidth and a given packet size serialization delay is a constant and can be “calculated by dividing the packet size (in bits) by the available bandwidth (in bits per second)” (TCPing, 2007). It is only reasonable to talk about jitter after analysing some of its contributing factors; jitter is the variation in packet transportation or variation in the time between packet arrival caused by queuing, propagation and serialization effect on the packet path through the network, another popular cause of jitter is the electromagnetic interference (EMI). Generally higher amount of jitter will tend to take place on heavily congested or slow network. To understand what jitter really means, one must remember that computer data be it in the form of pictures, text, video or audio are sent out in manageable packets with footers and headers that help to indicate the correct order of the packets when it gets to its destined system for playback. When a jitter occurs, the code to re-assemble the data packets may be lost or some data packets itself may Effect of Packet Loss on FTP A typical packet loss occurs when a packet travelling from one end of the network never made its way to the other due to
Messiah College Home Made Musical Instrument for Children Questions.

Home made musical instrument, I have chosen two music instruments to make it, 1- Flutes2-MaracasAs shown in the attached video, I hope you write the plan in an easy and simple way, following the six steps belowPurpose of Assignment: To create a prop that can be used to extend , focus, or enhance a music and /or movement experience for young children. Evaluation: A permanent material must be very durable (strong), sturdy (solidly build), attractive, and of quality materials. Materials designed for use by the children must be very safe, inexpensive, attractive, and easily replicated. NO BELLS, MARBLES, BALLOONS ETC.(do not use food, balloons, marbles, or small item that could be a choking hazard)Write Up: 1- Two names should be used for each instrument, the first is the original name and the second should be an interesting name for children(Fun name)Name (s) of substance / motion tool: (interesting and descriptive thing) 2. Specific materials and directions for making this prop:(list the materials and describe how you made it) (include a diagram/ illustration if needed for clear understanding)3. Lesson plan and/or 2 objectives for use: (what song/ movement/ activity will be accompanied by your prop?)(how will you use your materials with children?)(what is the expected behavior, learnings, or outcome for the children?)4. Suggestions for use with children with special needs. You must state thespecific need and how you will include the child.5. Extra Activity: (An additional curriculum idea may expand the learning objective.Meaning, what can a child learn from this instrument other than musical learning?For example, Mathematics, Science, Art, etc.6. Source of your movement material or instrument idea: (be specific about bibliographic or “personal expert” idea
Messiah College Home Made Musical Instrument for Children Questions

Mobile Devices Law Environment Descriptive Essay.

Requirement : two pages of APA formatBelow is the article from the author. based on that. For your assignment can you either identify one or two challenges that the authors might not have captured? If you are not sure then as an alternative, what are the top challenges you feel would keep you awake either in an corproate environment or in an law enforcement environment?The challenges will be different for each environment. For example in an corporate envionrment the company can dictate what specific models to issue as well as have greater control over the security of the phones. In an law enforcement environment the investigator litterally has no control over the environment so how should the enviornment consider what are the top challenges before looking for the right software that may help the investigator?This assignment is intended to be a light and fun exercise for you! Some of you may have some actual work experience with this so I would love to hear your thoughts!—————Article from the author where assignment is based ofOne of the biggest forensic challenges when it comes to the mobile platform is the fact that data can be accessed, stored, and synchronized across multiple devices. As the data is volatile and can be quickly transformed or deleted remotely, more effort is required for the preservation of this data. Mobile forensics is different from computer forensics and presents unique challenges to forensic examiners.Law enforcement and forensic examiners often struggle to obtain digital evidence from mobile devices. The following are some of the reasons:Hardware differences: The market is flooded with different models of mobile phones from different manufacturers. Forensic examiners may come across different types of mobile models, which differ in size, hardware, features, and operating system. Also, with a short product development cycle, new models emerge very frequently. As the mobile landscape is changing each passing day, it is critical for the examiner to adapt to all the challenges and remain updated on mobile device forensic techniques across various devices.Mobile operating systems: Unlike personal computers where Windows has dominated the market for years, mobile devices widely use more operating systems, including Apple’s iOS, Google’s Android, RIM’s BlackBerry OS, Microsoft’s Windows Mobile, HP’s webOS, Nokia’s Symbian OS, and many others. Even within these operating systems, there are several versions which make the task of forensic investigator even more difficult.Mobile platform security features: Modern mobile platforms contain built-in security features to protect user data and privacy. These features act as a hurdle during the forensic acquisition and examination. For example, modern mobile devices come with default encryption mechanisms from the hardware layer to the software layer. The examiner might need to break through these encryption mechanisms to extract data from the devices.Lack of resources: As mentioned earlier, with the growing number of mobile phones, the tools required by a forensic examiner would also increase. Forensic acquisition accessories, such as USB cables, batteries, and chargers for different mobile phones, have to be maintained in order to acquire those devices.Preventing data modification: One of the fundamental rules in forensics is to make sure that data on the device is not modified. In other words, any attempt to extract data from the device should not alter the data present on that device. But this is practically not possible with mobiles because just switching on a device can change the data on that device. Even if a device appears to be in an off state, background processes may still run. For example, in most mobiles, the alarm clock still works even when the phone is switched off. A sudden transition from one state to another may result in the loss or modification of data.Anti-forensic techniques: Anti-forensic techniques, such as data hiding, data obfuscation, data forgery, and secure wiping, make investigations on digital media more difficult.Dynamic nature of evidence: Digital evidence may be easily altered either intentionally or unintentionally. For example, browsing an application on the phone might alter the data stored by that application on the device.Accidental reset: Mobile phones provide features to reset everything. Resetting the device accidentally while examining may result in the loss of data.Device alteration: The possible ways to alter devices may range from moving application data, renaming files, and modifying the manufacturer’s operating system. In this case, the expertise of the suspect should be taken into account.Passcode recovery: If the device is protected with a passcode, the forensic examiner needs to gain access to the device without damaging the data on the device. While there are techniques to bypass the screen lock, they may not work always on all the versions.Communication shielding: Mobile devices communicate over cellular networks, Wi-Fi networks, Bluetooth, and Infrared. As device communication might alter the device data, the possibility of further communication should be eliminated after seizing the device.Lack of availability of tools: There is a wide range of mobile devices. A single tool may not support all the devices or perform all the necessary functions, so a combination of tools needs to be used. Choosing the right tool for a particular phone might be difficult.Malicious programs: The device might contain malicious software or malware, such as a virus or a Trojan. Such malicious programs may attempt to spread over other devices over either a wired interface or a wireless one.Legal issues: Mobile devices might be involved in crimes, which can cross geographical boundaries. In order to tackle these multijurisdictional issues, the forensic examiner should be aware of the nature of the crime and the regional laws.
Mobile Devices Law Environment Descriptive Essay

SOC120 Stratford Psychological Egoism &Enlightened Ethical Egoism Comparison Paper

SOC120 Stratford Psychological Egoism &Enlightened Ethical Egoism Comparison Paper.

In 500 words or more (no less), explain the difference between psychological egoism and enlightened ethical egoism. You may use examples, but you will still need to include a full scholarly definition of each with commentary. You are required to attach as a separate document an annotated bibliography (see a sample here). Using the resource center and Google Scholar (or similar scholarly tools), create an annotated bibliography with 5 sources related to an overview of the ethical theory of the week. You must cite your references using APA formatting (this is 10% of your grade).You can find tools and examples of APA citation formats at the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.You may use any scholarly source other than a dictionary, to include online video lectures. You may use wikipedia as a starting point, but you will need to research more rigorous sources as well.
SOC120 Stratford Psychological Egoism &Enlightened Ethical Egoism Comparison Paper

San Diego University How COVID 19 Is Affecting People with Disabilities Discussion

essay writer San Diego University How COVID 19 Is Affecting People with Disabilities Discussion.

DISABILITY AS A MEANS OF INNOVATION For this assignment, investigate the following topic: Covid-19 and Disability Background: There is great discussion and distress around the subject of societal responses to Covid-19 as it relates to people with disabilities. Whether it be people with medical disabilities/pre-existing conditions, or people with a mental health, developmental, intellectual, or sensory disabilities, the experience of quarantine, social distancing, and the question of receiving medical or other assistance, are daunting for many people with disabilities and their loved-ones. However, most nondisabled people remain unaware of how the Coronavirus is threatening the lives and life quality of people in the disability community. Your task is to learn about how Covid-19 is affecting people with disabilities and then write a thoughtful summary response using the criteria below. Required Format Microsoft Word ONLYResponses must be in paragraph format underneath respective questions or sections.1” margins12-point fontDouble-spaced2-page minimum Required Content Introduction – 2 points3 References & Summaries – 6 pointsClass Connections – 2 pointsReflection – 2 points In 1-2 paragraphs reflect on the following prompts: I used to think that… Why did you think that? Now I think that… Why do you think that now? What changed in your thinking? A paragraph giving an overview of what you have researched and plan on presenting in your paper. Write a paragraph summarizing each online or hard copy reference (3 paragraphs total) and the main points or perspectives made with that reference. Within each paragraph, include the website link to the readings, blogs, and/or online videos you utilized in your inquiry. In 1-2 paragraphs, make the connection between 2 of the following fundamental areas and how they relate to this topic: AbleismSocial Model of DisabilityAccessibility AccommodationsAssistive technologyDisability rightsRespectful languageEugenics Closing – 2 points In 1 paragraph, explain how disability is a tool or a means of innovation? How has the Covid-19 discussion evolved toward new possibilities as a result of disability representation? Or how has it not evolved toward new possibilities? Explain. Language – 1 point Throughout your paper, use of person-first language is required (unless you are a person with a disability who prefers identity-first language and informs us of your preference within your paper). Respectful language is required. Inspiration porn is unacceptable. Proper disability-related language etiquette is required.For help with this, please refer to the” Disability-Related Language in Written Assignments” document in Blackboard.
San Diego University How COVID 19 Is Affecting People with Disabilities Discussion

Ashworth College Week 4 Pilates and Yoga Discussion

Ashworth College Week 4 Pilates and Yoga Discussion.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.Experiencing Flexibility Training [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLOs: 1, 3]< For this discussion, you will experience a type of flexibility training and reflect on your experience. To prepare for this discussion, please read Chapter 5 in your text and review the required resources.To begin, select one of these practices: Tai Chi, yoga, or Pilates. Describe the benefits of your chosen practice and explain its relationship to wellness.Then, engage in one of these activities by taking a course at your local gym, a recreation center, park, or a private studio. If you do not have access to a live class, you may find a digital alternative such as a class from a website, the on-demand channel on TV, a fitness video game, or a DVD. Be creative in finding a class. You may also check your local library for videos.Next, examine your experience with flexibility training by addressing the following:Describe the session, the setting, and three exercises within the session.Which muscles did these three exercises address? You must use the correct medical terminology for the muscles used in each exercise.Examine the relationship between flexibility training and wellness by rating your stress level and muscle tension before and after the session on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being the highest).Explain any differences you may have felt physically or mentally after the session.Would you continue to incorporate these exercises into your ongoing flexibility training and/or recommend this flexibility training to your friends or colleagues?Your initial post must be a minimum of 250 words. Use at least one scholarly reference properly cited and referenced according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing CenterGuided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers. At least one response should be to a peer who chose a different flexibility training than you did. Compare your experience with those of your peers. What similarities or differences occurred? Consider the variations in setting, the different exercises, and other variables that may contribute to your peers having experiences that are different or similar to your own. Feel free to share any resources or tools that you discovered during this activity. Each peer response should contain at least 100 words. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful and interactive discourse in this discussion forum.
Ashworth College Week 4 Pilates and Yoga Discussion

Bertoly Brechts Mother Courage Drama Essay

Bertolt Brecht’s view on the function of theatre was that it should provoke its audience to change. The epic theatre, Karl Marx and German directors Max Reinhardt and Erwin Piscator were all inspiration for Brecht’s theory on the social function of theatre. (??? 2004: 709) Brecht’s essays ‘Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction’ and ‘The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre’ clearly outline his understanding of what epic theatre is and how it should be used in practice. In both essays, Brecht explains what makes the epic theatre different from modern and dramatic theatre and discusses the techniques available with epic theatre and the effects they can have on the audience. When comparing his play Mother Courage and Her Children to the two essays, it is clear that Brecht has used the essays almost as guidelines to write the play and put his theories on epic theatre into practice. Mother Courage and Her Children is an extremely typical Brechtian play as it contains all the elements that Brecht wanted to include in his plays in order to present his new form of theatre which he believed had a greater social function. One of the most obvious examples of Brecht’s essays being put into practice in Mother Courage and Her Children is Brecht’s use of narrative instead of the plot. Each scene begins with a narrative description of what will happen in that scene, and the play itself starts with a prologue which introduces the central character (Mother Courage) and reveals what the play is about. Despite the fact that there is a storyline running through the play, the narrative style ties in with Brecht’s aim of not giving the audience the chance to become emotionally attached to the characters. The way in which the play jumps with each scene keeps the storyline general and tied more to the greater social events running throughout the play rather than single, individual events in a particular scene. Having spent much of his life in Germany and experiencing two world wars, it should come as no surprise that many of Brecht’s plays, including Mother Courage and Her Children, feature war as the overriding theme of the play. Brecht believed that war was ‘a continuation of business by other means.’ Brecht’s theory on theatre meant that he did not want his audience to emotionally empathise with the characters on stage. In fact, Brecht deliberately created characters which would be subject to criticism from the audience. In order to invite this active rather than passive response from the audience, to provoke a reaction, Brecht instils traits in his characters which tend to make the audience not identify with them, but criticise them. Mother Courage is portrayed as a strong, witty, formidable woman whose sole purpose is to provide a living for both herself and her children. She is a sacrificial character and her love for her children draws an audience to like her. What prevents the audience from empathising with her is her extremely contradictory nature. Whilst pulling out a knife at the Sergeant and Recruiting Officer to protect her children, Courage calls refers to herself and her children as ‘peaceable sorts’. The Sergeant’s cool reply of ‘your knife shows the sort you are’ further displays Courage’s contradictions. (Brecht 2004: 715) When sending her daughter Kattrin into town with the Clerk, Courage tells her not to worry and that ‘nothing will happen’, but upon Kattrin’s return where she is wounded, Courage claims she should never have let her go. When arguing with the Cook over a possible move to Utrecht, Courage tries to end the conversation with ‘that’s enough’, only to continue it herself moments later. In the same scene, Courage encourages Kattrin for the two to go with the Cook to run his pub in Utrecht because ‘life on the road is no sort of life’, but after she sees Kattrin trying to run away she quickly turns on the Cook and questions what she and Kattrin would ever do in a pub. Of course the greatest contradiction of all throughout the play is Courage’s constant criticism of the war off of which she makes her living. It is this contradictory nature of Courage’s which constantly reminds the audience to view the character from a distance, analyse her so to speak, and not empathise with her situation. Had Mother Courage been presented as a fully-rounded character, the audience would have been tempted to empathise; but her presentation as a paradoxical character helps to ‘jolt the audience into some kind of reaction.’ (Leach 1994: 136) Mother Courage is not the only character in the play that is given a specific trait to keep the audience empathising and becoming emotionally involved with her. Her sons – Eilif and Swiss Cheese – are both killed in the play, and it is because of their flaws that they are killed. Her eldest son, Eilif, is strong and intelligent, but his boldness costs him his life. Her younger son, Swiss Cheese, is simple and honest, but he too is led to his death because of his stupidity. The audience are constantly reminded throughout the play by Mother Courage that her children have these traits. ‘I have another who is foolish but honest’ is just one example of Brecht giving Mother Courage a specific line for two reasons: both to remind the audience of the paradoxes each character possesses, to stop them from being empathised with, and to support the epic idea of the play that each scene should be its own. It is frequently seen in Brecht’s plays for an off-stage character’s absence to be explained through an on-stage character’s dialogue. (ref) Robert Leach argues that for Brecht, ‘character is only of interest in so far as it illuminates the fleeting event which provides the writer, or the actor, with a usable gesture.’ What Leach is saying is that for Brecht, the character is only a function to the greater social and economical forces which control and shape the world (within the constructed reality that are his plays), and that the actors, whilst portraying characters, can use them as tools to show the effect of these greater social implications. This can be linked to Brecht’s observation in the essay ‘Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction’ that ‘actors too refrained from going over wholly into their role…’ in the sense that not only did actors do so to invite criticism from the audience of their characters, not only to draw attention away from the individual and place it on the social, but to also show that the characters are simply functional to the social. Another one of Brecht’s main aims was to not focus on the individual emotions of the character, but to explore and show the importance of the greater social implications. In Mother Courage and Her Children, emphasis is not put on the decisions the characters make but the social events which dictate the action of the play. War, religion and family are three main themes which run through Mother Courage and Her Children, and ultimately the fate of each character is determined by these themes. Unlike naturalistic plays where emphasis is usually placed on the individual, in Mother Courage and Her Children Brecht focuses on the relationship between the social implications and the characters of the play. All of the characters in the play are linked together by these themes, and their inability to change their individual (or in the case of Courage and her children, combined) situations. (Examples) Brecht has created Mother Courage as the central character of the play, but because it is not only her, but all the characters that are affected by the war, the spectator’s focus is neither on the central character Mother Courage nor any of the character. The spectator’s focus is drawn, by linking the characters and making them unable to change their situations, to the superseding social themes presented in the play. Brecht liked the notion that epic theatre allowed for jumps in time, and this is reflected in Mother Courage and Her Children. There is a jump in time between each scene of the play, usually a year or two, and the constant curves and jumps in the play – the dialectic approach – allow for Brecht to show a process and effects over time rather than one particular point of time and its individual effect on characters. (Brooker 1994: 189) These jumps in time also allow the play to be ‘epic’ in the sense that they allow each scene to stand independently. The jumps in time also go hand-in-hand with Brecht’s idea that with epic theatre, the audience should be looking with ‘eyes on the course’ rather than ‘eyes on the finish’. Swiss Cheese’s death and Mother Courage’s refusal to admit the body is his is one of the most intense moments of the entire play, but it comes as early as Scene Three. Also, the jumps in time show ‘man as a process’ rather than ‘man as a fixed point’. Rather than focusing on the central character (Mother Courage) at one particular point, Brecht draws out the play so that the audience view Courage’s ‘process’ and development as a character subject to the social and political circumstances. The end of the play sees Mother Courage, now completely alone; walk with soldiers who are singing the same song that is sung in the prologue, reminding the audience of the process that has begun from the very beginning of the play and the effect it has had throughout. The jumps in time between each scene of Mother Courage and Her Children are typical of Brecht’s aim to get the audience to look at the events that have taken place from a more general period of time rather than a specific point. One of the key parts of Brecht’s theory on theatre was that the audience should constantly know that what they are watching is not reality but a construction being presented on stage. By doing so, Brecht could show to his audience that what they were watching was not reality but a presented image of reality, and that could inspire change. To this end Brecht used several techniques in many of his plays (including Mother Courage and Her Children) which allowed him to reveal that the play was indeed a construction. A typical Brechtian technique used in the play is the use of stage directions at the start of each scene, which then reveal what is going to happen in that scene. By using these stage directions (either spoken aloud or displayed with placards on stage) Brecht is able to both remind his audience that what they are watching is a construction. Also, by telling the audience what will happen before it happens, Brecht can eliminate the shock factor, thus keeping the audience away from having an experience and focused on learning from the action on stage. Openly revealing that the play is not real allows Brecht to prevent any sense of emotional attachment to the piece. This can be linked to Brecht’s essay ‘The Modern Theatre is The Epic Theatre’ where he says: ‘…once illusion is sacrificed to free discussion, and once the spectator, instead of being enabled to have an experience, is forced as it were to cast his vote; then a change has been launched which goes far beyond formal matters and begins for the first time to affect the theatre’s social function.’ Brecht states in his essay ‘The Modern Theatre is Epic Theatre’ that ‘words, music and setting must become more independent of one another.’ (reference) This statement is echoed in Mother Courage and Her Children as Brecht uses not only dialogue and stage directions but songs and music in the play, and makes sure that the songs used are seen on an equal level to the other elements such as words. In fact, Scene Ten of the play is constructed entirely of only a few stage directions and song. By giving the songs such importance in the play, on the same level as stage directions and dialogue, Brecht implements his idea into practice, showing that he has used his two essays almost as guidelines for writing Mother Courage and Her Children. Songs are also used in the play to fit in with Brecht’s theory that plays should not be presented to the audience as reality, but as a construction. The direct delivery of a song from a character to the audience, thus breaking the fourth wall, is one of the ways in which the audience is reminded that they are indeed watching a play. The songs also tend to reflect the social and political themes of the play and inspire the audience to think about what they are watching. Looking at ‘Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction’ and ‘The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre’ in comparison with Mother Courage and Her Children, it is clear to see that the play falls into all of the categories that Brecht lists in his two essays for his theory on the function of theatre. Throughout the play the focus is taken away from the characters’ individual emotions and drawn to the greater social and political forces which affect the characters. The play is used as a discussion forum of sorts for some of the common Brechtian themes such as war, religion and family. The use of non-naturalist techniques such as placards and songs helps to break the illusion that the audience creates and prevents them from developing empathy for and emotional attachment to the characters. The jumps in time between each scene of the play keep the audience’s focus on the process over time and not at a fixed point. Mother Courage and Her Children is without question of Brecht’s most typical plays and it is clear to see his essays ‘Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction’ and ‘The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre’ have been put into practice to create the play and inspire the audience to change, rather than experience.