You Are What You Eat Essay. You are what you eat is a phrase a lot of people use. Im not sure who came up with that phrase but it is very true. Food is a big part of what bring people together here in Yap. Most gathering on island during celebration looks colorful because of all the variety of local food, including fruits and vegetables. The people of Yap are friendly and they have the habit of offering food and drinks to visitor that comes to their place. It is very offending if the visitors do not except the food that was offered to them. Nowadays people would still offer food to visitors but what they have is not healthy food. Most are ashamed of eating to eat healthy food; a can of tuna is better than crabs. This attitude also transfers to all a lot of children, most would rather have luncheon meat, hotdogs, corn beef, or even turkey tail in as their food rather than fish, crab or clam. So, In addition, most of the foods eaten here in Yap are store bought food because it is that is fast and easy to eat. It may taste good and it is easy to make, but is modern food good for us? When ask an individual they would tell you that it is not. When an individual is asked, he or she would say it is not good, but what is said and what is done are two totally different stories. What they say and what they do is two totally different stories. How we eat and what we eat shows people how we were raised and what kind of person we would turn out to be. A person People who watches what they eat and does exercise is are more likely to be healthy. A person eating junk food who sleeps a lot and does no exercise would probably be obese and more likely to be diabetic. In the real world, it is not easy for a child children to stick with a healthy diet because what they see they copy. Parents who mix sugar in their drinks have children that also do the same thing. It is also the same with alcoholic parent their children are more likely to be alcoholic. It is up to the parents or the person taking care of the child to play a big role in not only making healthy choices for children and teaching children to make healthy choices for themselves. Before children likes to swim, play tag with other children or even jump rope but nowadays you hardly see children doing that. Most children spend their time playing games or watching television and eating junk food. The advertisements on television does not help children to eat better. What the children sees on TV to them looks delicious and appetizing, so they would pester their parents to get it for them. If parents or the person taking care of the child is a lenient one, the child would get what they he or she wants. The hospital can also help with the support and information the parents and caregivers needs to make healthy choices while instilling healthy eating habits in children that will last a lifetime. Health providers should help the communities to understand the consequence of eating imported food. Long before the foreigner came, people teach by showing examples and explaining things. The old teaches the young what is good to eat and how to go about fixing it. No one worries about gaining weight having cardiac problem or even having high blood pressure. People only eat local food and they live long and stay healthy. Today our way of leaving is declining because of all this easy to get food from the store. We have doctors, nurses and scientists telling us how to manage our lives. They also tell us to go back to the way we used to eat, which is good but hard because most of us grow up with modern food or imported food. When people attend a celebration or even a small gathering, food is one of the things people like to share but instead of eating local food, they would eat imported food (“Needs Assessment for Micronesian Health Care in Hawai’i” 13). Today with people coming back from school with all this idea in their head on how to better help the people of Yap States. They go around saying people should not do this or do that because of too much sugar, instead of showing and saying that they can eat this kind of food, but not all the time. Even in the hospital, nurses sometimes give wrong information to inpatients, especially to diabetic once. Some nurses would tell the patient not to eat certain local food because it contains sugar. In reality the patient can eat the food because it is local, but not all the time. One of the things that help people in Yap long time ago to stay healthy is exercise. Everything Yapese people do is a certain kind of exercise. Even going from places to places people either walk or go by canoe. Getting firewood is also not an easy task but the women also do this kind of work. They cut and gather two to three baskets of firewood for their own house. The women go to taro patches clean and harvest the taro which is not an easy job. Sometimes harvesting taro for the family a women would do that two to three times a week with one to two basket of taro. Sometimes they would climb up or look under the coconut tree for leaves to cut and weave it into basket for the taro. They also do gardening and most of the time the males do not help. They cut small trees, vines pull up grass or weeds and they even burn down big trees so that they can plant seeds underneath. They would carry the taro home and also cook it. They take care of cooking for the whole family, cleaning the house, and taking care of the children with the help of the young girls if the family has any. The ladies do not have that much free time to hang out with their neighbors because almost everything around the house they are responsible for. Girls have the responsibilities to help their mother’s with the chores around the house. This paragraph needs to be written in the past tense as it is a discussion of the past As for the men fishing is one of the things they do for their families and relatives. They would either go spear fishing, netting, using lines or trolling by boat. Trolling and line fishing is more relaxing then netting and spear fishing. Netting and spear fishing is one kind of fishing that deals with swimming or diving around in the water. For the women only few of them goes fishing for their families but the rest do not. The men also have the responsibility to build houses for his family or help his extended families with their houses. Sometimes, the men would help with preparing the garden. If the men are not fishing they are building canoe or teaching young boys how to build things. Most of the time, the men are the once who climb coconut tree to get coconut for the family and they also climb and harvest betel nut to chew. The boys help with the climbing and sometimes the girls if the family does not have boys. Past experience also The pacific island countries are in a state of transition. Pacific island people are changing very fast from a lifestyle which is very healthy, with farming, fishing, walking and gardening, to a less healthy lifestyle where food and goods are purchased and not produced locally, people use cars, and generally there is less physical exercise. The increased migration from villages’ areas to towns and cities has also meant a big change to the pacific way of life. Today people do not have enough exercise they spend most of their time watching television and when they want to go somewhere they go by car. Climbing coconut is another way of exercising which few people are still doing it. The taro patches is over grown with weeds because people are too lazy or do not care to clean them. People have the tendency eat and lay down to rest or sleep claiming that the food they just eat need to digest. Other people would jag around the lagoon and comes back and eat whatever they want. The only exercise most people do is to walk from the house to their car. Parents have the tendency to over feed their children and by doing this they create a problem. First they start introducing food to the baby when they are a few months old because to them the baby is not having enough food with breastfeeding. Second is when the baby is a toddler, the parents would spoon feed the toddler to the point that the toddler with start to refuse the food and the parents would force the child to eat all the food in the plate. Right at that minute the parents create a problem, forcing the child to eat more than the child’s body needs. Too Yapese a fat child is considered healthy and a slime or skinny child is considering sickly and needs to fatten up. Health worker should encourage and explain to the parents that babies should only stick to breastfeeding for the next six months. After the six months, when feeding the baby they should not over feed them. When the baby is full the parents should stop feeding. By doing this the parents help the child to eat only what their body needs not what they think their body needs. It is also good to start giving local food to your child and not store bought baby food. Also, the parents or caretaker should stay away from giving coconut milk to new born it is full of fats. The doctors, nurses, and health worker should advice this people to stay away from coconut milk. Even though Yapese people believe that giving coconut milk to babies is very healthy and also feeding them that young is good for the mother and babies. Healthy people long ago only drink plain water and coconuts. Those are the two kinds of drink that they drink and it is good for them. Plain water or coconut without ice and it is not cold. Today people bought soft drink from the store and other things to mix with their water including sugar. They even bought alcohol like beer and other beverages to also drink. People do not have time to look for coconut and if they do they harvest them to sell not to drink at the house. Coconuts are turning into copra because only few people would drink them. For those that they want to drink they spend money looking for them and buying them. Coconuts are getting very expansive to buy nowadays. So, parents mix their children’s drink or by them juice from the store and send them to school. Some even buy soft drink for their kids because to them it is cheaper than buying coconut. According to Maria Laaken, one of my colleagues at the hospital “children nowadays won’t drink plain water because it does not taste good and they don’t want to be different from the other kids. At the same time the parents don’t want to deal with all complains early in the morning before going to school.” Yap is well known for having many good healthy local foods. It is the people who made bad choices when it comes to food. All ever the island you will see variety of local food including vegetables and at the same time some of the stores also sell local food and vegetables. It is easy and possible to grow them because Yapese people also own land. It should be foreign people or people from other places who should have problem with their diet not Yapese. Instead foreign people go around looking for all the local food and the Yapese goes look for all the imported food. Most taro patches here in Yap are overgrown with grass or weeds because people like to eat white rice. Inside most ice-box of people here in Yap is full of turkey tails and chicken, it is hard to find fish. Overweight in the Pacific Professor Susan Cassels claim that all of the foods that the people in the Federal States of Micronesia like to eat are foods that are easy to get or easy to make and it is affordable or a lot cheaper. One of those foods is turkey tails and turkey tail to the people in the United States is not food because to them it is fertilizer. To the Yapese it is one of the cheapest and tasty foods because of all the grease and fats. Increase availability of money and people is expose to imported foods have result in people not eating the right kind of food, and increase consumption, with diets high in sugar and fats and often low in fiber, vitamins and minerals. A reduction in physical activity, fishing, walking, gardening has led to an increase in obesity in both adults and children. The exercise researcher at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La. Dr. Timothy S. Church, the reason the population is getting obese and overweight is because of lack of physical activities at work, and those jobs that makes people to do physical labor are all gone. A high rate of smoking and increasing consumption of alcohol makes the situation worse. The eating habit of people here in Yap contributes to most of the diseases that the people of Yap encounter. Because of foreign influence and people wanting to be Americanize or modernize they would go to a lot of trouble to eat imported food. Before people hardly get sick and when they do it is not life threatening. People do not have problem with their sugar level or have high blood pressure. Consumption of imported food contributes to a lot of people dying in Yap. All the non-communicable disease in Yap can be stop or prevented by going back to the way we leave. We eat only local food either from these or from the land and this sickness will leave our people and also our island (Jackson 88). There are many non-communicable diseases here in Yap. One of them is diabetic, also known as having problem with your sugar level. Diabetes develops when the body does not make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both. There are two types of diabetic, I and II. Diabetic type I it is believe that a person is born with that type of non-communicable diseases or it is passed from mother to child. As for the other type, type II diabetic a person gets it latter in life. In 2006 to 2007 there was a survey done on Yap Proper and it shows that in general 23% of the people are diabetic and 35% are hypertension (Ichiho, Yurow, and Lifang 16). People with diabetes can lead a normal healthy life. Diabetes is manageable by eating the right food, exercise and sometimes medication. Medication that the patient is taking does not cure the patient but only help to prolong the patient’s life. All people with diabetes and hypertension that need advice about diabetes and hypertension management can ask help from a doctor or nurse. The population of Yap Island has significant burdens of obesity and overweight, hypertension, and diabetes. Obesity and overweight appear in children as young as two years of age and skyrocket between ages 15 and 25 years in both males and females. Following the development of obesity, both males and females begin to experience hypertension and diabetes within 10 years. (Durand 163) It is suspected that this non-communicable disease happens because of all the imported food the people eat and drink. To prevent people from having diabetic people needs to go back to the way they live. Go back to eating local food from the sea and food from the land. Compare to the United States the Federal States of Micronesia has 20% more diabetic people (“Needs Assessment for Micronesian Health Care in Hawai’i” 28). The other non-communicable disease is hypertension. There are two types of hypertension. One is Primary Hypertension and that is the most common form, accounting for majority of cases in Yap. Second is Secondary Hypertension and it occurs as a result of many factors one example is kidney disease. No one knows the cause of hypertension the only thing they know is the contributing factor and they are ageing, smoking, eating food with to much salt in it, being overweight or obese, drinking a lot of alcohol, not enough exercise, stress to name a few. To prevent people from having hypertension they should maintain a healthy weight because being over weight contributes to have high blood pressure. The other thing is people should get regular exercise because being physically active makes the person less likely to have high blood pressure. It those not mean you have to ran around the track or being in a marathon. It just means that people needs to move a bit like wash dishes, cooking local food, gardeningâ€¦etc. Many people in Yap are dying because of what they put in their mouth. Most dead is because of the amount of food people eat and also what kind of food they eat. The lifestyle of the people in Yap contributes to a lot of problem that people are facing getting fat and obese are two other health problem that the people of Yap encounter. Some end up with amputate limb because of uncontrolled eating ways others noncompliant once are dying each day. According to Jackson, “the bad news about these diseases is that they are now killing Micronesians fastâ€¦ at least one person dies every second day from cardiovascular diseases – in other words one person every other day eats themselves to death!” Diabetes and hypertension has increase in proportion in our islands. In 2010 alone there are 847 diabetes and hypertension patients total that comes in for visits (“Yap State Statistical Yearbook” 148). This means that people in our island can and has suffer from complications from diabetes and hypertension such as blindness, amputations and kidney failure. After having one of these conditions the individual will pass away eventually. There are a lot of things the hospital can do to help the people of Yap States to eat healthy and live long but that is up to the people to be willing to except the advice given to them. The doctors, nurses and health workers can only do so much but it is all depend on each individual. The doctors, nurses, and health worker can show people what would happen if they will not listen to their advice but if the individual is close minded than this really nothing the hospital can do. One solution is to keep to the traditional ways of living, eating and exercising including dancing. The people must also keep in mind that not only eating healthy food would save them but also exercises help. They also need to teach and encourage the public that eating healthy starts when people are young. They should not wait until it is too late. Because having a heart attack is not a laughing matter once a person gets it there gone. Unlike strokes and heart failure they will still see tomorrow but still they can also go anytime. Even kidney failure, having that is a drain on the families of the patient. The people should go back and start planting their garden again that is if they want to live long. They should also start cleaning their taro patches and planting taro. Be aware of diabetes and hypertension and what is going on about these diseases. People have to have protective measures to prevent the incidence of having hypertension and diabetes. Every year in Yap women and men’s week are held to help doctors to detect any diseases and sickness that the people of Yap might have. It is held every year but it is really up to the people of Yap State to want to do it. Announcement goes out by radio, television and even flyer to encourage people to join. One should change one’s lifestyle, so that one is more active and is able to either prevent hypertension and diabetes or, if suffering, learn to cope up with it. Having these kind of diseases is hard because there is no turning back once a person has it they have it for life. So, it is really up to the individual to decide what is better for them and their kids. Too either gets sick and dies young or lives long and have a healthy life. You Are What You Eat Essay
La Ventana de lo Cielos- Disability Awarness Training … ( Journal).
Student is required to keep a Personal Journal that will be submitted as requested by the assigned instructor. Journals must be kept current. Journal entries must be completed for the Mandatory Lectures and Service- Learning Activities. Individual Instructors may request entries for the Instructor Assigned Activities as well. Each entry must include the following information:The Type of Activity (Mandatory Lecture, Service- Learning, or Instructor- Assigned)The Date and times of your activity,The Contact Person (Name & phone number or email address)The journal reflection entry should answer the following questions:What did I do? (brief description of activity)What did I learn from this activity?How does this activity impact my development as a future nursing professional?How did this activity address a specific Healthy People 2020 goal/ initiative and acommunity health nursing course objective?First week ( Introduction of the course and Down Syndrome) 2 paragraph, narrative …. following the instruction form What did I do until how this activity address a specific …..) signs and symptoms … Second week ( A review of the previews week and Autism….Third week ( Cerebral Palsy and a little bit about Chromosome 49, Prader-Willy syndrome, William syndrome… ) 3 different journal of 8 that I have to do>> each class is 1 hr every weekend. Personal Reflection Journal #1 Example Activity: Mandatory lectures: Orientation-Syllabus, Orientation- QEP Paper (Community Needs Assessment) & Orientation- Writing Tips WorkshopDate: 6/2/2020What did I do?What did I learn from this activity?How does this activity impact my development as a future nursing professional?How did this activity address a specific Healthy People 2020 goal/ initiative and a community health nursing course objective?I watched the three videos and took notes on how to make a great community needs assessment paper.I learned that community class is based on going into the community, and not just face to face lectures. Also, I learned the expectations of me and what I need to do to be success in this class. I learned that the scholarly paper will be based on my community, using my zip code. I am aware of how the QEP paper supposed to be structured; it has to include community research, analysis, summary, and reflection. While watching the writing tips video, I learned multiple writing tips including removing contractions and casual words from my QEP paper.Being aware of the syllabus allows me to pass this class and graduate, which allows me to get my license and become a nurse. Nursing includes communication; therefore, I have to be able to effectively communicate through writing. I also need to be able to go into the community and meet their needs.This activity introduced me to Healthy People 2020. I am now aware of some goals that Healthy People is trying to meet. Throughout this course, I will continue to learn about the purpose of Healthy People 2020.
The Cognitive and Decision-making Process of M. Sabuleti Foraging During Food Shortages. ABSTRACT OF RESEARCH PLAN: Myrmica sabuleti is a species of eusocial ant which exhibits a reproductive division of labor and age-dependent task specialization. The mushroom bodies are a part of the insect brain responsible for olfactory integration and experience-based learning. This portion of the brain varies in size depending on the task specialization of the individual ant. 10 colonies of ants will be given different combinations of nutrient-rich and -poor food to force specific decision-making during foraging. The morphology of the brains of the ants in each colony will be compared to see if there is a link between decision-making and the mushroom bodies. A. Specific Aims: This study aims to explore the relationship between decision-making and ant brain morphology during times of environmental stress. Our hypothesis is that decision-making while foraging will affect the mushroom bodies. Mushroom bodies are a section of the insect brain associated with olfactory integration and experience-based learning (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). This study will utilize 10 colonies of Myrmica sabuleti to test the hypothesis. A portion of the colonies will be given nutrient-poor food or limited quantities of nutrient-rich food without any other choices. Another portion of the colonies (decision-making colonies) will be given the choice between varying quantities of nutrient-rich food and nutrient-poor food. A small sample of ants from each colony will be taken weekly and dissected to measure the size of their mushroom bodies. We will compare the average size of the mushroom bodies and the change in the size of the mushroom bodies over time between each colony. We will also track the number of ants visiting each food source every day to track their foraging behavior. Our prediction is that colonies forced to make foraging decisions will have larger mushroom bodies than non-decision-making colonies. By observing these differences, we can begin to make conclusions regarding how environmental stressors affect the neurology of social insects and how brain morphology mediates adaptive behavioral changes. B. Significance: Eusocial insects are species of insects characterized by a highly organized social structure of interrelated individuals whose fitness depend on the fitness of the collective nest and reproductive capabilities of the queen (Nowak, et al., 2010). For such a large number of individual organisms to function as a single superorganism requires levels of nuanced communication that makes their neurology inherently interesting (Perry, et al. 2013). Recent studies done on eusocial insects, most notably on honeybees, have shown that their social behaviors, communication methods, and cognitive abilities are far more advanced than previously anticipated (Menzel, 2012). By understanding these complex networks of communication and adaptive behavior, we can better understand how insect foraging functions within an ecosystem. Myrmica sabuleti is a widely studied species of eusocial ant native to Europe. They exhibit age-dependent task determination (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). Communication between individuals relies primarily on olfactory chemical signaling (Cammaerts, M., et al, 2014). Foraging ants rely mainly on olfactory cues to locate food sources (Detrain, C., et al, 1999). The decision-making capabilities of ants, and how this directly involves their neurology, have been studied but are still relatively unexplored (Detrain, C., et al, 1999) or have not established causal links (Robinson, et al., 2009). Past studies done on ant neurology have lead us to focus on the mushroom bodies of foraging ants (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). Mushroom bodies, or corpora pedunculata, are the parts of the insect brain responsible for olfactory learning and memory (Perry, et al, 2013). The morphology of mushroom bodies are also highly variable depending on the role an individual plays within the colony. Young, nonforaging ants and queen ants tend to have smaller mushroom bodies than foraging ants (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). Because ant foraging is based heavily in integrating olfactory information, it is essential for foraging ants to be able to distinguish between scents in order to make decisions that maintain the wellbeing of the whole colony. While some of the traits described inherent to most eusocial insects and ant species, Myrmica sabuleti poses specifically relevant questions because it is a host for parasitic butterflies (Witek, et al., 2014). Maculinea butterflies, such as Phengaris alcon and Phengaris arion leave larvae inside of a M. sabuleti nest to either prey on ant larvae or eat food provided by nurse ants (Witek, et al., 2014). Maculinea butterflies are threatened species and the stability of a specific population can be accurately predicted by analyzing the related population of Mymica ants (Thomas, et al., 2009). However, hosting parasitic butterflies causes a significant strain on a colony’s resources and the wellbeing of its brood (Thomas, et al., 1992; Witek, et al., 2016). While the food shortages simulated in this experiment will not perfectly represent the affect of a parasitic butterfly in a colony, the results may provide insights into how a colony can adapt its behavior when under environmental stress, which will benefit conservation efforts. C. Experimental Design and Methodology: 10 colonies of M. sabuleti will be used for this experiment. Each colony will have approximately 200 workers and 1 – 2 queens. They will be kept indoors in separate nest boxes in an appropriate substrate, with a regular 12 hour light/dark cycle and appropriate temperature. Before any data collection takes place, we will rear single cohort colonies without brood. Previous studies have shown that young, non-foraging ants still experience olfactory-based learning within the nest due to tasks such as brood care and nest maintenance (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). By rearing the ants without brood, their mushroom bodies should stay relatively undeveloped until they specialize in foraging, and therefore should display a more clear trend over time. Because ants are invertebrates, they are not protected under any animal testing legislation. Preliminary data collection: A period of one month will be reserved to collect preliminary data necessary for the controls during the next step in this experiment. The nests will be fed an excess of mealworms (protein source) combined with a sucrose solution. These food sources will be added at the beginning of the day and removed at the end. The weight of each food source will be taken to calculate the amount eaten in one day. The average amount of food eaten every day will be used as a guide to determine the “sufficient” amount of food. As will be explained below, during the experimental data collection period, a citrus scent will be added to nutrient-poor food in order to mediate olfactory learning in the decision-making colonies. During the preliminary data collection period, we will run T-maze tests on a random sample of ants to make sure that the ants are neither attracted to or adverse to the scent. These ants will not be returned to the source colonies. If we find that the citrus scent biases the decision-making of these ants, we will test back-up aromatic chemicals such as vanilla or carvone oil (this is the last resort because it is the most difficult to obtain). Each nest box will also be set up with a Broodminder tool. This tool is typically used for monitoring bee hives but can be adjusted for our purposes. It is placed underneath a nest box and provides real-time updates on the nest’s weight and temperature. The weight of a nest box is directly correlated to the number of individuals within the box. This information will be used to monitor the wellbeing of each colony throughout the experiment. This period of data collection will also be used to fine tune the camera/video setup and procedures necessary for the next step. We will use the video data to determine the 3 hours of the day in which the nests are most actively foraging. Foraging behavior treatments: Once preliminary data has been collected, the nests will be treated with different food sources so we can observe the changes in foraging behavior. Complete food contains the mealworm and sucrose-solution in the proportions observed during preliminary data collection. Protein-poor food contains half the necessary proportion of mealworms. Sucrose-poor food contains half the necessary proportion of sucrose solution. Additionally, both protein- and sucrose-poor food will include a citrus scent (nontoxic) in order to mediate olfactory-based learning. Sufficient quantity means the food is present in the necessary quantity (by weight) observed in the preliminary data collection. Limited quantity is 2/3 the quantity of food determined necessary. Table 1 – Treatments for each nest Nest Treatment 1 Nutrient-rich food in sufficient quantities. 2 Nutrient-rich food in limited quantities. 3 Protein-poor food in sufficient quantities. 4 Protein-poor food in limited quantities. 5 Sucrose-poor food in sufficient quantities. 6 Sucrose-poor food in limited quantities. 7 Choice between nutrient-rich food and protein-poor food in sufficient quantities. 8 Choice between nutrient-rich food and protein-poor food in limited quantities. 9 Choice between nutrient-rich food and sucrose-poor food in sufficient quantities. 10 Choice between nutrient-rich food and sucrose-poor food in limited quantities. Nest 1 serves as the negative control because it will be given the same amounts of food given during the preliminary data collection and is not expected exhibit any changes in behavior. Nests 2 – 6 will either be given a nutrient-poor diet, or a shortage of food. These serve as non-decision-making experimental groups. Food-shortage colonies are expected to increase their amount of foraging behavior in search of more food, even once the limited food source is depleted. Nutrient-poor colonies are expected to increase the amount of visits to the food sources because they will need a higher quantity of food to meet their nutritional needs. The observed behavioral changes in these groups will allow us to control for the effects of food shortages and malnutrition in the decision-making colonies. Nests 7 – 10 will be referred to as the decision-making colonies, as they are the only colonies given two different food sources to choose from. In the case of colonies given two different food sources, 50% of the food by weight will be nutrient-rich and 50% will be nutrient-poor. Here, we expect to see a higher proportion of foraging ants to visit the nutrient-rich food over the nutrient-poor food. As mentioned earlier, the unique scent of the nutrient-poor food sources is expected to help foragers differentiate between the two food sources. Every nest will be recorded from above for one hour a day. This hour will be determined randomly from the pool of three hour periods where the nests are most active, as determined during the preliminary data collection. During this 1 hour period, the following data will be recorded: the number of exits from the underground portion of the nest and the number of visits to each food source. Because of the sheer number of ants and their small size, it would be unrealistic to tag ants in order to track individual behavior. Due to this, the number of exits, and number of forager visits to the food sources may include individual foragers who leave the nest multiple times or who visit a food source multiple times over the course of a single hour. This also means its possible for the number of visits to a food source to be higher than the number of exits from the nest. During this period of data collection, we will continue to monitor the health of the colonies using Broodminder data. We will continue to collect data for 5 months or until the colonies show signs of hibernation. Neurological assay: During both the preliminary and experimental periods, we remove a random sample of 5 workers from each nest once a week for dissection. This sample size may decrease if the population size of the nests decreases to a point where the colony’s wellbeing is at risk. We will cut open the head capsules and dissect the brains in isotonic saline. The brains will then be rinsed in a buffer solution, rinsed in water and dried in ethanol, then finally sectioned in 10 µm slices. The slices will be dyed with Methylene blue. These slices can then be observed under a microscope. These procedures have been used in previous studies to observe brain morphology in ants (Gronenberg, et al, 1996). Because head size is highly variable between individuals, we will measure the total brain volume, then calculate the percentage of brain volume taken by the mushroom bodies. We expect to see a correlation between decision-making and the morphology of the mushroom bodies. We will compare the morphology of the decision-making ants to the nutrient-poor ants and food-shortage ants to make sure that the food treatments alone were not responsible for any of the observed changes. Statistics For each colony, we will have collected the following data: average % brain volume of the mushroom bodies, average visits to each food source, average exits from the nest. We can pool this data by week and plot each nest’s datapoints by time. In the control and non-decision-making colonies, we expect to see no difference in their foraging behaviors over time. The decision-making colonies have two sets of data for food source visits, because each had two food sources. We will run paired T tests on these data to test for a difference between the number of visits to each food source. We expect to see a bias in food source visits towards the nutrient-rich food once the ants have established the relationship between the scent and nutritional value of each food source. A significant increase in visits to the nutrition-rich food source confirms that the ants are capable of making decisions while foraging and have been exhibiting this behavior over the course of the study. We will run a second set of ANOVA tests on the weekly mushroom body data for each nest. A pairwise analysis will then be used to determine which weeks showed the significant increases in size (if the ANOVA test shows significant difference in the data sets). Decision-making colonies are expected to show a significant increase in the size of the mushroom bodies. The control and non-decision-making colonies are expected to not show a significant increase in their mushroom bodies. The lack of a significant trend in the non-decision-making experimental colonies will confirm that malnutrition or food shortages alone are not responsible for the changes in brain morphology of the ants. The lack of significant trend in the control colony will confirm that the change brain morphology is not an inherent physiological trait. Table 2 – Proposed Budget Item Quantity Unit cost Retailer Nest boxes 10 $23.79 Tar Heel Ants Pumice (substrate, 10lb bag) 2 $17.00 Home Depot BroodMinder-W weight scale 10 $179.00 BroodMinder BroodMinder software 1 $25.00 BroodMinder Frozen crickets (1lb bag) 3 $37.99 Fluker Farms Food processor 1 $56.99 Amazon Granulated sugar (1lb bag) 5 $4.99 Grocery store Citric acid (food grade, 5oz) 3 $5.99 Grocery store Carvone oil (5 oz) 3 $5.89 Bulk Apothecary Vanilla extract (1oz) 5 $3.49 Grocery store Camcorder 10 $99.99 Best Buy Tripod 10 $23.49 Amazon Methylene blue dye (4 oz) 1 $4.89 Amazon Miscellaneous carpentry – $200.00 Home Depot TOTAL $3,775.59 Employee Quantity Salary Head researcher 1 $80,000/year Lab technicians 3 $50,000/year TOTAL $230,000/year GRAND TOTAL $233,775.59 Note: I will be able to access the equipment needed to slice and mount the ant brains in the mouse lab. Initial M. sabuleti queens and colonies will be collected from the Philadelphia zoo and Central Park zoo, then additional workers will be reared for a period of three months before the study begins to ensure enough individuals for each colony. D. Literature cited: Cammaerts, M.,The Cognitive and Decision-making Process of M. Sabuleti Foraging During Food Shortages
Step 1 Picture yourself as a Senior Product Manager in your favorite industry. This could be high-tech, financial services, consumer products, electronics, automobiles, restaurants, food services, etc. Choose an industry with which you are familiar. Sit quietly and brainstorm with yourself about a possible new product idea. This does not have to be completely original. It could be as simple as a new flavor of ice cream, a new feature on a hair dryer or a new color iPhone/iPad. Step 2 Create a post describing your new product idea. Be as specific as possible and provide as much detail as you can so that other’s reading your post can understand your idea in sufficient detail so as to comment on it. Be sure to state who the product idea is targeted to, that is, who you expect to buy it. How will the new product compare and compete with similar, currently available products? How can labeling and package design help? Consider the labeling for the new product idea. What restrictions and legal requirements have to be fulfilled? Consider the packaging for the new product ideas. If applicable, what sizes will be available? How will the packaging help the product to stand out? How will the packaging help prevent or deter theft? Feel free to attach images to your post, or include links to similar products that might have similar characteristics to the new one you are developing.
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SOCI 1301 Tallahassee Community College The Saints and the Roughnecks Case Analysis
SOCI 1301 Tallahassee Community College The Saints and the Roughnecks Case Analysis.
Chambliss, The Saints and the Roughnecks.htmStep 1: Review the case study of The Saints and the Roughnecks listed in the attached file.Step 2: In the text box below, write a response to each of the following questions (you may submit directly in the text box or attach a Word document, but do NOT do this assignment in Google docs). Do NOT simply quote the case study to me. THINK this through. I want your OWN ANALYSIS of the following questions. In your essay address the following:1) Analyze this case study using first Micro-level analysis and then Macro-level analysis. How did these two perspectives contribute to the different reactions the two groups received from the community? What different perspectives do we receive using each of the two perspectives?2) What were the long term consequences of the community responses to these boys during their teenage years? (how did it affect them as adults)3) In reading this case study, what observations did you have about conducting sociological research?
SOCI 1301 Tallahassee Community College The Saints and the Roughnecks Case Analysis
order essay cheap o Hypertension. Need help with my Science question – I’m studying for my class.
·Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
·Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
·Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.
Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:
·Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
·Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
·Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.
Deconstructing the Third Front
Daniel Steven Bressner After decades spent cultivating economic growth along its eastern seaboard, the PRC’s western interior is rapidly developing. In Sichuan province, Chengdu alone is now home to over 1,000 U.S. companies including General Electric and Mazda. However, one of the most ambitious efforts to industrialize western China actually took place decades earlier. In a sweeping project known as the Third Front, central government planners reconfigured the economy of western provinces, with a special emphasis on defense industrialization. This paper provides an overview of the international factors that led to the creation of the Third Front and its key projects. Furthermore, it analyzes the economic strategies used by the Chinese government during this period to complete these projects. Background The Third Front, or da sanxian, derives its name from a development concept put forward Mao confidant Lin Biao, who became Minister of Defense in 1959. In a speech in 1962 known as the “7,000 Cadres Conference”, Lin pushed for the military fortification of Anhui Province as a safety measure in case the government needed to retreat from its eastern seaboard. While China faced a myriad of international crises during the 1960s, Lin’s speech was most concerned with a possible attack on mainland Chinese cities by Kuomintang (KMT) forces in the aftermath of the Great Leap Forward. In 1964, Mao himself played in active role in revising the 3rd Five Year Plan so that it would emphasize national defense. The final version highlighted the threat of looming war and called for increased development in transport infrastructure, science and technology, and national defense. While Lin was focused on the KMT, Mao’s preoccupation was the growing American military presence in Southeast Asia. China scholar Barry Naughton is one of the leading researchers on the political economy of the Third Front. He identifies the Gulf of Tonkin incident, and subsequent start of the Vietnam War, as the primary catalyst for the acceleration of the Third Front development strategy. From 1964 to 1971, the combination of defense concerns over the KMT, United States, and Soviet Union all created an environment politically conducive to intensive defense development. Structure
Cuyamaca College Black Lives Matter vs All Lives Matter Comparative Essay
Cuyamaca College Black Lives Matter vs All Lives Matter Comparative Essay.
Identify the environmental scanning needs. You will look for information on how your issue is being impacted by all of the following; however, you may not find information on all of these. That’s okay! You will address why your issue is not impacted by that specific factor in your essay.Industry/Market: identify key competitors in the industry (could be other countries, political parties)Technology: emergence of new technologies that can influence your issue, can change existing infrastructures (e.g., energy, transportation, communication), rise of new products or servicesRegulatory: changes in laws and regulatory guidelines (e.g., minimum wage, business taxes, DACA, Title IX)Economics: local, regional national, international economies, unemployment, inflation, GDP, exchange ratesSocial: demographics, households, mental health, wellness, community (who is your issue impacting? How? Where? When? Why?)Politics: local, national, and international politics–debates, campaigns, international relations, etc.2. Gather the information. Consult the following sources of information: Personal contactsJournals/MagazinesBooksNewspapersProfessional Conferences/meetingsRado, television, InternetSocial MediaProfessional colleaguesPresidential Databases/WebsitesStatements from Candidates, Lobbyists, & Critics3. Analyze the information. Look at the information that you gathered from the sources in step 2. Organize the information into the 6 categories:Industry/Market: TechnologyRegulatoryEconomicSocialPoliticalOutline your paper utilizing the grouped information
Cuyamaca College Black Lives Matter vs All Lives Matter Comparative Essay