The WWI-War was influenced by conflicts among military groups from countries known as world’s supreme powers. It was a four year war i.e. from 1914 to 1918, centered between two disputed allies’, central powers and the triple entente. Sources indicate that close to seventy million soldiers were deployed with fifteen million people perishing as a consequence of the fateful period (Caddick-adams). In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live with minimal supplies and restricted space for operations. Soldiers serving in the frontline during the First World War faced a lot of challenges and difficulties when fighting for their own countries. As a way of hiding from ruthless enemies they had to live in unhealthy trenches at the expense of their health. Due to this fact they faced frequent deaths as a result of attacks by dreadful diseases and unpredictable enemies who attacked via gunfire or bayonet (Caddick-adams). Though living in the trenches could keep them safe from the enemy that was not so in the case of attacks by frogs, rats and lice. Furthermore, trenches provided conducive environment for their multiplication hence a big threat to the health of soldiers. Regardless of a conducive environment or not, lice could still multiply fast due to their short breeding periods and caused painful itches which led to high fever followed by severe headaches. In the filthy trenches they were expected to be on high alert and constantly having their weapons ready at any moment just in case the enemy attacks. In addition, movement was minimized and attending to any personal issue was scheduled after fully completing assigned duties. Such kind of life was boring consequently leading to deterioration in the quality of life. Sources indicate that bodies were left lying and rotting on the ground or buried in shallow graves. As a result the entire battle field was clouded with a stinking smell that was a disguise to the dedicated soldiers. Overflowing shallow latrines, also contributed to the disguise by its stinking smell. In addition, sometime the soldiers fell short of adequate water supply which forced them to go weeks and sometimes even months without taking bath (Caddick-adams). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly introduced soldier in the frontline had difficulties in adapting with the situation on the ground but with no option of turning back they had to adjust for the sake of their survival. Most of the frontline soldier suffered a disease known as shell shock, a mental illness that eventually leads to mental breakdown. The First World War significantly affected the civilians or persons at home front, forcing them to adjust and adapt by the situation. Rationing was not only done on luxurious commodities but also on the basic ones such as food supply, attires and many more household materials (Caddick-adams). As a result, various households had to adapt to the situation by venturing in home gardening to act as a substitute for the missing diets. Fortunately, to the civilians who lived in countryside were not greatly affected since most of their home use products were locally supplied. Many home use equipments were eventually turned into weapons to act as protection devices against enemies. The First World War was characterized by displacement of people so as to create room for battlefields. Once an area was declared a battlefield by the government it had to be evacuated no matter what, hence civilians had no option but to comply. Furthermore, who would want to stay close to battlefields with an ongoing war at place? Women also had to take great responsibilities due to the fact that men were sent to war. They had act as the sole breadwinners by ensuring each member of their family was quite comfortable as far as provision is concerned. Sometimes they could go the great extents by carrying the entire burden left by the absence of men for the well being of their families. In some instances women were also expected to frequently supply food to their husbands when fighting in battlefields. Education and formal job were left at stand still due to insecurity was a big threat to future of civilians as they could not study or make a living. The impacts of the WW1-war were felt by both persons at fore front and home front. Soldiers at the fore front suffered from diseases and poor living conditions that accelerated their deaths. Not forgetting persons at the home front who were displaced, unemployed and had to work extra hard to meet their needs. As noted from the findings the WW1-war was characterized by negative impacts both to civilians and soldiers whether at home or at fore front. We will write a custom Essay on WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Peter, Caddick-adams. The home front in world war one. BBC. March 14 2005. Web. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/wars_conflict/home_front/the_home_front_01.shtml
A monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by seasonal changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons. The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal may be debated. The term was first used in English in British India (now India, Bangladesh and Pakistan) and neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area. In hydrology, monsoon rainfall is considered to be that which occurs in any region that receives the majority of its rain during a particular season. This allows other regions of the world to qualify as monsoon regions. The monsoon is a seasonal wind. In the summer it blows northwards over India and Bangladesh bringing wet weather. In the winter it blows southwards over these countries towards northern Australia. This cause dry weather conditions in Mumbai. These winds give distinct wet and dry season. When the rains come, rivers flood the land and fish spawn in the rice fields. People put away their ploughs and get out their fishing net as fields turn into huge lakes. In Mumbai, nearly 2000mm of rain falls in the summer but very little falls at any other time. Further inland, away from the sea, temperatures are higher and there is less rain. The north-west is a particularly arid region. Abstract The relationship between the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon and equatorial sea-surface-temperature anomalies has been studied using results from integration with the UK Universities’ Global Atmospheric Modelling Programme (UGAMP) General Circulation Model (UGCM). The integration was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project and thus used the observed sea surface temperatures for the decade January 1979 to December 1988. The mean evolution of the Asian summer monsoon has been successfully simulated in terms of many aspects of the rapid transition of the large-scale circulation during the boreal spring and summer. However, the results for individual years showed considerable interannual variability, both in the strength of the monsoon and in the time of onset. A relationship has been identified between the evolution of the monsoon flow and the phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. In agreement with observed results, years with warm SST anomalies in the equatorial central and east Pacific Ocean El Niño have a weaker monsoon circulation and a delayed onset. An opposite behavior is noted for those years with cold Pacific SST anomalies La Niña. Diagnostics from analyses from the National Meteorological Center and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, and from data on the outgoing long-wave radiation observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, have been used to verify the model results. A description of the mechanism by which the phase of ENSO remotely influences the dynamics of the Asian summer monsoon has been developed involving changes in the heating patterns over Indonesia and the west Pacific in the preceding spring. Etymology and definition The English monsoon came from Portuguese monção, ultimately from Arabic mawsim “season”, “perhaps partly via early modern Dutch monsun”. The Arabic-origin word mausam is also the word for “weather” in Hindi, Urdu, and several other North Indian languages. The definition includes major wind system that changes direction seasonally. Most summer monsoons have a dominant westerly component and a strong tendency to ascend and produce copious amounts of rain. The intensity and duration, however, are not uniform from year to year. Winter monsoons, by contrast, have a dominant easterly component and a strong tendency to diverge, subside and cause drought. What causes monsoon? The standard explanation of monsoons is that they are a wind system driven by thermal convection and pressures on a seasonal cycle. During the summer, the sun is high over land masses of Asia and heats up the atmosphere over the plateaus. The warm air rises, low-pressure areas are created, and air is drawn in from the Indian Ocean to replace the rising air. As the moisture-laden air is lifted over the land by high plateaus and mountains, it drops rain, sometimes in torrents, over the land. Thus in summer, the sea-to-land air brings rain. In winter the process is reversed as the sun moves southward over the water, creating areas of low pressure, toward which air is drawn from the cooling land mass. Meteorologists are now finding, however, the ore complex than previously supposed. They developed not only from thermal convections but also involve basic wind pattern and atmospheric disturbances in the form of cyclones, convections, and high and low areas. South Asian monsoon -Southwest Asian Monsoon The southwestern summer monsoons occur from June through September. The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heats up considerably during the hot summers, which causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian subcontinent. To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush in to the subcontinent. These winds, rich in moisture, are drawn towards the Himalayas, creating winds blowing storm clouds towards the subcontinent. The Himalayas act like a high wall, blocking the winds from passing into Central Asia, thus forcing them to rise. With the gain in altitude of the clouds, the temperature drops and precipitation occurs. Some areas of the subcontinent receive up to 10,000 mm of rain. The southwest monsoon is generally expected to begin around the start of June and fade down by the end of September. The moisture-laden winds on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, due to its topology, become divided into two parts: the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. The monsoon accounts for 80% of the rainfall in India Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the rains, for growing crops especially like cotton, rice, oilseeds and coarse grains. A delay of a few days in the arrival of the monsoon can badly affect the economy, as evidenced in the numerous droughts in India in the 1990s. The monsoon is widely welcomed and appreciated by city-dwellers as well, for it provides relief from the climax of summer heat in June. However, the condition of the roads takes a battering each year. Often houses and streets are waterlogged and the slums are flooded in spite of having drainage system. This lack of city infrastructure coupled with changing climate patterns causes’ severe economical loss including damage to property and loss of lives, as evidenced in the Bombay floods of 2005. Bangladesh and certain regions of India like Assam and West Bengal, also frequently experience heavy floods during this season. And in the recent past, areas in India that used to receive scanty rainfall throughout the year, like the Thar Desert, have surprisingly ended up receiving floods due to the prolonged monsoon season. The influence of the Southwest Monsoon is felt as far north as in China’s Xinjiang. It is estimated that about 70% of all precipitation in the central part of the Tian Shan Mountains falls during the three summer months, when the region is under the monsoon influence; about 70% of that is directly of “cyclonic”. -Northeast Asian monsoon Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern land mass of the Indian subcontinent begins to cool off rapidly. With this air pressure begins to build over northern India, the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere still holds its heat. This causes the cold wind to sweep down from the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean south of the Deccan peninsula. This is known as the northeast monsoon or retreating monsoon. While travelling towards the Indian Ocean, the dry cold wind picks up some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and pours it over peninsular India and parts of Sri Lanka. Cities like Madras, which get less rain from the Southwest Monsoon, receive rain from this monsoon. About 50% to 60% of the rain received by the state of tamil nadu is from the northeast monsoon. In southern Asia, the northeastern monsoons take place from December to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest. The jet stream in this region splits into the southern subtropical jet and the polar jet. The subtropical flow directs northeasterly winds to blow across southern Asia, creating dry air streams which produce clear skies over India. Meanwhile, a low pressure system develops over South-East Asia and Australasia and winds are directed toward Australia known as a monsoon trough. -East Asian Monsoon The East Asian monsoon affects large parts of Indo-China, Philippines, China, Korea and Japan. It is characterized by a warm, rainy summer monsoon and a cold, dry winter monsoon. The rain occurs in a concentrated belt that stretches east-west except in East China where it is tilted east-northeast over Korea and Japan. The seasonal rain is known as Meiyu in China, Changma in Korea, and Bai-u in Japan, with the latter two resembling frontal rain. The onset of the summer monsoon is marked by a period of preonsoonal rain over south china and Taiwan in early may. From May through August, the summer monsoon shifts through a series of dry and rainy phases as the rain belt moves northward, beginning over Indo-china and the South China Sea (May), to the Yangtze River Basin and Japan (June) and finally to North China and Korea (July). When the monsoon ends in August, the rain belt moves back to south china. Monsoon in Africa In winter, the wind indeed blows from the cool continent to the warm ocean. Following the Sun apparent movement in the course of the year, the continent warms faster than the ocean. This thermal contrast drives the surface pressure contrast between the ocean (high pressure) and the continent (low pressure) and the set up of the monsoon circulation. Similarly to a giant sea-breeze, at the beginning of the summer, the wind changes and eventually blows from the ocean to the continent. The West African Monsoon differs in many aspects from the Asian Monsoon. Over West Africa, the large scale structure is very symmetric in the zonal direction while over the Indian subcontinent the flow is more complex. Another important difference, among many, lies in the fact the Indian monsoon seems more resilient that the African one in terms of rainfall. Over the 20th century, India never experienced more than two consecutive years of droughts while the Sahelian region suffered from a long lasting drought for the last twenty years. Australia Also known as the Indo-Australian Monsoon. The rainy season occurs from September to February and it is a major source of energy for the Hadley circulation during boreal winter. The Maritime Continent Monsoon and the Australian Monsoon may be considered to be the same system, the Indo-Australian Monsoon. It is associated with the development of the Siberian High and the movement of the heating maxima from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere. North- easterly winds flow down Southeast Asia, are turned north-westerly by Borneo topography towards Australia. This forms a cyclonic circulation vortex over Borneo, which together with descending cold surges of winter air from higher latitudes, cause significant weather phenomena in the region. Examples are the formation of a rare low-latitude tropical storm in 2001, Tropical Storm Vamei, and the devasting flood of Jakarta in 2007. The onset of the monsoon over the Maritime Continent tends to follow the heating maxima down Vietnam and the Malay Peninsula (September), to Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines (October), to Java, Sulawesi (November), Irian Jaya and Northern Australia (December, January). However, the monsoon is not a simple response to heating but a more complex interaction topography, wind and sea, as demonstrated by its abrupt rather than gradual withdrawal from the region. The Australian monsoon or rainy seasons occurs in the austral summer when the monsoon through develops over Northern Australia. Over quarters of annual rainfall in Northern Australia fall during this time.
Communication basically affects how you live your life and how are you going to interact with the people around you. With a good communication skill, you will have positive and powerful perspective relationships with people you are working with, with your family and with your friends. At the same time, communication also has the power to destroy or build those relationships. (White, 2010) According to Robbins, “To effectively communicate, we must appreciate the world around us, and accept that all of us are different and learn how to understand as this is the guide to our communication with others. (Robbins, 2010) Communication Malfunction Distraction – this happens when the recipient of the message is not carefully listening to what the sender has been talking to or explaining (Taylor, 2010). It totally concludes that you don’t understand anything about what the conversation is. Losing the concentration of your responsibilities and tasks could lead you to lose your job as well. It implies that you are not that capable or suitable in this job. This usually happens in hotels or restaurants. In hotel side, for example in Housekeeping, your Executive Housekeeper tells/explains you what your roles and responsibilities are but then, you’re filled with family problems. You don’t carefully listen to what your Executive Housekeeper has been teaching you. This kind of situation may result inaccurate information and the Front Office department will be affected as well. Misrepresentation – most common this one happens in the Human Resource department. They are the one who is hiring people that they know who can do the job well. But there were times they were mistaken by false information given by the people who applies the job (Taylor, 2010). For example, in a resume, people give exaggerated information of themselves so they could be hired by the company. But in the end, they will find out that it was just merely puff the things put in the resume. Emotions – this one also very common in F
Acoustics and Critical Listening: Studio Design. Home Studio Design Contents 1. Introduction 4 2. Architectural and Sound Isolating Properties 2.1 Flooring 2.2 Roofing 2.3 Walling and Insulation 2.4 Doors 2.5 Other Techniques for Room Isolation and Noise Reduction 3. Room Modes and Room Shape 3.1 Room Modes 3.2 Types of Room mode 3.3 Room Shape 4. Acoustic Room Treatment 4.1 Reflections and Reverberation Time 4.2 Absorption and absorption coefficients 4.3 Diffusion 4.4 Schroeder Frequency 5. Speaker Placement 5.1 Placement Angle and Height 5.2 Critical Distance 6. Conclusion Reference List List of Figures Bibliography 1. Introduction This report focuses primarily on the creation of both a usable and optimal studio space for the modern day, while discussing the key principles of acoustics that influence the choices and decisions made in the design. The format of the report takes on that of a guide, informing and discussing different concepts, methods and design choices for building a studio from the ground up. 2. Architectural and Sound Isolating Properties The Architectural properties of a building greatly impacts sound inside the room and can also provide varying amounts of room isolation. Room isolation refers to how much sound can travel in and out of the room, with greater isolation meaning less sound leakage, this sound leakage is commonly referred to as noise and comes in two main types; airborne noise and structure-borne noise. Airborne Noise is sound which flows in and out using small gaps in the building’s architecture where air flows. Airborne noise can disrupt a studio environment by bringing noise from outside. Structure-borne noise refers to noise which primarily travels through solids within the building’s structure, these are low frequency sounds which can travel long distances through solids due to their high density. Another term used in relation to room isolation is the TL value. The TL value refers to “sound transmission loss (TL) effectiveness” (Allegion 2018), which means to how many decibels a sound pressure level is reduced when passing through an object (in decibels). Transmission loss is frequency dependant and the equation to find the TL value at different frequencies is: Figure 1.1 “TL = 14.5 log Mf – 16” (David Miles Huber, Robert, E. Runstein., 2010). Where M = surface density in pounds per square foot (lb/ft) and TL = transmission loss (dB) and f = frequency (Hz) from this, the conclusions can be made that the TL value rises with frequency, and “heavier acoustic barriers will yield a higher transmission loss” (David Miles Huber, Robert, E. Runstein., 2010). 2.1 Flooring Figure 1: Layered Floor Diagram (David Miles Huber Robert, E. Runstein) Figure 1 displays a diagram of a layered floor with labelled materials. A layered floor should be considered for a more budget friendly option when coming to flooring, as shown on figure 1 there are multiple layers with a concrete finish, on top of this concrete, thick carpet should be installed for absorption of more high frequency sound. (Absorption will be expanded upon in section 4). The layered floor will also prevent air and structure-borne noise. 2.2 Roofing A layered roof should be considered to protect against the environment and to also yield some good airborne noise protection. An example would be “RBM” (BriggsAmasco 2018). If the room in question is in a building already, the common problem of foot traffic occurs, where low frequency, structure borne noise from above leaks down to the lower level through the ceiling, to reduce this, a “spring support system” could be utilised (David Miles Huber, Robert, E. Runstein., 2010). Figure 2: Z Suspension Diagram (David Miles Huber Robert, E. Runstein) Figure 2 shows a Z suspension which hangs a fake ceiling, these are screwed to the ceiling joists which sound primarily travels through, the soundis then channelled into the fake ceiling and diffused. 2.3 Walling and Insulation Brick is very durable and will provide acoustical benefit, preventing airborne noise. Brick has a much higher TL value than various building materials like wood. For insulation, there is only one viable option which is spray foam, this fills all gaps and crevices that air may be able to travel further reducing airborne noise, spray foam is also very dense and therefore will have high absorption coefficient at higher frequencies, meaning more noise reduction and room isolation. 2.4 Doors Doors are an obvious weak spot in studios as air can freely flow in and out through the gaps it provides, weather stripping counteracts this and seals the gaps around the door. However more professional and effective solution entails using multiple doors to create ‘sound lock’ spaces. Figure 3: Sound Lock Studio Design Diagram (David Miles Huber Robert, E. Runstein) Figure 3 shows a studio design diagram where the multiple doors are creating ‘sound locks’, this space acts as a barrier between the studio and the exterior room, isolating the interior room more. This sound lock usually has acoustic treatment in it to absorb and defuse any escaping sound from the studio space or live room space, adding an extra layer that sound needs to travel through, reducing noise further. As for the door itself, solid wooden doors are more expensive, but have a much higher TL value than a hallow wooden door. 2.5 Other Techniques for Room Isolation and Noise Reduction Risers elevate the drum kit off of the floor and defuse the energy from it before it can get to the floor, therefore reducing the structure-borne noise, this is a very similar concept to the suspended room. 3. Room Modes and Room Shape 3.1 Room Modes Room modes are most commonly defined as resonances which occur in a room. These resonances cause sound to attenuate and amplify in different positions inside the room due to “phase cancellation and reinforcement” (David Miles Huber, Robert, E. Runstein., 2010). Room modes are created when sound waves travel and reflect between two or more objects and create standing waves, these standing waves have fundamental frequencies and are also directly proportional to the room dimensions. Figure 4: Room Mode Node /Standing Wave Diagram (David Miles Huber Robert, E. Runstein) Anti-Node Figure 4 shows a visualisation of standing waves in a room and how room modes work, with the anti-nodes amplifying sound and nodes creating attenuations in the room. This also shows how negatively it can affect the listener creating a completely false image of the sound if in one of these modal positions. Harmonic frequencies are always multiples of the fundamental frequencies. The fundamental resonant frequency occurs at the frequency where the distance between two parallel walls is equal to half a wavelength of a specific frequency. The equation to calculate this is expressed: f = c / 2L Where f = frequency (Hz) And c = Speed of sound (m/s) And L = Length of the room This equation is used to calculate axial room modes in particular. There are different types of room modes which are all created slightly differently. 3.2 Types of Room mode There are three main types of room mode; axial, tangential and oblique. Figure 5: Room Mode Types (Bluefrogaudio 2015) Figure 4 shows all three types of room modes and potential pathing options for each. Axial Room modes use parallel surfaces to occur over one dimension, these are the strongest modes in intensity out of the three. Tangential use four surfaces, reflecting from 2 corners is also possible. Tangential modes are around half the intensity of axial modes. Finally, Oblique modes are formed using 6 surfaces, and these are around a quarter the intensity of Axial. All room modes in a 3 dimensional space with parallel surfaces can be calculated with the equation: Figure 6: Room Mode Equation (Pro Audio Encyclopaedia Foreman, C.) where f = frequency (Hz) and c = speed of sound (m/s) and nl = mode of the room length (Integer) and nw = mode of the room width (Integer) and nh = mode of the room height (Innteger) and L, B, H = Length, Width, Height (Meters) 3.3 Room Shape As seen from the discussion above and figure 5, room shape can impact the regularity of room modes, therefore a conclusion can be made that angled walls would be the better option as it would eliminate most axial modes occurring from parallel surfaces, however this would require new calculations as room modes would still occur. A studio space is totally possible in a square or rectangular space, however extensive acoustic treatment will be needed. 4. Acoustic Room Treatment Acoustic treatment is a necessity for any studio, and understanding its effects, drawbacks and benefits is crucial. There are two main acoustical characteristics of sound which relate heavily to treatment. Reflection and absorption. 4.1 Reflections and Reverberation Time One of the most important characteristics of sound is its ability to reflect off of barriers that it encounters at angles equal to its angle of incidence. Using these reflections, sound can be manipulated to alter the frequency response of a room, specialising the room for certain tasks. In terms of a mixing room, the end goal would be to deaden the room as much as possible, which means the less reflections the better. Figure 7: Reflection Types (Acoustic Frontier 2015) Figure 7 displays a diagram showing the different types of reflections, firstly there is direct sound, which is the original, unaffected sound from the speaker, next there is early reflections which happen around “50 – 80 milliseconds” (Mcgill University 2004-2018) after direct sound and usually only reflects off one surface before reaching the listener, this sound is not perceived differently from the direct sound and therefore one cannot distinguish between the two ,however because the sounds characteristics have been altered from coming into contact with the room, the sound is no longer a true representation of the original. Any sounds that reach the listening position after the time boundaries for early reflections have been exceeded are known as late reflections, these reflections makeup the reverberant characteristic of sound. The reverberant sound level is reached once “the rate at which energy is supplied by the source is equal to the rate at which sound is absorbed by the room and its contents” (Mcgill University 2004-2018). Reverberation is a problem as the sound that it is made up of has been completely altered by the room and therefore is a false version of the original sound, making any professional mixing impossible. Reverberation time or RT60 gives an overview of how long these late reflections are taking to decay and refers to how long a sound takes to decrease by 60dB (hence the ‘60’) from the original level it was at. For a mixing room, the goal is to get this RT60 down as low as possible and as reverberation is frequency dependant, to also make sure all frequencies reverberation time has a flat response, meaning if 70Hz had an RT60 of 0.2, all other frequencies should have a similar RT60, otherwise imbalances in the room occur and different frequencies are amplified and attenuated. Too much treatment can also be a bad thing, creating low end boosts with the high end being cut. The equation for calculation reverberation time is: Figure 7.1 RT60 = V × 0 049 / Sa (in feet) RT60 = V × 0 161/ Sa (in metres) Where V = Volume of the room (m3) And A = Average absorption coefficient of the room And S = Total surface area (m2) This is called the Sabine’s Equation. As sabines equation shows, everberation time is directly proportional to the room volume and also the absorption coefficients of the materials in it. Materials lower and raise the reverberation times by varying amounts at different frequencies, for example a curtain may lower the reverb time by 0.45ms at 500Hz but only lower it by 0.20ms at 250Hz. To find out how different materials effect reverberation time an absorption coefficient is needed. 4.2 Absorption and absorption coefficients Absorption is essentially the inverse of reflection, when sound waves hit a material some of the energy from that sound wave will be absorbed by it, reducing the sound level, before the wave reflects back off. A ratio called the absorption coefficient can be calculated to determine the amount absorbed energy relative to the amount reflected and can be expressed as: Figure 7.2 A = Ia / Ir Where A = Absorption coefficient And Ia = Sound level absorbed (dB) And Ir = Sound level reflected (dB) Figure 8: Absorption Coefficient Table (David (Miles Huber Robert, E. Runstein) Figure 8 shows an absorption coefficient for a selected collection of materials and objects. Every material has an absorption coefficient, however for practical uses tables have to be condensed. Every value has been derived for the equation in figure 7.2, these values can be converted to percentages, for example 0.22, means that there will be a 22% reduction of energy from a sound hitting the material and a 78% reflection (1 being full 100% absorption of the sound, and 0 being 100% reflection). As shown in figure 8, these values are also frequency dependant, with octave bands showing at the top. This means materials absorb sound by varying amounts at different frequencies, which means an array of treatments have to be used for separate frequencies. The total amount of absorption inside a room can be calculated with the equation: Figure 8.1 “Aave = (s1a1 s2a2 … snan)/S” (David Miles Huber, Robert, E. Runstein., 2010). Where A = total room absorption And s1, s2, sn = different surface areas inside the room And a1, a2, an = different absorption coefficients inside the room Varying treatment is needed for different frequencies, to determine what treatment type to use for these differing frequency, the Schroeder Frequency needs to be found. 4.3 Diffusion Diffusion takes the sound and spreads its energy out evenly, decreasing focused energy. This keeps soundwaves from grouping up or overlapping (room modes) reducing the sounds potential to be troublesome. Figure 9: Concave and Convex (F. Alton, Everest. Ken C. Pohlmann) Figure 9 displays a diagram of two types of surface shape; Concave (A) and Convex (B). Concave focuses sound energy as can be seen on figure 9, this is bad for studio spaces as this can cause amplification spots in the room where intensity is increased, while Convex (B) is perfect for getting rid of these amplified spots. By spreading out the sound in random directions there is less chance for sound to overlap and reinforce, this is known as diffusion. Quadratic diffusion is effective from 200Hz and upwards. 4.4 Schroeder Frequency The Schroeder frequency is the frequency at which the divide between two sections of the room occur. Schroeder said there were two parts to a room, the Resonator, and the Reflector, these two parts require different acoustic treatment methods in order to be effectively controlled. The resonator, refers to unwanted pressure due to the energy not being able to fit inside the room (lower frequencies with longer wavelengths) which are classed as Waves and need either Diaphragmatic, Membrane, or Helmholtz to be properly controlled, while the Reflector refers to mid-high frequencies reflecting off the walls of the space, known as Rays, which require absorption methods like Acoustic Foam to be controlled. The Schroeder Frequency can be calculated with the equation: Figure 9.1 “RT60sec / Volc.um Quotient *2000 (Constant)” (Acoustic Fields, 2016) Where RT60 = Reverberation Time of the room (Seconds) And Vol = Volume of the room (m3) The Schroeder frequency again feeds into the balancing act which is room acoustics. Not enough reduction on pressure creates a low-end boom effect and too little will leave the studio space without any low frequencies at all. 5. Speaker Placement 5.1 Placement Angle and Height Speakers should be on stands at least one meter away from each wall, the stands reduce resonances between the floor and speaker, which cause speakers to sound muddy, while spacing the speakers from the wall will eliminate any possibilities of early reflection interference. As sound increases in frequency, it becomes more directional, therefore the tweeters need to be at ear height slightly angled toward the listener, therefore the sound is traveling directly into the listeners ears, which creates a clearer sound and ensures balance between low and high end. Figure 10: Balanced Reflections (David Miles Huber. Robert, E. Runstein) Figure 10 displays a diagram of how balanced reflections can be achieved, symmetry is very important in regard to speaker placement and on figure 10 it can be seen that the acoustic treatment is the same on both walls, creating the same environment for both speakers allowing reflections to act the same on both sides. If balanced reflections are not achieved, a bad stereo image can be the result. 5.2 Critical Distance For an effective stereo image and sound, speakers need to be the same distance from each other as they are from the listening position, creating an equilateral triangle as shown on figure 10. The optimal parting distance between the speakers and distance from the speakers is determined by critical distance. Critical distance refers to the position in the room at which reverberant sound and direct sound are equal. Figure 11: Critical Distance (TeachMeAudio 2018) Figure 11 displays a graph showing how critical distance works. The reverberant sound can be seen which is a constant throughout the room, and it can be seen that as direct sound travels over a distance it slowly decreases, the rate of this is 6dB per doubling of distance from the speaker (According to inverse square law). The point at which these two intersect is then known as the critical distance. Critical Distance can be calculated with the equation: Dc = 0.141 RQ Where R = Room Constant And Q = Directivity factor of speaker The room constant can be calculated with the equation: “R = A / (1 – am) = Σ Si αi / (1- αm)” (Engineering Toolbox, 2003) Where A = Total room absorption And am = Mean absorption coefficient And Si = different surface areas of the room And ai = different absorption coefficients in the room And finally, the Directivity Factor of the speaker can be calculated with the equation: “R = SA / 1 – A” (Winer, E., 2013, pp. 304-306) Where S = total surface area And A = mean absorption coefficient 6. Conclusion This report has discussed key acoustic principles associated with studio design including; Architectural properties, sound isolation, room modes, reflection, absorption and diffusion, Schroder frequency and speaker placement in regard to height, angle, spacing and critical distance. Reference List Winer, E. (2018). The Audio Expert, Everything You Need to Know About Audio. (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Focal Press. pp. 304-306. Engineering ToolBox, (2003). Propagation of Sound Indoors – Room Constant. [Online]. [26 December 2018]. Available from: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/sound-propagation-indoor-d_72.html Foley D., (2003), Schroeder Frequency. [Online]. [26 December 2018]. Available from: Gary, P. Scavone Mcgillca. 2019. Room Acoustics [Online]. [27 December 2018]. Available from: https://www.music.mcgill.ca/~gary/618/week3/room_acoustics.html Huber, D.M.Acoustics and Critical Listening: Studio Design
Pollution And Its Effects
Contemporary world has been marked with so many changes and advancement through industrialization and development of new technologies. It is amazing the effects industrialization and technology advancements have caused. Nations have experienced improved techniques in production leading to increased production and consequently economic growth. Citizens have had their living standards through the increased production. Authors of papers and books have expressed their felt gratitude to industrialization and its effects as well as the improvement in technology. Nonetheless, many such authors do not leaning on one side but appreciate both the negative and positive effects of industrialization and improvement in the technology. Other than the positive effects of industrialization and technological improvement the most threatening negative effects of the two is pollution. Pollution is a broad aspect encompassing many institutions and schools of thoughts. In direct terms, pollution is the introduction of unwanted substances into natural environment leading to environmental instability, disorder, discomfort and harm to the ecosystem affecting the different living things in their habitat. Unwanted substance introduction into the environment has been spurred by industrialization and improved technology leading to production of many varied products. The unwanted substances are the pollutants. Unfortunately, industrialization and technological effect of pollution has caused a lot of harm to living things in their natural habitat. Air pollution being one of the forms of pollution has had serious negative impacts on living things Release of Chemicals into the atmosphere inhaled by living things Causes diseases related to lungs and pulmonary Global warming leading All these activities and effects forces nations to employ structural and strategic policies thus incurring increased costs. Water pollution is another cause of pollution detrimental to survival of living things Causes through pathogens, chemical, and thermal Effects on non-aquatic living things Effects to aquatic living things Water is one of the essentials of life thus taking polluted water leads to health deterioration leading to spending resources in treatment and prevention of diseases. Other than two broad classification of pollution, environmental pollution is another Causes of environmental pollution; dumping Effects to living things Just as the other forms of pollution, environmental pollution leads to stretching of a nationâ€™s resources in trying to curb with the problem and this increases running costs of nations. Conclusion Works Cited Atkinson, William. Pollution and Environmental Exposure Insurance. Precast Magazines, July 28, 2010 Silverman, Robert. Pollution takes its Toll on the Heart. Science Daily, September 21, 2010. Air Pollution and its Negative Effects Air pollution is one of the most common forms of pollution experienced because of industrializations and improvement in technology. This form of pollution arises due to emission of unwanted substances (pollutants) into the atmosphere. Atmosphere contains specific components of gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon (IV) oxide, and argon among others thus introduction of any other gases leads to pollution of the air. Survival of living things requires oxygen resent in the atmosphere. It is an essential to living things survival and thus it should never been contaminated. Most industrial processes release certain substances most of which are chemicals into the atmosphere thus contaminating the oxygen present. Such chemicals are in form of smoke that entails burnt fuels primarily composed of carbon. Burning carbon combines the element with oxygen thus forming a dangerous gas, carbon (IV) oxide commonly referred to as the carbon dioxide. Releasing such chemical substances into the atmosphere causes air pollution (Atkinson). During inhalation and exhalation amongst the living things, there are no specialized organs within their structures that purify the air or choose the right type of gas to be inhaled. In the process, most living things end up inhaling different gases among them carbon (IV) oxide also known as the carbon dioxide. Inhalation of CO2 has so many effects within the physiological processes of the living things. It combines with the hemoglobin meant to transport oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Such combinations are usually chemical reactions that are irreversible hence interfering with the hemoglobin normal biconcave structure for efficient transport of oxygen. As a result, living things end up suffocating and this in most cases leads to complications and at the end death (Silverman). Emission of such chemical substances into the atmosphere especially the CO2 leads the worldâ€™s threatening concept, global warming. Global warming is the rapture of the ozone layer because of increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere; at average, the normal amount should be 0.03% of the atmosphere. Global warming has had great influence in the operations of nations who are putting resources in the reducing it through planting of trees and other environmental promotions. Global warming has the effect of interfering with the skin due to allowing of the ultra violet rays from the sun to heat human beings and living things. Consequence of the ultra violet rays is different cancers resulting from them (Atkinson). These leads to extensive use of public funds in environmental preservation thus stretching the available resources in the structural and strategic policy formation hence reduction in the economic levels. Water Pollution and its Negative Effects This is another form of pollution where the unwanted materials contaminate water bodies. Many pollutants leading to water pollution include pathogens, chemicals, and thermal contaminations. Pathogenic pollution is caused by water contaminations through bacteria such as the coliform bacteria. Other microorganisms cause water contamination such as the salmonella, novovirus, and parasitic worms among others. On the hand, chemical substances released from factories and industries cause water pollution. Chemicals released from the industries, factories, and other sectors of the economy such as agricultural sector include both organic and inorganic chemicals. These chemical substances interfere with the purity of water and most of these chemicals cause so much diseases and complications (Silverman). Human activities such as burning charcoal leading to global warming cause increase in general temperatures thus interfering with the temperatures of water bodies. Other human activities also influence the temperatures of water bodies using engines within such water bodies thereby interfering with the water temperatures. Changes in water temperatures and chemical presence within the water bodies directly affect the aquatic life through killing the living things within such water bodies. As a result, the effect on such aquatic life leads to their death hence the negative effects of water pollution (Atkinson). Deaths of aquatic lives affect human activities indirectly and directly. For instance, the death of fish due to chemicals and changes in water temperatures has the direct effect of reducing the amount of food available for people in terms of proteins. This has the indirect effect or poor health due to reduced proteins as well as reduction in the economic activities causing poor performance of the economy (Silverman). Contaminated water by pathogens causes diseases to human beings thereby reducing the productivity of the citizens of a given nation. Just as the other forms of pollution, water pollution influences forces nations to employ the use of national resources to reduce these effects. Consequently, this leads to poor economic performance. Environmental Pollution and its Negative Effects Another broader form of pollution is the environmental pollution taking care of other forms of pollution other than water and air. The major cause of environmental pollution is the dumping of most of the non-biodegradable products from the industrial and technological development. Such industrial products mostly abused and haphazardly dumped include the industrial plastics. Pollutants of environment release so much toxin substances into the atmosphere affecting both human and other living things (Atkinson). Some of the effects of environmental pollution include the biomagnifications where toxin substances from the pollutants released into the atmosphere concentrate to higher levels thereby affecting the productivity of human beings. Research has proved that the majority of people staying near the dumping sites experience physiological process and sometimes is affected brain wise. Sometimes the environmental pollution causes soil infertility thus reducing the productivity of the soil and this greatly affects the activities and living standards of citizens within a given nations (Silverman). It is worthy noting that the efforts put in place to correct the environmental pollution stretches the national resources and this causes much problem to the economic performance of the nation in question. Conclusion As a parting short, it has been evident from observation and carried out research that pollution has enormous negative impacts to the society. Therefore, there is a need to engage in a number of activities that will help mitigate the risks associated with pollution.
University of Nairobi Wk 3 Intelligent Design and Coronavirus Vaccines Essay
help me with my homework University of Nairobi Wk 3 Intelligent Design and Coronavirus Vaccines Essay.
Hellllllp-I will give you an example to make it easierI will attach everything you need]1)Is intelligent design scientific? Why or why not?2) Darwin was working in the 1800s, well before modern science tools that would be invented and allow the detection of DNA (which Darwin had no idea about) and exact processes of mutation. Complete Darwin’s synthesis by adding in this new information about genetics and mutation. Where do you put it in the synthesis? What do you say about it? Is it a new bullet point or does it modify one of the existing ones from the synthesis?3)One of the coronavirus vaccines being developed right now is an mRNA vaccine. Most vaccines are injections of dead or weakened viruses, and your body responds by learning how to develop antibodies (proteins) that can travel through the blood and hunt down actual much more dangerous viral infections. The mRNA vaccine is an injection like other vaccines but differs in that instead of being an injection of antibodies, this new one would be injection of mRNA code for these antibodies. The benefit of an mRNA vaccine is that no dead or weakened viruses need to be injected into the body. Describe how this vaccine will work in the human body using the following wordbank from lecture: DNA, nucleus, transcription, mRNA, amino acid, translation, protein. Note: Not all of these terms are directly involved in how this vaccine will function. Be specific in stating which are involved and why others are not, where appropriate.4)CRISPR-Cas9 is an adaptation of the bacterial immune system that probably evolved from one of the types of mutations we’ve reviewed (point mutation, gene duplication, chromosome duplication, genome duplication, transposon, horizontal gene transfer).Of these, one of these is most similar in effect to how CRISPR functions and probably an “ancestor” to CRISPR. Identify this mutation type and describe the similarity.5)What are isotopes, and how are these used to determine ages of rocks?
University of Nairobi Wk 3 Intelligent Design and Coronavirus Vaccines Essay
Strategic Management Reading: Read Chapter 5: Strategizing, Section 2: Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework in our textbook, “Principles of Management.” The textbook can be downloaded f
Strategic Management Reading: Read Chapter 5: Strategizing, Section 2: Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework in our textbook, “Principles of Management.” The textbook can be downloaded f. Can you help me understand this Management question?
Read Chapter 5: Strategizing, Section 2: Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework in our textbook, “Principles of Management.” The textbook can be downloaded from the syllabus.
answer the following questions:
In a SWOT, how do internal factors (strengths, weaknesses) differ from external ones (opportunities, threats)?
Provide examples of when a firm’s strength might simultaneously be a weakness.
Remember that a SWOT is only one kind of tool. What are some of its limitations in diagnosing the situation of a firm?
Pick any organization you are familiar with and complete a SWOT analysis for it. You may want to create a chart to help organize your ideas. Refer to figure 5.6 in the reading for an example of how to set up a chart. You may also want to review the SWOT Analysis of Flat World Knowledge as an example. Evaluate which is stronger for an organization — internal or external factors. What specific ideas from the SWOT are most important to overall strategy formulation for the organization?Prepare a two page (double-spaced) essay. The paper should be 12-point font, TimesNew Roman, be at least 500 words, and include a final source list.
What would a SWOT look like for you personally? What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? Greatest opportunities and threats?
Strategic Management Reading: Read Chapter 5: Strategizing, Section 2: Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework in our textbook, “Principles of Management.” The textbook can be downloaded f
VW Ethical issues
VW Ethical issues.
There are hundreds of articles discussing different aspects of the Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal, which came to public attention in the US in late 2015. Please limit yourself to the below 3 articles and one case analysis of the situation, which span from 2015 to more recent related events. Please note that Porsche and Audi are units of Volkswagen. The timeline of events should become clear in reading the articles. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/business/…https://www.reuters.com/article/us-volkswagen-emis…https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/03/business/volksw…Question 1.We see the influence of corporate culture, specifically leadership and organizational values, in the VW case as well as the mid-term’s uber case. While the VW and uber cases are very different in some regards, there are also some similarities. Name and outline some similarities between the two companies that contributed to their being ethically-challenged. Also note a few distinct differences between VW and uber. Question 2.Identify several of VW’s relevant stakeholder groups (including various governments and levels of government) and describe how each was impacted by the scandal. While we will likely never know for sure, did any stakeholders possibly/likely contribute to the scandal? Question 3.What are some implicit biases about German culture, corporate governance, and engineering capabilities that contributed to the diesel emission scandal being undetected for such a long period of time. Be specific in linking VW’s corporate governance and engineering to your answer. Why do you think the ‘faulty’ technology was detected in the US?
VW Ethical issues