(What is the date?) • (What do I plan to study; what do I hope to learn?) Here you write a few complete sentences about what you are doing (I am in class; I am in a cafe, etc.), and what you plan to study or learn (I am reading McCarthy’s _The Road_, and I want to find out where in the world the man and boy are, and what happened to destroy the environment.) • (What materials am I using?) Here you note what you are reading and who wrote it, or what you are otherwise engaged with (video, research, writing, etc.) • (What people or works are referenced that I want to follow up on?) Here you note any books, articles, TED Talks, or people, etc., mentioned in relation to the subject you are pursuing. Use Google or other research tools to determine how far you want to look into them. • (What words, terms, dates, people, or institutions am I encountering that I do not know?) Here you list words, etc. that you do not know. You should look them up immediately, or as soon as you have the resources available to do so. NEVER SKIP OVER ANYTHING THAT YOU DO NOT KNOW! The whole point is to get more informed about everything because you cannot be certain of your future wants and needs. • (How much time did I really put in? How many pages did I read? How many words did I write?) Here you note what you actually did. This journal is for you alone, so lying is futile. • (What did I learn?) Here you answer this question in three good sentences or fewer. • (What questions arose?) Questions are the key to it all. • (How is my learning going? What will make it go better?) Here you write three sentences or fewer, remembering to be firm but merciful. Be specific in answering the last question
Article 1: “The Joy of Reading and Writing_ Superman and Me”–An Essay by Alexie.pdf
Article 3：”This Is What It Means To Say Phoenix, Arizona”.pdf
Article 4：Andrew Yang’s Proposal for Universal Income：https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/aug/12/andrew-yangs-universal-basic-income-proposal-expla/
Article 5：Menthol Products Should be Banned：https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/we-should-ban-all-menthol-flavored-nicotine-products/
Article 6：Any pieces between 1-60 page of “the road” by cormac mccarthy
Writing the SIX Learning Journals about the six articles
Interpreting infant looking
Interpreting infant looking. Critically evaluate the evidence supporting the nativist claim that infants of around three to four months of age have core knowledge of objects, including object permanence. Over the past decade, a vast amount of research has examined young infants’ knowledge of objects. Nativists claim that infants have innate core knowledge about the world. Research by authors such as Baillargeon and Spelke proposed that very young infants are aware of object permanence, and the properties of objects, which allows them to ‘reason’ about events. The majority of research in this area was conducted using the habituation-novelty technique while measuring looking time. However, older research by authors such as Piaget claimed that object permanence does not develop until around eight to nine months of age. This finding was based largely on research involving errors made in object-search tasks. This assignment will critically evaluate the evidence supporting the nativist claim that infants of round three to four months have core knowledge of objects, including object permanence. The nativist argument is insistent that infants are born with innate core knowledge about the world. Authors such as Baillargeon believed that this knowledge does not allow infants to represent the world exactly as adults do, but that this innate core knowledge is modified during development. Recent research has examined the habituation-novelty technique as a measure of object knowledge. This technique is a variation of methods used by Bower, whose research focused on object tracking and violation of expectation as a measure of object knowledge. Bower (1966) proposed that if young infants do in fact have knowledge of objects and object permanence then it would evoke surprise when objects disappear. This was demonstrated by Bower’s test for object permanence, in which young infants were presented with an object which was then occluded by a screen. After a short delay the screen was moved to either reveal the object or reveal nothing. Further research by Bower (1982) demonstrated that infants as young as 20 days old displayed surprise in the second condition, which was indicated by a change in heart rate. However this reaction occurred only when the object was occluded for a short period of time. This was described as a violation of expectation, that the infant would expect the object to reappear from behind the screen (lawful disappearance), when the object does not hence the violation of the expectation, that the object would appear (unlawful disappearance). Although this study would suggest that young infants demonstrate object permanence, many authors have failed to replicate these findings. Consequently, allowing us to question the validity of these results. Baillargeon and colleagues used a number of methods similar to that of Bower, however these methods were based on a different rationale. Baillargeon used the habituation-novelty technique, in which an infant is repeatedly shown a lawful event, then shown two test events; either a lawful or an unlawful event. If infants have knowledge of objects then they should look less at the habituation stimulus as it is familiar, whereas they would look longer at the unlawful event as it would be unfamiliar and novel. Baillargeon, Spelke and Wasserman (1985) demonstrated this method with the “Drawbridge study”, in which five month old infants were habituated with a repeated event where a flap or “Drawbridge” rotated from a flat position 180° until flat against the table again, and then rotated back to the original position. Infants were then presented with two test trials in which a block was presented behind the flap as to obstruct the full rotation, in the possible event test the flap rotated to occlude the block and stopped on contact with the object. In the impossible event test, the flap made a full rotation and appeared to annihilate the block. The authors found that five month olds looked longer at the impossible event. Baillargeon later found these results with 3 and a half month olds and 4 and a half month olds. Baillargeon et al. (1985) therefore concluded that 5 month olds do have knowledge of object permanence and can understand that objects continue to exist when occluded by a flap. A criticism of this study is that the impossible event seemed to be more visually similar to the habituation event, this would therefore suggest that children would look longer at possible event as it was visually more novel. Rivera, Wakeley and Langer (1999) suggested that infants simply look longer due to preference of a longer rotation, however this is lost due to habituation. Rivera et al. (1999) found that by omitting habituation trials infants showed preferences to the 180° rotation, whether there was an object in the path of the drawbridge or not. This would therefore suggest that infants do not have knowledge of objects at this age and alternative explanations for longer looking times could be more valid. Further research by Baillargeon (1986) found that infants of around six and eight month of age were able to detect an impossible event of a truck moving through a block, in which a truck ran down a track with a screen at the bottom of the ramp, the truck passed behind the screen and reappeared at the other side. Infants were familiarised to trials where the screen was lifted to reveal the track, then presented with two test events. The impossible event revealed a block placed behind the track, which was then covered by the screen suggesting that the block would not obstruct the truck. The impossible event revealed a block on the track suggesting an obstruction in the truck’s path. In both trials the truck emerged at the other side of the screen. Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) found similar results with four month olds. This would suggest that infants have knowledge of object permanence as knowledge is required to understand the block still exists even though it is out of sight, therefore infants are capable of understanding a truck cannot penetrate the block. Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) showed three month old children can represent objects when they are covered behind a screen by representing the height of the object. The authors showed three-month-olds toy rabbits that were either short or tall. The objects disappeared behind a screen, in which a window was cut out at the top, and then reappeared. In the first condition infants were presented with a short toy rabbit, which was below the window level and therefore would not reappear until the object had passed fully from behind the screen. Infants were also presented with a tall toy rabbit in the second condition, which was tall enough to be seen through the window. In both test trials neither rabbit reappeared at the window, which was an impossible event in the tall rabbit condition. Infants looked longer at the impossible event, Baillergeon and DeVos (1991) concluded that infants can reason about the visibility of an object by representation of the height of the object. In addition the authors inferred that infants expected the rabbit to appear and their surprise that it did not shows that infants are aware of the existence of objects that are out of view. This demonstrated further the children understand object permanence. In contrast, research by Bogartz, Shinskey and Speaker (1997) challenge this notion, and argued that the methodology used by Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) was flawed. Bogartz et al. (1997) argued that with the short rabbit condition, infants were attracted to the facial features of the rabbit and therefore followed the screen at that height, not noticing the window within the screen. In the tall rabbit condition the infants scanned the screen at a greater height, noticing the window, therefore looking longer in the test trial due to the change in the screen. Detection of this change is determined by the infants’ attention during habituation. Bogartz et al (1997) conducted a replication of Baillergeon and DeVos’s study, but counterbalanced whether infants were habituated with lawful or unlawful events. The results showed that differences in looking time were explained by perceptual mismatches in habituation and test trial events, and not due to recognition of impossible events. The flaws in experimental methods allow us to question the validity of research findings, when alternative methodologies have offered a more plausible explanation. Although it would seem superficially that these studies provide clear evidence that very young infants have knowledge of objects, research has not gone unchallenged. Haith (1998) argued that there are “Many factors affect looking, including variations in perceptual dimensions of objects and people, familiarity, novelty, recency, predictability and time lapse between stimulus exposures” (p.4), and therefore the limitation of using this method is that results rely on the interpretation of the researcher. In addition, Haith (1998) also argued that researchers must examine every possible interpretation of results to suggest that findings are only contributed to by one variable. It is overly deterministic to suggest that increased looking time provides evidence that infants have core knowledge of objects. Older interpretations of object permanence in infants come from authors such as Piaget (1954), who took a more constructivist approach and proposed that infants are “little scientists”, in that, by interacting with the world children gain knowledge and can mentally represent reality. According to Piaget, infants do not demonstrate object permanence before the age of nine months, and object permanence does not fully develop until around two years of age. Piaget believed that infants were not born with knowledge of the world, instead this is gradually developed through the infants’ own experiences. This was explained by Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, the first of which will be discussed. The sensorimotor stage, which occurs within the first two years of life, has six sub-stages. During the primary circular reaction stage (one to four months) Piaget suggested that children are egocentric and cannot differentiate between themselves and the world. This suggests that infants do not have core knowledge of objects at this age. In the secondary circular reaction stage (four to ten months), infants now begin to focus on objects rather than themselves. In the tertiary circular reaction stage (12 to 18 months) infants learn about objects through trial and error methods, and discover the properties of an object. In the final internal representation stage (18 to 24 months), Piaget proposed that infants are able to make representations of objects. The key method Piaget used examined infants’ responses to object search tasks. Before nine months infants were unresponsive when an object was hidden, even if the infant was previously interested in the object which would motivate the infant to find the object. Piaget therefore claimed this showed if the object was out of sight it was therefore out of mind. Following nine months, infants reactions to hidden objects changed, in that the infants would successfully search and find the object, indicating the ability to mentally represent the object although absent. Furthermore, Piaget suggested that infants can only represent objects that are absent in one place, in the location in which it was found previously. Infants cannot represent objects which are moved to a new location, they search for the object in the old location, described as the A not B error. Therefore, if the nativist argument is correct, why is it that infants fail to search for hidden objects around 9 months of age, and continue to make search errors until around 18 months old? This may suggest that infants do not display object permanence at the early age of three to four months as claimed by the nativist psychologists. Although, a criticism of Piaget’s argument is that much of his research was carried out on his own three children, therefore this would suggest a bias or possibly lack of validity. However, a number of controlled experiments have been carried out which have found to replicate Piaget’s Findings. An alternative explanation provided by Diamond (1990) suggested that the A not B error arose due to immaturity in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, associated with working memory. Diamond argued that infants can represent objects, and can make appropriate responses but cannot do these together due to the frontal cortex immaturity. Diamond suggested that infants display difficulty in retaining a short-term representation of an object and its’ location, and therefore make errors in object search tasks. Therefore until the brain has fully developed, infants do not demonstrate complete knowledge of objects, and not simply because the infant has not reached a certain stage of development. In addition, Bremner (1985) suggested that errors in object search tasks do not explain about infant’s knowledge of objects, but inform us of infants’ knowledge of location through successfully finding hidden objects. This contradictory evidence could be an alternative explanation as to why infants make search errors, due to having a different agenda to the experimenter. To conclude, research carried out on infants to investigate their knowledge of objects and object permanence has not gone unchallenged. As demonstrated, there is a great deal of research supporting the nativist claim that children of three to four months old have core knowledge of objects, however the findings are all dependent on the researchers interpretation of the results. Previous research has not concluded that infants have innate capabilities of understanding objects, but have found contradictory evidence that it is learned through experience and development. However, this research has also been challenged. The nativist arguments can be described as too deterministic, not taking into account alternative explanations for infants increased looking time. Additionally, is it appropriate to suggest that looking time is an indicator of infants understanding of objects and object permanence? Or is a more sophisticated approach needed, possibly from a cognitive neuroscience approach? Either way, research on very young infants is still particularly tricky, and designing an ultimately fool proof experiment to measure infants knowledge of objects may be a task verging on the impossible. Further evidence is needed before we can accept the nativist claim that infants are inborn with knowledge of objects. References Baillargeon, R. (1986). Representing the existence and the location of hidden objects: Object permanence in 6-and 8-month olds infants. In A. SlaterInterpreting infant looking
Choose one of the topics below: Research this topic and summarize its concept to explain how it relates to the sociological theories.
help writing Choose one of the topics below: Research this topic and summarize its concept to explain how it relates to the sociological theories..
I’ve attached the professor’s instruction of this assignment below. PLEASE READ IT FOR MORE DETAILS______________________________Choose ONE of these topics for the research:1. Discuss the various ways that certain reference groups can affect a person’s behavior patterns, and how we may be influenced by a variety of reference groups during our lifetime. Give some examples to help your answer.2. Discuss how punishment for a deviant or minor criminal act could actually encourage a person to commit a more serious criminal act, and apply your rationale to discuss how the death penalty could actually encourage some to commit crime. 3. Identify certain occupations that are gender specific. In which occupations are women more disadvantaged than men and in which occupations are men advantaged compared to women?______________________________1. Include an outline and rough draft for the paper2. Must be free of plagiarism!
Choose one of the topics below: Research this topic and summarize its concept to explain how it relates to the sociological theories.
Postpartum Depression: An Important Issue In Women’s Health
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Abstract The purpose of this paper is to educate and inform the audience of a condition known as Postpartum depression (PPD). Throughout this text I will be identifying what exactly PPD is, causes and risk factors associated with PPD, signs and symptoms, complications, diagnosing PPD, prevention, and treatment. Many women don’t seek the help they need during a crisis like PPD because they think their symptoms are relative to expected pregnancy symptoms. It is very important to screen and educate new mothers and to educate family, and friends of the potential risk factors associated with PPD. Postpartum Depression: Identifying An Important Issue In Women’s Health When thinking of a newborn baby, what comes to mind? One typically thinks of love, happiness, joyous moments that turn into lifelong memories, and we think of how beautiful a mother’s bond with her baby can be. However, unbeknownst to many, a heavy percentage of women experience something known as Postpartum Depression or PPD. Postpartum depression is a psychological mood disorder that can affect women after they’ve given birth. “Mothers who are diagnosed with postpartum depression can experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that can make it difficult to complete daily care activities for themselves or for their baby. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019) PPD does not occur in one specific population of women. It can happen to any new mother of any age, race, ethnicity, religion, or socioeconomic status. Among the various pregnancy complications that we know of, postpartum depression is one of the most common with as many as 10-15% of women having been diagnosed (Hantsoo, et al. 2014). While suffering from postpartum depression is undoubtedly difficult, it is important for one to know the signs, symptoms, complications, diagnoses and treatment plan to prevent further complications. Causes and Risk Factors of PPD Postpartum Depression has many underlying causes and cannot be narrowed down to one single factor. However, mental and physical changes after birth can definitely make an impact on the manifestation of PPD. Every woman experiences changes in their body after giving birth. However, the body changes come with hormone changes, and the hormones affect each woman differently. After childbirth, a dramatic drop in estrogen and progesterone may contribute to postpartum depression. Other hormones from your thyroid gland also may rapidly decline —which can contribute to feeling tired, sluggish and depressed. Emotional changes during the postpartum period are also extremely common in new mothers. After being in active labor, a new mother is often extremely fatigued and submerged by all of the vast changes happening in her life. New mothers are often sleep deprived and overwhelmed, which can contribute to feelings of frustration frustration and finding it difficult to deal with even the most simple problems. Women may also feel anxious about their ability to care for their baby, unattractive due to constant bodily changes, and may also feel as though they’ve lost their sense of identity or lost control over their own lives. Any or all of these feelings can contribute to PPD. Aside from presenting solely emotional and physical symptoms, there are several prequalifying risk factors that may contribute to postpartum depression. Some of which include a history of bipolar disorder, history of postpartum depression with a previous pregnancy, history of depression, history of post traumatic stress disorder, multiple births, difficulty with breast-feeding, financial struggles, a broken support system, spousal/marital issues, and unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Signs and Symptoms PPD can occur a few days after birth or may not present itself until one year postpartum. Potential indicators include feeling sad, hopeless, or immensely overwhelmed, trouble sleeping and eating regularly, feeling guilty and worthless, losing interest in things that you previously enjoyed, withdrawing socially from close family and friends, thoughts of hurting yourself and your baby, and having no interest in your baby. It’s very important to identify and understand risk factors and symptoms of PPD so that the sufferer can receive professional help. “Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby blues at first — but the signs and symptoms are more intense and last longer, and may eventually interfere with your ability to care for your baby and handle other daily tasks. Symptoms usually develop within the first few weeks after giving birth, but may begin earlier ― during pregnancy ― or later — up to a year after birth” (Mayo Clinic, 2018) Complications of Postpartum Depression “Postpartum depression is well-known to have an adverse effect on mothers’ relationships with their children. This has a subsequent impact on child development from early infancy to adolescence and influences emotional, cognitive, and physical development in children” (science daily, 2019). Studies have proven that mothers who suffer from PPD are more detached, less sensitive, emotionally unavailable, and more critical of their children than mothers who don’t suffer from PPD. If left untreated, postpartum depression can last for months or even years and can significantly alter the mental and physical relationship between a child and their mother. Women who experience PPD can often find themselves experiencing a health decline, marital discord, strained relationships, suicidal ideation, and a complete disconnect from their baby. PPD can have life-long effects on a mother-child relationship and can even negatively impact the relationship between a grandmother and grandchild, if the grandmother suffered from PPD with her child. (Hyland 2015). Children who are affected by this illness are shown to have an insecure attachment towards their mothers which can affect their sleep patterns. It can also effect a child’s ability to learn and to deal with regular emotions. Diagnosing PPD Understanding that postpartum depression is not only a very serious risk to the mother but also her child, it is very important for those involved in their care to be properly educated and informed of the potential risk factors and signs associated with PPD so that a proper diagnoses can be formed. Screening women for PPD can help to identify who is experiencing the effects of this illness, and it also helps catch symptoms early to help improve outcomes of the mother and child. While extremely severe cases are easily identified and treated, more moderate forms are passed off as “baby blues” or normal outcomes of pregnancy and can lead to detrimental outcomes for the mother and baby (Hyland 2015). “The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has recognized PPD screening as an important part of postpartum care. This is evident as studies show that up to an alarming 50% of PPD cases go undetected and only 49% of mothers who felt severely depressed get help” (Hyland 2015). In order to more accurately identify those at risk for postpartum depression, a model entitled The Postpartum Depression Predictive Inventory (PDPI) was created and has been used in the United States of America, Canada, and Iceland. The checklist contains 8 risk factors that can help identify the likelihood of a mother developing PPD. The risk factors associated include In addition to the PDPI, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was created for screening postpartum women in outpatient, home visiting settings, or at the 6 –8 week postpartum examination. It has been utilized within many populations including U.S. women and Spanish speaking women in other countries. Spanish women are at higher risk for postpartum depression due to lack of insurance and no access to healthcare. Among the two scales, the EPDS is used more frequently (Hyland 2015). Prevention and Treatment Most pregnant women receive routine pregnancy care throughout the gestational period which makes it easier for providers to identify and recognize early symptoms. It is very important not only for physicians, but also for women to become educated on the signs, symptoms, and risk factors associated with PPD. “Early identification of women who may be at risk for PPD aids in the prevention and reduction of depressive symptoms” (Hyland 2019). History of depression and other psychological disorders should be shared with a provider as early into the pregnancy as possible. Many women feel as though the manifestations they experience are part of a normal pregnancy and ignore their feelings. It is absolutely imperative for physicians to recognize the early signs and risk factors of PPD so that they may conduct follow up care and interventions to combat PPD. Since postpartum depression is one of the most common postpartum complications, women who are tested positive for PPD should be treated as soon as possible. When dealing with such a devastating condition, one may feel alone and lost. However, there are plenty of treatment options available to help depressed women cope. Many women go through postpartum depression and as a result, there are various support groups for counseling and sharing experiences with people of similar conditions. Cognitive behavioral therapy and pyschoeducation are two other alternatives in which women can learn about the effects of PPD and learn how to cope and redirect their emotions with a certified professional (Mayo Clinic 2019). Aside from therapy and support groups, medication is another method to combat and treat postpartum depression. Medications such as Sertraline, Fluoxetine, and Paroxetine (among many others) can be used to treat depression, anxiety, and other symptoms as well as ease the discomfort of such symptoms. If medication is not an option then there are other holistic ways of dealing with PPD. Meditation, yoga, breathing exercises, and herbal remedies such as St. John’s Wort can provide ease and comfort to some patients. Treatment options are dependent upon many factors. Some of which include severity of PPD, what the patient and physician are both comfortable with, whether the mother will be breastfeeding, and medical history of the patient. It’s always important to seek treatment and communicate with a provider about any negative feelings and what treatment options would be most comfortable for the patient to try. If after all available treatments fail, the patient should be re-evaluated. While suffering from an illness like postpartum depression is difficult, it is important for one to know the signs, symptoms, complications, diagnoses and treatment plan to prevent further. PPD can affect any woman, at any time within the first year of giving birth to a child. Although it isn’t specific to one population, there are certain factors that contribute to a higher risk of development. Postpartum depression can interfere with the mothers ability to care for and bond with her child. Treatment options are vast and easily accessible with a proper diagnoses from a provider. References: Hantsoo, Liisa, et al. “A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Sertraline for Postpartum Depression.” SpringerLink, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 31 Oct. 2014, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-013-3316-1. Hyland, Kristina. “Postpartum Depression Research Paper.” LinkedIn SlideShare, 15 Nov. 2015, www.slideshare.net/KristinaHyland/postpartum-depression-research-paper-55121451. National Institute of Mental Health, www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtmlTables. “Postnatal Depression Has Life-Long Impact on Mother-Child Relations.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 20 Feb. 2018, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180220122917.htm. “Postpartum Depression.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 1 Sept. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/postpartum-depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20376617. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
PS 341 Park University Making the Most of Emotional Experiences Discussion
PS 341 Park University Making the Most of Emotional Experiences Discussion.
Post the question you have been assigned and your answer to that question. Assignment needs to be a minimum of 300 words. Your answer to the question needs to incorporate and make specific citations to the textbook. The references need to be discussed as to how they apply to your observations in response to the assignment question. Remember to cite your sources.At the end of your assignment post a question to the class related to the question you have answered. The question needs to be related to the topic—something you might have thought about when you were completing your assignment.Chapters 7, 8 – Positive Psychology — Lopez, Pedrotti, and SnyderQuestion: Review the information in the Positive Psychology text and discuss the importance of Branch 3 Understanding Emotions and Branch 4 Managing Emotions in Salovey & Mayer’s Four-Branch Ability Model of Emotional Intelligence. Assignment is to be in your own words reflecting an understanding of the information; information from the text is to be referenced but not to be reported.
PS 341 Park University Making the Most of Emotional Experiences Discussion
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