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Write a 500-word paper about Walmart. Apply Exhibit 4.11 from Mello (2019) as a means of investigating and assessing the HRD practices of the firm. Profile Walmart corporate strategy, revenue base, financial performance, employee base, ownership structur

Write a 500-word paper about Walmart. Apply Exhibit 4.11 from Mello (2019) as a means of investigating and assessing the HRD practices of the firm. Profile Walmart corporate strategy, revenue base, financial performance, employee base, ownership structur. I don’t understand this Business question and need help to study.

Write a 500-word paper about Walmart. Apply Exhibit 4.11 from Mello (2019) as a means of investigating and assessing the HRD practices of the firm.
Profile Walmart corporate strategy, revenue base, financial performance, employee base, ownership structure, product/service mix, competitive position, primary locations for operations.
Required Sources
Use both primary research data/evidence as well as secondary research data/evidence. Be sure to include in-text citations for your primary and secondary sources, and include these sources on the reference page.
In addition, you must include the following sources in your reference page and in-text citations as follows:

At least 1 citations from the Mello (2019).
At least 1 citations from Hardy (1990).
At least 1 citations from Keller (2012).
At least 1 citations from related scholarly journals (e.g. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Human Resource Development Review, Human Resource Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, Journal of Biblical Integration in Business, Christian Scholars Review).
At least 1 citation from a related trade/practitioner publication (e.g. Harvard Business Review, HR Magazine, T&D Magazine, Business Week, Wall Street Journal).

Write a 500-word paper about Walmart. Apply Exhibit 4.11 from Mello (2019) as a means of investigating and assessing the HRD practices of the firm. Profile Walmart corporate strategy, revenue base, financial performance, employee base, ownership structur

Introduction According to Olivier Blanchard (2009) modern macroeconomics starts in 1936 with John Maynard Keynes and his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, in which the author attacked what he named ‘Classicals’ and the Business Cycle Theory (Macroeconomics), challenging their view that “aggregate output is determined, in normal times, by the supply of factors of production” (Arnold, 2002, p. 2). Keynes’ theory was regarded not only by himself but by many economists as a revolution in economics. However, his theory was later questioned giving place to the Neoclassical Synthesis, a number of theories that reunited Keynes’ and previous economists’ views and created a more formulated prospect of macroeconomics. This essay has the purpose of explaining and contrasting Keynes’ General Theory and the Neoclassical Synthesis, giving an overview of this major revolution in economics in the 20th century. Keynes: “The General Theory” The General Theory written by Keynes in the 1930’s lays its importance in a period of financial downturns, with the Great Depression and the prior crash of the Wall Street in 1929. According to the literature, at this point in time and until the General Theory, economists had little advice to provide on economic policies. Keynes argues that inefficient macroeconomic outcomes are a consequence from the private sector decisions. Thus in order to stabilize output over business cycle, the public sector has to respond through monetary and fiscal policies. Therefore, a mixed economy is supported by Keynes, where private sector is predominant but the government and public sector with a large role. Keynes not only questioned Classical and Neoclassical assumptions of full employment, but also affirmed that investment depend on rate of interest and saving income in terms of wage units (Keynes, 2008) Keynes’ work had a few fundamental elements such as the liquidity preference, changes in money wages, the marginal efficiency of capital and the consumption function, which are explained as follows: Effective demand The General Theory gives emphasis for what we call nowadays as aggregate demand, addressed by Keynes as effective demand. First of all, “The principle of effective demand asserted that the level of employment was determined by the volume of aggregate demand, independently of the supply decisions of individual workers. If demand was inadequate, workers would be unemployed even if they valued the prevailing real wage more highly than the marginal disutility of working” (King, 2002, p. 12) In fact, Keynes assured that the most important reason of involuntary unemployment is nothing but a malfunction of effective demand, and added that “…the volume of effective demand at any point in time would determine the level of employment and output in an economy” (Keynes, 2008, p. xxv) In reality, two elements combined are the key for effective demand: expenditure and investment. Thus, we can say that “The General Theory introduced the notion of aggregate demand as the sum of consumption, private investment and government spending and the impact of imports and exports in open economies” (Keynes, 2008, p. xxi). According to Keynes (2008) point of view, for an economy to reach a full employment, under a situation of underemployment, it needs help of government spending. Animal Spirits Keynes affirms that consumption and investment can be affected by expectations, and adds that part of the expectations of prospective yields are based upon existing facts, assumed as certain, and partly future events, which cannot be forecasted with full confidence (Keynes, 2008). The state of psychological expectation which covers the latter (future events) is called by Keynes as ‘the state of long-term expectations’ and involves among others: “…type and quantity of the stock of capital assets and in the tastes of the consumer” (Hansson, 1986, p. 312) He makes his point on the fact that expectations shouldn’t be made according to matters of uncertainty, however, they should depend on the confidence we deposit in forecasting, which is the same thing as the investment demand-schedule. Keynes also points out the fact of expectations playing a significant role in demand and output, which means that, when changes in expectations occur, changes in demand and output can also occur. In other words: “Keynes argued that instability arises ‘due to the characteristic of human nature that a large proportion of our positive activities depend on spontaneous optimism rather than on a mathematical expectation, whether moral or hedonistic or economic’. Thus investment decisions depend upon the ‘animal spirits’ of entrepreneurs.” (King, 2002, p. 13) Liquidity Preference According to the Liquidity Preference Hypothesis, consumers are compelled to hold money for different purposes preventing themselves of uncertain future events as a way of store their wealth, in money or goods. “In the General Theory, the rate of interest is a monetary variable, not the outcome of the real classical factors of capital productivity and thrift. It depends instead of liquidity preference, and this is a speculative phenomenon reflecting the uncertainty of future bond prices in a world in which interest rates vary and capital gains and losses are unpredictable” (King, 2002, p. 13) Thus an increase in interest rate and current income can affect the money demand. Changes in Money Wages Classical theory during the Great Depression defended the idea that mass unemployment and disincentive to produce came as a consequence of high real wages. To Keynes, people would firmly oppose nominal wage cuts. Even though, Keynes argued that the wage bargain is made in monetary terms, but changes in the money wage do not necessarily correspond to changes in the real wage (Clarke, 1988, p.151). And, to boost employment, Keynes argues that real wages had to go down and nominal wages even more than prices. Consequently, consumer demand and aggregate demand would fall, bringing down profits and sales revenue. This shows that wage cuts could enhance a worse scenario. The Neoclassical Synthesis The post war period was marked with a movement in academic economics and the emergence of the Neoclassical Synthesis. As its name suggests, the theory was a combination of Keynes’ and previous economists’ ideas, formalized mathematically, fact avoided by Keynes in the General Theory. The main differences from Neoclassical to Keynesian theories are that Neoclassical argue the individual`s rationality, and their ability to maximize utility and firms to maximize profit. And, as mentioned above, the wide use of mathematical equations in multifarious aspects of the economy. Disseminated by Paul Samuelson in his textbook ‘Economics’, the Neoclassical Synthesis’ initial version was the IS-LM model, developed just after the General Theory by John Hicks. IS-LM Model The Model, as pointed out by Olivier Blanchard (2009) had important characteristics which weakened Keynes’ insights: “Expectations played no role, and the adjustment of prices and wages was altogether absent” (Blanchard, 2009, p. 603). Keynes believed that there is no flexibility in prices and wages in a short period in time, which also means that industries do not change their prices continually. In contrast, as asserted by John Hicks (1980-1981, p. 141) his model “was a flexible price model, a perfect competition model, in which all prices were flexible, while in Keynes’ the level of money wages (at least) was exogenously determined. … A full employment model”. Moreover, while Keynes took in consideration a short period, IS-LM model was an “ultra short period” model, where Hicks wanted to take in consideration reflections of the exact moment rather than a period with too much happenings (Hicks, 1980-1981). Theory of Consumption, Investment and Money Demand The consumption theory was created by Franco Modigliani (life cycle theory of consumption), who emphasizes that “consumers’ natural planning horizon is their entire lifetime” and Milton Friedman (permanent income theory of consumption), who states that “consumers look beyond current income” (Blanchard, 2009, p. 358) In fact, the theory known also as the permanent income hypothesis, states that “…the average propensity to consume is a constant at all income levels once adjustments for transitory’ income has been made. What Friedman argued was that individual saved more from their ‘transitory’ income than from ‘permanent’ income” (Keynes, 2008, p. xxiii) In other words, the higher the disposable income, the higher will be the consumption. Furthermore, expectations play a major role in determining consumers’ spending in two different ways: firstly consumers must calculate their wealth and make their own expectations regarding interest rates, labour income and so on. Secondly, through stocks, bonds, housing etc, where they just take their value as a given. (Blanchard, 2009, p. 362) On the other hand, the investment theory developed by James Tobin states that investment decisions are affected by expectations. The relation here lays on the value of profits and the investment. In other words, “As Tobin has explained, aggregate investment can be expected to depend in a stable way on the ratio of the stock market valuation of existing capital to its replacement cost” (Summers et al, 1981,p. 68) Milton Friedman, on his Money Demand theory, emphasized that “a necessary condition for money to exert a predictable influence on the economy is a stable demand function for money” (Barnett et al, 1992, p. 2086). Friedman’s point of view comes across the liquidity preference theory drawn by Keynes where capital gains and losses are unpredictable and therefore the demand for money can be affected either by the current income or an increase in the rate of interest. Growth Theory The Growth Theory was developed by Robert Solow and Swan in the 1950’s and provide a framework where the determinant driving force for growth is technical advances. According to Aghion and Howitt (1998, p. 11) : “The most basic proposition of growth theory is that in order to sustain a positive growth rate of output per capita in the long run, there must be continual advances in technological knowledge in the form of new goods, new markets or new processes”. Therefore, in contrast to the Keynesian theory where the increase in saving rate generates a decline in consumption, in the growth theory, the result of high saving rates is an increase in output. Keynesian versus Monetarists One of the main leaders of the Monetarists is Milton Friedman who argued the role played by policy and the importance of monetary policy rather than the Keynesian fiscal policy, which argued that monetary measures are not able to lower the rate of interests. Simon Clarke affirms that “The monetarist counter-revolution has not only abandoned the Keynesian commitment to full employment, but more fundamentally has challenged the Keynesian conception of the role of the state in the regulation of capitalism, returning to the pre-Keynesian emphasis on the primary role of money and the market” (Clarke, 1988, p. 5). In contrast to the Keynesians, monetarists have the belief that in scenario of restrictive fiscal policy, a reduction in the rate of inflation is not possible without a declining in monetary expansion rate (Stein, 1981) Moreover, the monetarist theory focused on the debate on the Phillips Curve, which although was not part of the Keynesian theory, could bring about a good explanation of wages and price movements over time (Blanchard, 2009). Phillips diagram analysed the inverse relation of inflation and unemployment, however the evolution of the curve was disagreed by Friedman and Edmund Phelps, where they argued the inexistence on the relation of unemployment and high inflation. The third monetarist’s argument was regarding the function of fiscal policy and the use of simple regulations, as argued by Friedman, such as stable and fixed money growth. Conclusion In the last few decades Neoclassical economics are being the dominant microeconomics school, alongside with their rational choice theory. And there have been many efforts to mix Keynesian macroeconomics and neoclassical microeconomics, emerging from that the neoclassical synthesis. However, Neoclassical is often under attacks for not considering human behaviour and forgetting that real people are different from the “economic man” created by this theory. More critics appear about their postulations that do not reflect the truth situations, since humans are susceptible to other extra events. Moreover, their highly mathematical assumptions are considered, for many writers, as condemned to fail once they are unrealistic. . Nevertheless, Neoclassical and Keynesian economics are still competing nowadays, especially after the downturn of 2008/09. When a resurging curiosity amongst the economic class turned to Keynes theory, trying to implement and discuss its ideas of a larger role from the public sector. Even some notorious economists such as Paul Krugman, advocated to employ Keynesian analysis again. On the other hand many do not embrace this idea of Keynesian policy. Clearly to see then, that Neoclassical and Keynesian theories are still debated at universities across the world, and the awkward recent downturn restarted that. But, only within a few years and the results from this meltdown has passed then other considerations will be made about those theories. References Aghion, P, and Howitt, P, 1998. Endogenous Growth Theory. USA: Library Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Arnold L, G, 2002. Business Cycle Theory. New York: Oxford University Press. Barnett, W, A, Fisher, D, and Serletis, A, 1992. Consumer Theory and the Demand for Money. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 2086-2119. Blanchard, O, 2009. Macroeconomics. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Clarke, S, 1988. Keynesianism, Monetarism and the Crisis of the State. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Hansson, I, 1986. Classical, Keynes’ and Neoclassical Investment Theory – A Synthesis. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 305-316. Hicks, J, 1980-1981. “IS-LM”: An Explanation. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 139-154. Keynes, J, M, 2008. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors Ltd. King, J, E, 2002. A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Snowdon, B,Vane, H, 1997. A Macroeconomics Reader. New York: Routledge. Summers, L, H, Bosworth, B, P, Tobin, J, and White, P, M, 1981. Taxation and Corporate Investment: A q-Theory Approach. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Vol. 1981, No. 1, pp. 67-140.
A Woman’s struggle: Kate Chopin’s “The Awakening” and “The Story of an Hour” Would you stay in an unhappy marriage? Would you care about what people thought? Or what people might say? In Kate Chopin’s novel “The Awakening” and her short story “The Story of an Hour” she takes you to a place and time were divorce was not very expensive, but very hard to get. Many couples stayed in their marriages because it was considered prohibited. In Both “The Awakening” and “The Story of an Hour” Kate describes two women who were so depressed they would rather die than be with their husbands. Most of Kate Chopin’s Novels and Short stories were often viewed as negative, “morbid,” “disagreeable,” “unwholesome,” “distasteful,” and “toxic”. Kate was born to Eliza Faris and Captain Thomas O’Flaherty on February 8th, 1850 in St. Louis, Missouri. At the age of five Kate lost her father in a train accident. After her father’s death Kate was raised by her mother, grandmother, and great grandmother Madame Victoire Verdon Charleville. Kate’s great grandmother Madame told her stories, about the French, stories about a woman struggles, and stories about life in general. These stories Madame told her, inspired Kate in her pursuit as a writer. On June 9th, 1870, Kate marries Oscar Chopin. Both Oscar and Kate moved to New Orleans, were the majority of Kate’s novels and short stories setting took place. Kate and her husband had a total of six children, Jean Baptiste, Oscar Charles, George Francis, Frederick, Felix Andrew, and Lélia, before her husband’s death on December 10th, 1882. With six kids, no husband, and a company to run, that she couldn’t keep afloat, Kate moved back to St. Louis, were she published her novels and short stories. Throughout Kate Chopin’s 54 years, she has written two novels and about a hundred short stories. Jennifer Hicks stated, “Some of Chopin’s short stories were rejected for publication on moral grounds, for editors perceived in them an unseemly interest in female self-assertion and sexual liberation. (Hicks)” In 1969, Per Seyersted summarized Kate Chopin’s accomplishments stating, “She broke new grounds in American literature. She was the first woman writer in her country to accept passion as a legitimate subject for serious, outspoken fiction. Revolting against tradition and authority; with a daring which we can hardy fathom today; with an uncompromising honesty and no trace of sensationalism, she undertook to give the unsparing truth about woman’s submerged life. She was something of a pioneer in the amoral treatment of sexuality, of divorce, and of woman’s urge for an existential authenticity. She is in many respects a modern writer, particularly in her awareness of the complexities of truth and the complications of freedom. (Seyersted)” Kate’s second novel, “The Awakening” was published on January 21st, 1898. Like most of Chopin short stories and novels she takes you to a time were divorce was quite rare, were men automatically had the right to both the children and property, and were women looked for a voice and a cause. “The Awakening” for many of reasons was not one of her best works in that time. Many people criticized Kate because of it. In Peggy Skaggs Short Story Criticism, she stated, “In Chopin’s masterpiece, The Awakening, we encounter a husband beset by the “man-instinct of possession” and a woman who discovers that she needs to be a person as well as a wife and mother. The novel evoked outrage from critics, readers, and library censors primarily because Chopin allowed the protagonist, Edna Pontellier, to take control of her own life without criticizing her for doing so. (Skaggs)” “The Awakening” it takes place in New Orleans with a married couple Edna Pontellier and Léonce Pontellier and their two children Etienne and Raoul Pontellier. Edna was married to a man who made sure his family had everything that they wished for. Although Mr. Pontellier provided all these things, it still did not make Edna Pontellier happy. While Edna husband Léonce was away at work, her and her two children stayed on an island off the coast of Louisiana. While there Mrs. Pontellier meets people who she feels fulfills her life. Among these people was a man name Robert Lebrun whom she falls madly in love with. With The Awakening taking place in the late nineteenth century, people felt that marriage was a bond that you should not break, which was exactly what Mrs. Pontellier did. In Russ Sprinkle critical reception of Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, he stated: “Yet willing to give up everything–even her own life–for the freedom of unencumbered individuality, Edna Pontellier epitomized the consummate New Woman of the late nineteenth century” (Sprinkle). He also stated, “About a month before the release of Chopin’s novel, Lucy Monroe reviewed her novel for the March 1899, issue of Book News. Monroe praised Chopin’s work as an “extraordinary novel” and applauds it as “subtle and a brilliant kind of art” (Toth 329) (Sprinkle). With praises like these Chopin’s thought her novel would be one of her best works. Instead Sprinkle stated, “Most critics regarded the novel as vulgar, unwholesome, unholy, and a misappropriation of Chopin’s exceptional literary talent. Many reviewers regarded the novel’s aggrandizement of sexual impurity as immoral, and thus they condemned the novel’s theme” (Sprinkle). While the character Edna was loved by few, she was disowned by many. She showed how an unhappy marriage can lead to self destruction. In Carrie Harris Feminist Criticism to The Awakening, she stated: “Kate Chopin wrote “The Awakening,” to show people of the nineteenth century society and the future generations, how hard women struggled to overcome their conflicting emotions and the oppression of society’s tradition to become more than just personal property for men to control”( Harris). At the end of the novel Edna expressed her love for Robert and even though he felt the same way, he knew they could not be. When Edna left the house, Robert had promised her that he would stay, but when she came back he was not there. “When she thought that he was there at hand, waiting for her, she grew numb with the intoxication of expectancy. It was so late; he would be asleep perhaps. She would awaken him with a kiss. She hoped he would be asleep that she might arouse him with her caresses. Still, she remembered Adèle’s voice whispering, “Think of the children; think of them.” She meant to think of them; that determination had driven into her soul like a death wound – but not to-night. To-morrow would be time to think of everything. Robert was not waiting for her in the little parlor. He was nowhere at hand. The house was empty. But he had scrawled on a piece of paper that lay in the lamplight: “I love you. Good-by – because I love you.” Edna grew faint when she read the words. She went and sat on the sofa. Then she stretched herself out there, never uttering a sound. She did not sleep. She did not go to bed. The lamp sputtered and went out. She was still awake in the morning, when Celestine unlocked the kitchen door and came in to light the fire” (Stone) Torn and broken hearted Edna went to the beach and swimmed until she drowned. In Suzanne D. Green criticism, she states: “The Awakening offers a stirring glimpse into the psyche of a woman, giving contemporary readers insight into both the social structures and the effects that these structures have exerted over generations of women. This novel also offers a female protagonist with whom we can identify, and for whom we can have a great deal of sympathy. Edna Pontellier’s escape strikes a cord in many readers, in large part because she had the strength to act, to take control of her destiny. It is this very act, this empowerment, which has made The Awakening a mainstay in the American literary canon” (Suzanne). Weather people understood the pain Edna Pontellier felt or not she showed throughout the novel how she wanted to feel free. Free from her husband, free from her kids, and free from responsibilities as a whole. Edna Pontellier Death showed how a women’s struggle. Published on December 6th, 1894, “The Story of an Hour” was somewhat like “The Awakening”. Many people saw marriage as something everyone should long for. In an article by Nicole Smith, she states, “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin represents a negative view of marriage by presenting the reader with a woman who is clearly overjoyed that her husband has died” (Smith). Chopin often showed woman longing for freedom. Much like “The Awakening” Chopin wrote about a wife Louise Mallard and her husband Brently Mallard. Mr. Mallard, like most husbands, cherished his wife Louise. Many critics spoke about how wonderful Mrs. Mallard husband was. How he worked and adored his wife. But on the other hand you have Mrs. Mallard, a woman who has an ideal of how she would feel if she was alone. Chopin opened her short story up with, “Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband’s death” (Line 1). Mrs. Mallard sister Josephine only saw a happy marriage. So when it was time to tell Mrs. Mallard about her husband, she felt as if it would cause her to have some type of heat problems. As Josephine spoke to Mrs. Mallard the story states, “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzedinability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister’s arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her. There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchair. Into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reachinto her soul” (Line 6-11). In, The Faces of Eve,Judith Fryer writes, “In the last year of the nineteenth century a woman succeeded where men had failed: Kate Chopin created . . . a woman who is a person” (Fryer). Chopin’s showed how a woman who feels trapped; feels the desire to celebrate. “When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath: “free, free, free!” The vacant stareand the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed everyinch of her body. She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial. She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome” (Lines ). Feeling free from her overprotective husband she heads downstairs. Once downstairs everyone realizes the door was being opened with a key. Mr. Mallard walks in alive and well. The shock of seeing Mr. Mallard killed Mrs. Mallard. The Joy that she had before was killed when her husband walked through that door. “When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease–of the joy that kills” (Line ). Studies show, “That the suicide rates have decreased from the 1950-1980 from 13.2% to about 11%”(Wikipedia). In 1904 Kate Chopin’s dies, but it wasn’t until five years after her death, people start realizing that she will be remembered forever. Chopin’s novel “The Awakening” and her short story “The story of an hour”, both shows “A woman’s struggle” of the nineteenth century. Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. The Harper Anthology of Fiction. Ed. Sylvan Barnet. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Hicks, Jennifer. The Story of an Hour Criticism. Gale Research, 1997. Seyersted, Per. The Complete Works of Kate Chopin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969, 2006. Skaggs, Peggy. “Kate Chopin.” Short Story Criticism. Ed. Thomas Votteler. Vol. 8. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1991. 20 vols. Sprinkle, Russ. Kate Chopin’s The Awakening: A critical Reception. Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. 1998. Harris, Carrie. Feminist Criticism to The Awakening. Published March 31, 2008. Stone, Herbert S. Kate Chopin’s The Awakening. Chicago

Norco College Islam Stages of Faith Discussion

Norco College Islam Stages of Faith Discussion.

I will explain everything once you select this assignment Once the Interview Transcript is finalized and you completed the Post-Interview Reflection, write a 2-3 page reflection observing your interviewee’s Stage of Faith. Then, after determining their Stage and supporting it with your observations, discuss your own Stage of Faith using the Stages of Faith Development by James Fowler.Be honest with your assessments. I am your only reader and I do not share your essays with anyone. This self-evaluation process allows you the opportunity to see your own maturity in faith development. Quality essays will require several days of writing and reflection.Consider the following questions as you write your report:What Stage of Faith does the subject of your interview demonstrate? Why?What Stage of Faith do you consider your own? Why?How did the interview process reveal both your interviewee and your own Stage of Faith?What did you learn from this process about the nature of religion and faith development?
Norco College Islam Stages of Faith Discussion

PQC Design of A Program to Assist Solve a Family Health & Wellness Problem Discussion

essay order PQC Design of A Program to Assist Solve a Family Health & Wellness Problem Discussion.

Design a program or product that solves a family health and wellness problem or promotes family health and wellness, and that integrates other topics of learning from this semesters. Interpersonal communication is critical to working with other students, community partners, and individuals and families in the community and should be integrated into all projects. Requirements- Double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and APA citations. This should be submitted as a Power Point or Prezi presentation. On another word document- -Write out what the program or product is.-A budget-A community partner ( you can make this person up) -A timeline
PQC Design of A Program to Assist Solve a Family Health & Wellness Problem Discussion

Children With Social Emotional And Behavioural Difficulties

Introduction: SEBD is determined as an interesting area of enquiry in recent years. The literature covers ‘Education’, ‘Health’ and ‘Social Disadvantage’ as its three major perspectives. This essay centers on primary school children experiencing SEBD and its link to SLCN in raising their achievement level at school, from an education perspective. Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD): refers to the three potential areas of developmental difficulty of a child: to understand, express, engage and acknowledge in a given context. The dictionary defines them as: * Social – living together or enjoying life in communities or organized groups. * Emotional – actuated by emotion rather than reason. * Behavioural – the way the person behaves towards other people. * Difficulty – an effort that is inconvenient. Speech Language and Communication Needs (SLCN): refers mainly to ‘Expressive’ (use of words and sentences, vocabulary and grammar broadly), ‘Receptive’ (understanding the language and processing the information) and ‘Pragmatic'( usage of language in a social context) language difficulties. Where only language development is concerned, there are three important factors to be considered. First is the ability to record the sounds of different words and second is the ability to control vocal production and the third being, the growth of symbolic function. However, it is observed as the need to find how language structure emerges through varied time frames is crucial for the current researchers. Brief history of children identified with SEBD and also its link to SLCN: The term ‘SEBD’ displays a predominant role in primary schools where children being identified for having difficulties which can be broadly observed in two types. Heneker, S (2005) postulates an interesting way when making a distinction of these disorders. First, the less-obvious disorders such as anxiety, school phobia, prolonged stress (due to various reasons such as transitions, communication difficulties, depression). Secondly, the well-known disorders such as, conduct disorders, hyperkinetic disorders. However, it is also possible that these disorders cover a wide range of abilities, including SLCN and some of the learning difficulties. Parow (2009), finds nearly 71% of the children with SEBD are identified of having communication difficulties from the literature studies. These studies were based on 26 papers on the link between SEBD and communication difficulties , which were discovered by Benner, Nelson and Epstein (2002) amongst children with SEBD and communication difficulties. There study indicates that Current estimation of prevalence in children with communication difficulties in England Wales is nearly 10% and also children with SEBD are inclined towards having communication difficulties. It is also a well established fact that a child with language difficulties is bound to have emotional and behavioural difficulties which further on have tendency to rise. Children identified with SLCN may encounter and experience problems such as usage of vocabulary, understanding and recalling information, processing information, maintaining attention, following instructions by listening, taking part actively in various activities or joining in group discussions, relating to peers , memorizing specific vocabulary. A large portion of children (with 50 % or more) are entering primary schools with low language levels. It is also observed that 5-7% of children from general population are identified with SLCN. Limited usage of language can oppose making relationships with peers at school and which can also lead to behavioural problems in the future. ( Characteristics : Children with SEBD are more likely to be disruptive and disturbing, some are hyperactive and some lack concentration; some are popularly found having poor or immature social skills or personality disorders and some of them have learning difficulties, quite a few exhibit challenging behaviours, mainly due to other complex special needs. The disruptive and disturbing behaviour could be temporary or permanent which can become as a barrier towards their ability to learn as they experience restlessness, social withdrawal, poor attention and isolation according to Teacher Training Agency’s National SEN Specialist Standards in 1999 (Teacher Training Agency,1999). ( Also these children are subjected towards low levels of self esteem, they lack in Regulating their emotions ’emotion regulation is a form of mental – control’ states Parrot (2001) in his book of ‘Emotions in Social Psychology’. Hence display disruptive anti-social behaviour or aggressive behaviour due to anger and frustration. Developing social cognition which can lead on to failure in learning at school, as a result of emotional damage. Initially children with EBD were been identified by health professionals but currently they are also carried by education professionals under special frameworks and assessments. However, they often carry out their assessment procedures in conjunction with educational psychologists and child psychiatrists depending on the level of difficulties experienced by a particular child. In general the disorders are based on DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as mentioned by Cross (2004). Behavioural disorders : Emotional competence and Social competence influence significantly towards children’s behaviour. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD): the three major factors that manifest ADHD are: Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and inappropriate levels of Attention or simply Poor Attention. The research in this area as estimated by Gillberg, C. (2005), has found that at least 3% of school children have severe form. Opositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): It is very closely associated with ADHD and also other disorders like Tourett’s syndrome, and considered as a co-morbid problem in preschool or school aged children with ADHD. They are at a high risk of antisocial behaviour as well as displaying poor conduct. Tourett’s syndrome: Gillberg, C. (2005) mentions that at least 10% of school age children are affected by motor or vocal tics, or a combination of both. Recent population studies estimate that at least 1% of general population of school age children are affected by a clinically handicapping Tourett’s syndrome. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): As Tourett’s syndrome, OCD affects (1%) of school age children. They display obsessions and compulsions. Initially it was regarded as a ‘neurosis’, however it is now considered as a ‘neuropsychiatric disorder’ states Gillberg, C. (2005). Emotional disorders: Undoubtedly, it can be agreed on what Cross (2004) states, that anxiety and depression are often exhibit co-morbidity in children who experience disruptive behaviour disorders ( e.g. ADHD); where one of the other disorders could include ‘Selective Mutism’, which is considered as a social anxiety. For instance, their spoken language is considered to be limited; though they have the ability to speak, and tend to remain quiet by choice. Other disorders include Developmental Disorders (like Autism seen as a Pervasive Developmental Disorder) and Reactive Attachment Disorder, Schizophrenia, eating disorder and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Explanations: Co morbidity of language impairment and SEBD. Language impairment social, emotional behavioural difficulties are interlinked. Pupils having difficulty in expressing emotions and understanding emotions verbally are the ones who are more inclined towards experiencing or to develop SEBD and vice versa Studies include the children with SEBD have been studied for the co-occurrence of language difficulties where Benner (2002) finds 71% of the children being experiencing language difficulties significantly and other authors argue if it is due to a core neurological deficit. Psychiartic Co morbidity: It is noticed that 42% of children who had speech or language difficulties at the age 5 had psychiatric disorder when diagnosed, Beitchman et al (1996). 30% of seven to eight year olds were determined as having difficulties of specific language impairements, on the total scale of the teacher completed ‘Strenghts and Difficulties Questionaire’ from both the special and mainstream schools. Lindsay and Dockrell (2000). Cohen et al, (1993) ascertained the percentage of children referring child psychiatric services for behavioural and emotional problems having an unsuspected language impairment was 33%.The prevalence from other studies also suggest that learning difficulties can account for high percentage of language problems in children with SEBD (Cross 2004). Often a communication difficulty can be interpreted differently as a behavioural difficulty in some cases (for example, a child who is unable to convey a message to his friend while playing can behave in a noncompliant and aggressive way). In contrast a behavioural difficulty can be interpreted differently when the other person is aware of the communication difficulty or need of that particular child according to Parow (2009). Some of the causes and risk factors for SEBD and SLCN: Earlier children experiencing difficulties with social interactions, bad conduct disorders, children exhibiting high levels of frustrations due to peer- rejections/maladjusted, aggressive behaviour or inappropriate behaviour in adjusting to school environment were regarded as ‘abnormal’ (e.g. Dodge , 1980) and ‘immature'(e.g. Selman, 1980) social cognition according to Happe and Frith (1996). ‘It is not what we think or feel but what we do that makes us maladjusted….continued severity anxiety may get the better of people and induce them to take desperate ill-considered action which is against their interest but it is the action and not the anxiety which ranks as maladjusted.'(Scott 1982).( The word ‘Social’ has been introduced to Emotional, Behavioural difficulties (EBD) in the year 1998. Nevertheless, children experiencing SEBD are considered with Special Educational Needs (SEN) by the ‘Code of Practice, (2001)’. Fortin and Bigras (1994) states that any of these below mentioned risk factors occur in isolation, addressing the complex interaction of the factors associated with SEBD.The main factors being- predisposing factor, child-based factors, contextual risk factors and also family – centered risk factors. They concluded that the accumulation of these factors increases the probability that a child may develop SEBD. Language difficulties lead on to substantially high risk of anti-social behaviour receptive language difficulties not only go undetected but have adverse negative behaviour and have a profound affect on vital relationships throughout one’s life span. These children tend to face a significant or high risk in attaining school achievement. The fact is neither they are very different from their peers nor they particularly fall under a homogenous group, although they can be considered on a continuum. Instruments currently available for measuring underlying cognitive process are less technically adequate than instruments designed to assess language development or academic achievement, Owen (1996). It is also noticed that changes in one component of language may effect development in another component. Other research suggests that children with language difficulties may have underlying cognitive processing delays (Beitchman, et al 1998). Previous reviews of literature examined that relation between on wide range of antisocial behaviour (example juvenile delinquency) and communication difficulties (Language and speech) but very little of previous study or reviews focused specifically on Language skills of children identified with emotional , behavioural difficulties. What is also interesting here to notice is the majority of these behavioural disorders have been found in boys. It is found that normally girls appear four times less in behavioural problems. Does it suggest that the girls have a less tendency in exhibiting their difficulties or there very less evidence of research? However it appears like girls go undiagnosed and lack in services provided through intervention programs, which indicates the need to explore and illustrate the reason behind the difference of their behavioural disorders. Interventions: Today in UK what necessary provisions and strategies are undertaken to raise children’s achievement level? What evidence does the literature provide to evaluate the strategies being practiced by schools? Generally the early intervention programs improves the growth and development of children experiencing difficulties (e.g. Language development – including communication needs and moral development – including, social and emotional behavioural needs being met). Very truly, it is been noticed as the more it gets prolonged in identifying and tackling any concerns regarding these difficulties, the greater would be the effect in overcoming them. These programs expand the quality of nurture by their primary care givers and educators from school and other settings. It is very clear to state that the primary intervention programs include many factors in providing specific- structured-training to provide effective child rearing practices in overcoming such developmental difficulties among young children, suggest literature from the ‘Intervening Early and Current Interventions used by Primary Schools’. Henker (2005) proposed an individualized intervention for the children at a pre referral unit (PRU) who are identified for a specific communication need to ameliorate their skills such as: vocabulary, social skills and speech, grammar. It has been noticed that children were able to show improvement in one or more area, where they were attending this speech and language therapy weekly or twice a week. Evaluating staff questionnaires suggests that improvement has been obtained by the children with communication needs. PALS- a program to develop Social Skills for children aged 3-6. It emphasis and aims towards building confidence in children and participate actively in social contexts. The main purpose of this program is to teach social skills such as listening, sharing, taking turns, dealing with feelings of fear, coping up with frustration, dealing with emotions effectively, etc. It is accepted by early childhood psychologists and NSW (New South Wales, Australia, Department of Health) that PALS program reduces problem behaviour and increases social skills significantly for children aged 3-6 years. The graph of the success rate indicates that PALS effectiveness is more on the age group ranging preschool children when compared to primary school aged group of children. Cooper (2002), states that social skills interventions work less effective for primary school aged children and on the other hand it works more effectively for preschoolers earlier as addressed by Elliot and Gresham (1993). Evaluations: The storytelling intervention program called ‘The Big Book of Storysharing’ by Peacey (2009), has demonstrated in bringing up a positive change while prioritizing on communication and sharing personal stories amongst primary school children.. Especially children from special school were able to use words or signs, gaze eye contact while speaking, joining in narration by listening and telling stories, whereas the children from mainstream perceived to be more confident and gained pleasure in narrating stories which shows the strength of the project. On the other hand, it has certain drawbacks. When the children were assessed in the areas such as, Attention, Impulse control and flexibility; It fails to identify and explain the gain of attention at both mainstream as well as special schools and it couldn’t control impulses of all the children. Also, it consumes time with regards to preparation for the project towards discussing objectives with the members for their participation and affirmation. However, Peacey (2009) conceives that this project can demonstrate well if a named person from each school takes in charge to mediate with other members of the staff to motivate and repeat or retell the stories for the children. The second factor is to assure the age group of children has to be well chosen. Also this project did not demonstrate to be an effective one in measuring children’s specific difference in their usage of language on the standardized assessments for the children who were at the early stage of language development and have showed only minor improvements as they were experiencing learning difficulties. Overall, the project has been identified for a positive outcome of making progress with their story telling skills and also they enjoyed and valued their experiences. This project also established the concept of inclusion in both school cultures. Today in United Kingdom the government is providing the opportunity to the primary school teachers in various ways to provide better services to the children. For example, a SENCO training enables a class room teacher in understanding the different areas of difficulties experiencing by a child can play a vital role with the support of specific frameworks. There are other professionals from the local authorities to liaise with in supporting children with special needs including children with social, emotional behaviour al difficulties as well as speech, language and communication needs. On the other hand, most of the parents are unwilling to accept the fact that they are in need of help with regards to their children’s behavioural problems and look for help when they find when they realize the situation at a high risk. It is true that the response towards intervention programs is less when the behavioural problems are at an advanced stage. Parow (2009). Recent literature also indicates that children with internal behavioural difficulties (withdrawn, shyness, anxiousness, passivity) lack in communication skills which again has a significant effect in developing their social skills at schools and finally has an impact of low level of school achievement. Conclusion: Within primary schools, there has been a growing emphasis on interventions that can enable to bring difference in children identified with SEBD and also SLCN, with the aim of promoting the child’s level of school achievement. The research literature in this particular field indicates that intervention programs that were carried for a longer period of time with an intensive participation of the parents or primary care givers, children and the trainer, were the ones which became successful. The Special Educational needs in England graph indicates the percentage level of children with SEBD inclines gradually with their age from primary school. Whereas the SLCN tends to decline as the child grows. Nevertheless the relation ship is unclear in identifying the primary difficulty in decision – making clinically is not appropriate for the population of children where language difficulties are unidentified/ unsuspected previously.The possibility for impacting language skills in children with SEBD needs furthermore research. Therefore, the research indicates the need to encourage diverse participants for further research, other than public sectors of educational, health and social service or charity organizations and to include clinical psychologists, community developers, epidemiologists, medics, etc.

Adelphi University Mission Drift by Non Profit Organizations Essay

Adelphi University Mission Drift by Non Profit Organizations Essay.

Literature Review-Managers coming to this field of work (Social Work) for the meaning, but managers are forced to prioritize work that does not relate to mission, priorities change the higher you go up ladder.-Focus on the prioritization of managers-What are the pressures that managers feel?-How are they feeling?-Coping strategies?-Create two sections for Lit Review: -Motivation (Why do people choose social work? What are the expectations for this field of work?) -Mission Drift (Having to compete with For profit agencies?) -Nonprofit Starvation cycleKeywords to search:-Job satisfaction nonprofit managers-Managerial task vs. service task nonprofit managersArticle from Rong:Young, D. R. (1998). Commercialism in nonprofit social service associations: Its character, significance, and rationale. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 17(2), 278-297.
Adelphi University Mission Drift by Non Profit Organizations Essay