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World Literature Time Line, writing homework help

World Literature Time Line, writing homework help.

World Literature Time Line PurposeYour purpose is to expand and enhance a World Literature Time Line throughout the course. You do this by inserting brief notes on the author(s) you study each week, highlighting their contributions to contemporary world literature. You also add a personal impression of the writing. The activity is intended to give you a sense of the historical context of contemporary authors, which is important to understanding their writing.Instructions1.Click the link below and save the World Literature Time Line.oWorld Literature Time Line2.Each week, locate on the Time Line the author or authors you are assigned to read in your textbook. Boldface the name of the author(s) and add an asterisk (*) at the front.3.Under each author you identify, add your annotation. This should include a description of the author’s contribution to contemporary world literature and your own impressions. Sample entry: *Rabindranath Tagore. Offered a new voice to Indian expression. He was a short-story writer, song composer, playwright, essayist, and painter who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern India. I enjoy the natural quality and the personal tone of his verse: “The carriage stands at the door. It is midday./ The autumn sun is gradually gathering strength.” And so on. 4. 5.Highlight and comment on at least one author per week. Feel free to highlight and comment on more than one per week. (You may want to comment on an additional author that especially interests you. Feel free to add new author names if they are not already listed on the Time Line.)TimeLinePlease submit your Time Line as an attachment, complete with your markings, additions, and personal annotations.Remember, you should have at least covered the following authors:Week 01 – Constantine Cavafy Week 02 – Marcel Proust Week 03 – Franz Kafka Week 04 – Select from Dada-Surrealist poets Week 05 – Bertolt Brecht Week 06 – Luigi Pirandello Week 07 – Samuel Beckett Week 08 – Bessie Head Week 09 – Zhang Ailing (Eileen Chang) Week 10 – Gabriel Garcia Marquez or Jorge Luis BorgesAs you submit your Time Line, in one paragraph, summarize your experience in filling in the World Literature Time Line. In what ways did the experience help you visualize a broader historical perspective to the work that writers were contributing to contemporary world literature?Please fill out the timeline provided in the attachment.Also I attached an example to go by.
World Literature Time Line, writing homework help

A hotel reservation system using PHP and Mysql.

Design a hotel reservation system using PHP and Mysql The
home page of your web site gives introduction of your hotel (note the
hotel shall be named after your name) which includes the address, email,
phone numbers, and direction to your hotel. This page also contains
entries for check-in and check-out dates. Select number of rooms drop
down list, Number of adults and children dropdown lists. A submit button
to send user to the second page. All fields are required. Other
checking and validation shall and may be included. The second page
contains the list of available rooms on that booking period. The second
page shows images for different type of rooms available. It will list
price per night and the total cost for the stay period. A user can
choose the room type they want. The information of the available rooms
shall be retrieve from your MySql database. There is a submit button to
go to the confirmation page which contains fields for user to enter
his/her name and correspondence information such as address, street
name, city, state, phone number, email address. The room, stay period
and cost of the stay will be summarized and shown on this page. When
user clicks on submit button on this page, your system will output
appropriate message. Add at least three other pages. For example, local
attraction, Hotel dining, Shopping, Salon, Computer services, etc.Requirements Use XAMPP Use PHP as server side script Use MySql. Design your own database and table(s).. Name your web site yourNamePHP
When you connect to MySql database. Make sure that you use
yourFirstNameLastName as the user name in mysql connect command. For
example, if your name is called John Smith then Your command to connect
to Mysql Database would like mysql_connect( “localhost”, “johnsmith”,
“johnsmithpass” ) Export your MySql database as johnsmith.sql so
that I can regenerate your database on instructor’s computer. (replace
johnsmith with your name) Make sure that you name your database johnsmithdatabase . (replace johnsmith with your name)
Remember to add these lines to johnsmith.sql in order to create user
which is used in mysql connect command (once again, replace johnsmith
with your name)– create user to query product database –GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, UPDATEON johnsmithdatabase.*TO [email protected] BY ‘ johnsmithpass’; Once again, replace johnsmith with yourfirstnamelastname
Create a write up report (in word or pdf format) which include a cover
page with your name, this class information, such as course name,
section, instructor, etc. Second page is table of content. First chapter
is the description of your hotel system. Second chapter is your system
design. You can use diagram to illustrate your design if you want to.
Third chapter is your implementation. It should include the sql file
content that you submitted, the source code of all pages. Fourth chapter
includes your test run results which shall include test run screen
shots. As detailed as possible. Fifth chapter is discussion and
conclusions. Mention about the cool features of your web site. Things
for future improve. The limitation of your web site, etc… You can
include a Reference chapter at the end or as Appendix.Submission Zip your website which includes all your application files. The sql file which can regenerate your database and create a user to connect to your database The report in word or pdf format. A video file to demonstrate how you design your web site, features of your web site, and how to use it.(or a link to internet) Zip all above to a folder  Make
sure your web site can run independently. it shall be portable to others’ system that run XAMPP and
there is no local dependence on your machine. You can submit a demo video or post your demo on the web and give me the link.
A hotel reservation system using PHP and Mysql

The Gothic Revival And The Greek Revival

The Gothic Revival And The Greek Revival. The Greek Revival and the Gothic Revival are terms that carry specific meanings in relation to the history of architecture. What did they represent at the time and what was the nature of the conflict between the respective adherents? The Gothic Revival represented chiefly two things: firstly, in its earlier form, it was a Romantic celebration in stone of the spirit and atmosphere of the Middle Ages; secondly, in its later and more serious form, the Gothic Revival reflected the architectural and philosophical conviction of its exponents that the moral vigour of the Middle Ages was reflected in its Gothic architecture, and that the reintroduction of this Gothic style of architecture to eighteenth-century society could re-invigorate it morally. Neo-Gothic architecture in its earlier forms, typified by buildings such as Horace Walpole’s Strawberry Hill, was characterized by a highly ornamental, decadent, visually powerful and intricate style; and, what is more, a style that cared little for functionalism or strict adherence to specific structures. By these characteristics Neo-Gothic architecture encapsulated the Romantic literary and poetic spirit of the age, as had been evinced in the works of men like Horace Walpole, Alfred Tennyson and Sir Walter Scott. In this sense, the Neo-Gothic was a nostalgic and sentimental backward glance. In a different sense the Gothic Revival represented the attempt of certain architects and churchmen to transfer the liturgical vigour of Gothic churches of the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century by capturing it in stone. Thus men like Augustus Pugin and John Ruskin came to argue that the Gothic Revival represented a standard of moral excellence that was to be practised and imitated as widely as possible. The Greek Revival grew out of the neoclassicism movement, and represented in essence an attempt by its adherents to find in the architecture of antiquity a form of architecture that corresponded to the principles of reason and order emerging from their own Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Neoclassicism, and the Greek Revival in particular, represented a pursuit for architectural and intellectual truth. An architect could perceive in the forms of antiquity principles of excellent reasoning and intelligence that prevailed in the rationalistic spirit of his own age, and by reinvigorating the ancient style the neoclassical architect could build buildings that were inspired by and inspired in others principles of reason and rationality. Neoclassicism and the Greek Revival conflicted with the Gothic Revival because they perceived the moral truths claimed by the Gothic revivalists as chiefly illusory and false. The Gothic Revival was, in the neo-classicist’s eyes, a decadent celebration of style over substance that elevated illusion and ornament above reason and truth. Neo-Gothic architects were seemingly content to produce endless copies and weak imitations of Gothic style merely to please frivolous aristocrats; neo-classicists however believed that their architecture was a creative act that gave birth to constantly new adaptations of the classical model. Neo-Gothic architects in turn conflicted with neoclassicism because it was cold and devoid of emotion, feeling or moral purpose; its elite attitude rendered any collaboration between the two styles most difficult. Art historians divide the Gothic Revival into two stages, and each of these stages came to represent quite different ideas. The first stage of the Gothic revival was characterized a ‘raw’ and naive imitation of Gothic architecture that lacked either an architectural philosophy or a coherent system of organization. The first building of this early type was Lord Horace Walpole’s villa Strawberry Hill which was built in 1747; another prominent early specimen was Fonthill Abbey designed and built by James Wyatt. Both of these buildings, in the spirit of Walpole’s atmospheric novel Castle of Otranto (Walpole, 2004), were attempts to preserve in stone the Romantic atmosphere of the Middle Ages; both also demonstrated perhaps more clearly than any other buildings of this time the impracticality and lack of structure of much Neo-Gothic building. This first flourishing of Neo-Gothic architecture was extended into the public sphere also: for instance in the new Houses of Parliament designed and built by Sir Charles Barry and A.W. Pugin. In America too, this nascent Neo-Gothic style was reflected in buildings such as Richard Upjohn’s Trinity Church built in New York in 1840 and Renwick’s St. Patrick’s Cathedral also built in New York. The picturesque quality and organization of many of these buildings led to applause for its Romantic splendour, but also much criticism for its lack of substance and for its unfaithful imitation of the original Gothic form. If the first stage of the Gothic Revival lacked diligent observation and restoration of Gothic architecture or philosophical principles, then serious efforts were made at the turn of the century to ground the movement more securely upon such principles. The ‘late’ period of Neo-Gothic is thus characterized by a stricter adherence to medieval architectural form and to a philosophical interpretation that viewed Gothic architecture as a paragon of moral virtue and excellence. In England two men were of foremost importance in the development of this second stage: A. Pugin and J. Ruskin. (In France, Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Due played an equally important role). By this time, architects were no longer content to merely imitate Gothic forms and designs, but sought to create original works founded upon the principles of the original Gothic architecture and which fitted to the particular circumstances of nineteenth-century society. Thus at the turn of the nineteenth-century it is possible to observe a clear evolution in the form of the Gothic Revival away from the loose sentimentality and picturesque quality of the early period and towards a style of dominated by precise architectural limitation of Gothic form as made possible by detailed and comprehensive investigations into this style. One such early investigation was John Carter’s The Ancient Architecture of England (Carter, 1795) which was the first work that recorded with extensive detail and exactitude the Gothic style of medieval buildings; Thomas Rickman’s An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (Rickman, 1817) gave an extensive account of the varieties of Gothic styles, whilst Pugin’s Specimens of Gothic Architecture (Pugin,1821) deepened and extended the range and accuracy of these initial investigations. Nonetheless, despite the great advances that had been made in the scholarship of the Gothic Revival, the actual building of Gothic buildings remained for some time in the earlier ornamental style that characterized the first period of the movement — famous examples being Windsor Castle which was restored in 1824 by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, and King’s College Cambridge in 1827to 1831. The greatest use of the Neo-Gothic style at this time was however for church buildings — the style being cheaper and easier to construct than neoclassical designs. For all the diligent and pain-staking work of the Gothic Revival scholars to come to life in actual buildings it took the skill and vision of one particular man. This man was Augustus Charles Pugin: he presented the argument that Neo-Gothic architectural style was the most fitting emblem of the spirit of the Catholic Church and so was also therefore the only permissible architectural form to express the work of Godin his Church. In Contrasts (1836) Pugin argued that architectural form imitates the condition of the society that creates it; since the society of medieval times was a paragon of virtue and moral integrity then it was natural and obvious that Gothic architecture is the most moral form of architecture. Thus in The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) Pugin was able to set down comprehensive and coherent principles for the justification of the Gothic Revival. In a major step away from the earlier decadence or the style, Pugin argued that all features and designs of a church must be essential for its correct functioning and structural shape; architecture form must be clean and purposeful since these are also the qualities that we expect of our moral condition. Pugin put this architectural philosophy into practice most assiduously in the years 1837 to 1844: in St Mary’s Church in Derby, in St. Wilfred’s Church in Manchester and in St. Oswald’s Church in Liverpool and many other church buildings. Pugin’s work quickly became an inspiration for Anglican Church reformers such as the Tractarians in Oxford who used his architectural church style as an ideal form by which to carry out their own agenda of church building restoration. It should be noted here that Pugin’s work as well as that of many other architects across Britain and Europe was profoundly influenced by the ideas of John Ruskin and his two seminal works The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (Ruskin,1854). Ruskin’s ideas were inspired by the architectural forms that he had seen in Italy and particularly in Venice; Ruskin thus argued that Gothic was the supreme form of architecture due to the ‘sacrifice’ made by stonemasons in detailing every stone of a building. Ruskin thus exalted Doge’s Palace as ‘ the central building in the world‘ (Ruskin, 1854) — arguing that Pugin’s programme of Gothic Revival in churches should be extended to government buildings also. Moreover, Ruskin himself by his teachings extended the Gothic Revival further by promoting a ‘polychromatic’ style of work inspired by Italian Gothic architecture. This work in turn inspired buildings such as Butterfield’s All Saint’s Church, Keble College in Oxford and Rugby School. In short, by the end of the eighteenth century the Gothic Revival had been transformed from what began as a Romantically inspired fondness for majestic ornamentalism, into a style of architecture grounded upon powerful moral and philosophical principles as well as an intricate and comprehensive awareness of Gothic form. The Greek Revival, a growth out of the neoclassicism movement, flourished in the years 1750-1830, and was in many ways the antithesis of the Neo-Gothic form of architecture with which it was contemporaneous. As we have seen, whatever its later manifestations, the Gothic Revival had been a product of Romanticism and of the passions and emotions; the Greek Revival, in complete contrast, exalted reason, the intellect and rationality above all else. Neoclassicism sought as its highest aim to realize architectural and intellectual purity and truth — in stark contrast to what it perceived to be the ornamentalism and illusory truth of the Neo-Gothic style. ‘Neo’-classicism was founded upon a corpus of work that had in antiquity achieved canonical status, that is, it was based upon the observation of ‘classic’ art and classic form. In the words of Crook (1995) ‘ Ideally – and neoclassicism is essentially an art of the ideal – an artist, well-schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat in a lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work ‘. In other words, neoclassicism — of which the Greek Revival was to become the most refined example — sought the highest possible levels of artistic achievement; the neo-classicist style existed only to reinterpret for contemporary circumstances the great work and principles that had already been achieved in the past. Thus, in Crook’s words (1995), ‘Neoclassicism exhibits perfect control of an idiom’ (Crook,1995); that is perfection already achieved, the architect’s task is to fit that perfection of antiquity in a modern cast. All of these above points are significant for understanding the opposition of architects of the Greek Revival against the Gothic Revival. For, in the beginning, much of Neo-Gothic architecture consisted of little more than crude and naive imitations of far superior original Gothic works. Thus in such imitation work there was no creativity and no continuation of the development of an existing idiom. Thus Neo-Gothic form was viewed by Greek revivalists as superfluous and as inferior to their own architectural pursuits. The emergence of the Greek Revival was made possible by an astonishing efflorescence of archaeological exploration into the sites and cultures of classical Rome and Greece around the middle of the eighteenth century. The discoveries of the archaeologists inspired and sustained the Greek revival. In 1719 Bernard de Montfaucon’s released his giant ten-volume opus Antiquity Explained and Represented in Diagrams (Montfaucon, 1719). This book was hugely popular and intrigued the imaginations hundreds and thousands of European tourists who began to flock to the sites of ancient Rome and Greece. Furthermore, the sensational excavations of cities like Pompeii and Herculaneum in 1748 and 1738 further fuelled the imaginations of architects, archaeologists, novelists and many others. Many other works on classical art and architecture such as Giovanni Piranesi’sPrima Parte di Architecttura, Robert Wood’s Ruins of Palmyra (1753) and Robert Adam’s Ruins of the Temple of the Emperor Diocletian (Adam’s, 1764)were soon published and led to still further thousands going on adventures to the Continent. This general interest in classical antiquity quickly transformed in the eighteenth century into a burst of fascination with Greek antiquities in particular and displayed a conviction as to the superiority of Greek above Roman architecture. The discovery of the sixth-century ruins of Paestrum received much publicity and was recorded by Italian artist Domenico Antonini and French architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot; soon afterwards Pancrazi published his seminal Antichita Siciliane and Dumont released his Ruins de Paestrum. Deeper investigation into the Greek mainland territory led James Stuart and Nicholas Revett to publish The Antiquities of Athens (StuartThe Gothic Revival And The Greek Revival

The Obsession With Vintage Clothing

order essay cheap With repeated, enhanced versions, the past is refined into something more positive than it actually was at that time. Entire decades are reduced to a few prominent images: the Nineties had grunge; the Eighties, shoulder-pads and guilt-free consumerism; the Seventies had flares, glam-rock and punk; the Sixties had the mini-skirt and free love; the Fifties, poodle skirts and the ‘housewife’ female stereotype and the Forties era had red lipstick, broad shoulders and victory rolls. As time progresses and moves forward, representations of these decades lose their definitive meaning and become romanticised by our desire to escape from the dreary elements of today. During hard times, such as the recession society is currently facing, people want to appear purposeful and we look to the Forties – a puritanical age, when in comparison with today, culture was moral and virtuous. This paper sets out to question our obsession with nostalgia through the use of vintage (and vintage-inspired) clothing which has become an increasingly popular fashion trend, and to investigate why we romanticise a grave past, disconnecting political reality from fashion and wear clothes inspired by the war-time period. Theoretical explorations will take place to determine the notion of nostalgia and to explain how this relates to post-modern culture and the cyclical nature of fashion; the recycling of styles is a phenomenon of the fashion industry, referring to the past and creating a new aesthetic. The paper will investigate particular post-modern designers today, who re-cycle ideas from the past, such as designer John Galliano. The paper will also focus on the 1940’s period in particular; reflecting on World War II and the time immediately after, analysing and questioning Dior’s romantic ‘New Look’ which occurred following such hard times. It will also compare such a time to now, discussing the way in which the fashion world is changing in style toward post-war fashions and other vintage looks, after adjusting to increasing economic pressures of Britain’s recession. The paper also sets out to highlight other severe times in history which have had an impact on fashion: for example, other wars, economic depressions or social political strife that many eras were involved in, which we romanticise and hark back to for fashion inspiration. Fashion trends tend to reflect the current economic climate. At present, Britain is witnessing a recession and as a result fashion is peering back-in-time for inspiration. Society’s way of dressing today consists of ‘quotes from other decades’, where a particular fashion trend for the 21st century has yet to be uncovered. Instead, extravagant styles are being replaced with simple, timeless pieces. Designers have realised that any new ideas they have to put forward may not be so interesting to consumers. Due to people being more financially aware, classic pieces are to be invested in which will always be fashionable – such as, the “little black dress”. Three years after Coco Chanel fashioned the little black dress, which has become the epitome of chic, came the Wall Street Crash – also known as the Great Crash, in 1929. This economic downturn was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout; the crash contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930’s and lasted for approximately 10 years. Radically simple, Chanel’s little black dress was an instant success. Widely available and only offered in black, Chanel believed fashion should be functional as well as chic. Her dress was designed to fit every woman and to conceal stains. By wearing this dress women felt that they no longer had to create the impression of great wealth. More relaxed and casual styles in fashion are increasingly apparent during times of recession or war, which is demonstrated in the periods of recession that occurred in the early 1980’s and another in the 1990’s. Economic gloom was mirrored by the black clothes and make-up of the Goth movement. Revolutionary Japanese designers Comme des Garçons, invented the “recession style” of the 1980’s. Their complex garments were constructed from black fabric and were designed to shroud the body rather than flaunt it – unlike the body-con styles seen earlier during the corporate “power dressing” period, before the recession ensued. Designer Rei Kawakubo of Comme des Garcons, said of his work: ‘I try to make clothes that are new, that didn’t exist before, and hope that people get energy and feel positive when they wear them. I believe that creativity is an essential part of life.’ Consumers became more self-conscious and as a result the fashion trend ‘grunge’ emerged in the 1990’s, which signified the appropriate rejection of the conspicuous consumption that characterised the previous decade. Black appears to be a dominant colour during periods of recession. Considering the economic collapse we are experiencing at the moment, previous to which, bright colours dominated trend colour palettes: ‘the global recession is marked by the return of black as a major fashion trend’ A portrait by Spanish artist, Diego Velázquez, during the 17th century depicts King Philip IV of Spain, shown circa 1656, is portrayed wearing a plain black tunic. During King Phillip’s reign, Spain suffered a decline as a European superpower. Furthermore, during the 18th century when France’s bankruptcy and revolution occurred, Marie Antoinette’s infamous frivolous dressing was replaced with austere black. Dark colours of dress are usually considered to be associated with formal wear, serious and business-like attitudes or occasions, for example, mourning clothes at funerals. They also appear during times of depression and war. Famous for his flamboyant use of colour, designer Christian Lacroix’s autumn/winter 2008 collection saw a vision of black. Lacroix states that ‘black is like a mask’ and this current shift back to black holds a sensibility toward a new minimalism. Similar to the grunge period of the nineties, this return to an austere colour palette – arguably an absence of colour – sees a decidedly sharper edge in terms of design and cut, with hints toward the power dressing trend of the eighties. Lacroix said of his collection: ‘The new pureness of lines centered on cut rather than decoration, the laser geometry of shapes and silhouettes are all maybe signs of a graphic protection linked unconsciously to recession, just like at the end of the ’80s.’ Leatrice Eiseman, executive director of the Pantone Colour Institute, suggested that black is always the colour people rely on most often in times of hardship, especially with regard to more expensive items. Furthermore, Eiseman states that wearing black is also a psychological matter: ‘it’s also the colour people wrap themselves in to become impervious to the outside world. It’s a security blanket’ However, like Chanel, designer Narciso Rodriguez believes that black is considered to be more of: ‘ a reflection of practicality and reality’ rather than of disposition. The avant-garde fashion of the 1990’s was thrifty recycling and wearing outfits from charity shops. These were then mixed with designer pieces for a dressed down, ‘poor’ look, which was ‘notional rather than actual’. The grunge style soon evolved into ‘boho chic’ which is still apparent in fashion today. Another recycled fashion trend is the frugal concept of ‘make do and mend’, which was popular during the war period of the 1940’s, consisting of the reparation and adaptation of clothing. This notion of recycling can be observed today in a society, aware of their financial funds, where there is a personal limitation on purchasing fashion items. The main flow of contemporary fashion is revivalism: many of today’s fashions are inspired by the past; for example 1980’s fashion is mainstream, with the appearance of prominent shoulders, leggings and skinny jeans; and the previous summer saw a return to the Ancient Roman gladiator sandal. Marxist political theorist, Frederic Jameson, who is best known for his analysis of contemporary cultural trends, suggests that: ‘in a world in which stylistic innovation is no longer possible, all that is left is to imitate dead styles.’ Jameson implies there is a profound lack and exhaustion of progress and originality in fashion, although it could be argued that it is simply a return to the past but given a new and creative perspective. German philosopher, sociologist and literary critic, Walter Benjamin, interpreted the modern age as a ‘time of Hell’, in which he saw fashion in constant repetition: ‘what is newest doesn’t change; that this ‘newest’ in all its pieces keeps remaining the same.’ However, once the economy starts to recuperate, new fashions will emerge. At present it is too precarious for designers to spend vast amounts of money and time on creating garments which the consumer may not purchase because they think the style is too avant-garde. The recession has brought on a rise in second hand clothing and changes in style toward post-war fashions. Currently, fashion is witnessing a revival of the refined glamour of the wartime period – with sharp shoulder styles, demure hemlines and cinched-in womanly waists. The forties saw dresses inspired by the Roman toga, producing a classically derived dress, and the ‘classic’ style we talk of today. It was essential that a new style of fashion developed to lift morale during such grim times and the purity of classical styles provided the inspiration. Garments began to be referred to as ‘classic’ in the 1980’s, when the term was heavily used. The term suggests a ‘piece of outstanding design’, which is considered elegant and practical – the essence of classic style. Forties-style fashion is considered popular due to its inherent elegance, quality of cut, sewing, colour and silhouettes of that era – a time when clothes were made by proper dressmakers and it was considered to be a true profession which was well-paid, unlike the mass produced clothing which dominates fashion retail today. Although we have the impression that garments were constructed in a better quality, nowadays we have better technology and a superior development in textiles; therefore one would presume we now produce far improved quality garments. So is this just a romanticism of the past? To romanticise is to: ‘deal with or describe in an idealized or unrealistic fashion; make (something) seem better or more appealing than it really is.’ This is true of fashion; we dwell on the past and look back with a soft focus – everything seems better back then. We find comfort in romanticising bygone eras by wearing clothes from previous decades: ‘knowing our emulation of days gone by will transport us, wardrobe-wise at least, to somewhat gentler times’ Frederic Jameson is supportive of this notion, having said that society approaches: ‘the “past” through stylistic connotation, conveying “pastness” by the glossy qualities of the image, and the “1930s-ness” or “1950s-ness” by the attributes of fashion’. Jameson is implying that we look back through rose tinted glasses with a distorted view of the past. We nostalgically recall only the positive aspects of the past and not a: ‘”representation” of historical content’ British literary theorist, Terry Eagleton, explains that these positive connotations given to the past, sells an imaginary and stereotypical ideal; which conceals or suppresses social difference: ‘obscuring social reality in ways convenient to itself. Such `mystification’, as it is commonly known, frequently takes the form of masking or suppressing social conflicts, from which arises the conception of ideology as an imaginary resolution of real contradictions.’ The term ‘nostalgia’ was first used in the 1970’s in the same meaning as today. The concepts of ‘beautiful old time’, childhood and yearning can be associated with it. Similar to nostalgia, ‘romanticising’ the past it is a: ‘sentimental recollection: a mixed feeling of happiness, sadness, and longing when recalling a person, place, or event from the past, or the past in general’ A romantic notion could be considered “inspiration”, free from all connotations, or could this be deemed ignorant? To some the conscious choice to wear vintage clothing can be considered disrespectful and inconsiderate; to others it could be considered as an appreciation of positive aspects of the past and admiration of the women that managed to appear so controlled and glamorous in these harsh times. It could be disputed that times of war and depression should not be a sartorial source of inspiration. However, it could also be argued that there should be a disconnection of clothing from context; clothing is clothing – it should be considered acceptable to be inspired by anything. Fashion designer Louise Gray is inspired by the rave culture and ravers at their peak – on drugs, drinking alcohol and attending raves. To dress in Gray’s clothing does not necessarily mean the consumer supports or has positive associations with this culture. Designer Karl Lagerfeld, became the inspiration for his own collection in autumn 2008, for his own handbag and luggage range. The products were created with identifiable details of the designer, such as: zips in the shape of cravats; handles inspired by his trademark sunglasses and woven ‘K’s’ on leather clutch bags. Although the collection was inspired by himself – a man – for women to wear; the consumer does not necessarily desire to be a man. The designs are taken out of context, which is what is done with past fashions, such as those from the 1940’s, where the harsh realities and connotations of that time are forgotten. It could be argued that these nostalgic, vintage-fashions, have emerged not only as a trend based on styles from different bygone eras, but also on an aesthetic, for a society that seeks to recapture the values and morals associated with that time. Romanticising the past and nostalgia are terms of personal and collective feeling; it is unusual for those today to wear vintage fashions of the 1940’s, who never lived at that time and so did not experience what life was actually like: ‘By seeing images in the public sphere, it is possible for many members of society to feel nostalgia for times which they did not have any personal experiences.’ Postmodern photographer Matthew Rolsten, produces images which appear to be ‘caught in another era’. Rolsten believes by borrowing from the past and identifying pictures to images of the past, this provides his work with: ‘a lot of power today. It’s like getting into symbols that people resonate with’ By the millennium, vintage garments were – and still continue to be – very popular in fashion, this trend for vintage soon became commercialised: ‘ancient ‘frocks’ that would have cost £1 now cost thousands.’ Vintage garments are considered nostalgic items, due to the history they behold and the stories behind them of their previous ownership. Vintage clothing creates a personal attachment and feeling with the wearer. The concept of each garment having its own history could also relate to the fact that each style has its own history and belongs to the past. Fashion today is: ‘characterised by the extent to which it exists within the shadow of its own past.’ Revolutionary, postmodern fashion designer Hussein Chalayan further explains: ‘The garment is a ghost of all the multiple lives it may have had. Nothing is shiny and new; everything has a history. . . A ’60s dress gets cut away to reveal its past as a medieval dress. A Victorian corset gets cut away to reveal a modern jersey vest. A ’30s dress gets cut away to reveal its past as an Edwardian dress. The design is a wish or a curse that casts the garment and its wearer into a time warp through historical periods, like a sudden tumble through the sediment of an archaeological dig.’ It could be argued that individuals can disconnect themselves from the meaning and context of things, such as clothes, which can be detached from their historical and political nuances and utilised in a modern setting. There is a sense of ‘hegemony’ in fashion. The term ‘hegemony’ possesses many different connotations, which is the definitive of postmodernism – embracing all opinions and not just seeing one explanation for everything. With regards to art and design, hegemony can suggest no further progress can be made – there is exhaustion in styles and it is thought to be increasingly more difficult to invent new fashions. The club scene of the 1980’s and underground youth style magazines such as The Face and ID, blurred the boundaries between club culture, street fashion and designer fashion. This subversive culture represented freedom of style and helped to develop hegemony. Those supportive of this underground youth culture believed that fashion should not be mainstream. Hegemony can be considered violent, savage and uncivilised. There are no boundaries, standards or rules. There is no good, nor bad. It could be argued that there is a feeling of meaninglessness – where a sense of place and historical function is lost. It is said that designers can: ‘cherry-pick influences, with no regard to cultural strictures or historical accuracy.’ Fashion designers could therefore be described as: ‘eclectic ‘borrowers’, throwing wide their nets in search of inspiration.’ Japanese fashion designer, Kenzo Takada, who in the early seventies, was inspired by national dress and specific costume elements from various parts of the world, would mix these international influences and interpret and assimilate them into a peaceful internationalism, in a style perceived more radical than other designers. Of his work, Kenzo said: ‘It pleases me when people say I have influence. But I am influenced by the world that says I influence it. The world I live in is my influence.’ Frederic Jameson suggests that hegemony, with reference to architecture, creates a sense of excessive stimulation: ‘postmodern architecture, which randomly and without principle but with gusto cannibalizes all the architectural styles of the past and combines them in overstimulating ensembles.’ Although referring to architecture, the same can be said with contemporary fashion, where eclectic combinations of dress have become too extreme. The diverse blend of styles ‘has become endemic’ which could be argued to be a negative aspect: ‘when everything is allowed, nothing actually seems outrageous any more’ Nothing seems to be too controversial, for a society which has seen and done it all. Hegemony initiated the emergence of retro styles. Retro is the designation of the style of an earlier time, and is a term used to describe culturally outdated or aged trends from the overall postmodern past, but have since that time become recently fashionable again. Currently, retro style is witnessing a revival, with many new products emerging with a retro look. Retro styling is said to regard the recent past with an ‘unsentimental nostalgia’ which is not associated with tradition, avoids historical accuracy and does not attempt to ‘reinforce social values’. Fredric Jameson has suggested that as society has developed, new means have been found to inform itself of its own history; retro has allowed society to come to terms with the modern past: ‘in the postmodern age, we no longer tell ourselves our history in that fashion, but also because we no longer experience it that way, and, indeed, perhaps no longer experience it at all.’ A sense of place is lost and the original historical function becomes meaningless. Tradition is re-invented and garments are worn in a different social and historical context: ‘A single style can no longer dominate in the post-modern period. Instead there is a constant attempt to recreate atmosphere. In the fantasy culture of the 1980s there is no real history, no real past; it is replaced by an instant, magical nostalgia, a strangely unmotivated appropriation of the past’ However this can be perceived to some, as a form of liberation. Consequently, hegemony can be looked at in a more positive view, as the play of: identity; body image; shape; freedom of style; and awareness of other cultures – where a sense of excitement and stimulation can be found. Society is relaxed now and therefore hierarchies and boundaries are also relaxed; as a result: ‘Everything then becomes play; nothing is serious.’ Wearing a look inspired by the past is a romantic way of dressing, a fantasy look – comparable to a costume, which is frequently observed in postmodern design. By adopting this ‘costume’, a new, other, persona is formed which creates a sense of liberation from the dreary elements of today. People turn to fashion, or other forms of entertainment, in order to escape their everyday burdens and fears, as was seen with the film industry during the Great Depression. French literary theorist philosopher, critic and semiotician, Roland Barthes, acknowledged that a woman dreams: ‘of being at once herself and another’ Barthes’ work extended over many fields and he influenced the development of schools of theory including structuralism, semiotics, existentialism and social theory. When referring to fashion muses as a source of inspiration, he believed that they created an illusion: ‘of a quasi-infinite richness of the person’ Meaning they provide fashion with an artificial personality: this can be said of nostalgia – where dressing in past fashions is akin to a fantasy. Consumers look to the past to obtain an artificial appearance as a form of escapism. Designer Vivienne Westwood is said to produce clothes which possess whimsical qualities. Fashion historian, Jane Mulvagh has said Westwood’s garments provide women with: ‘an ironic mask with which she can project many personae and behind which she can hide her vulnerabilities and even her ordinariness’ The ‘mask’ Mulvagh speaks of suggests Westwood’s designs allow women to escape from themselves and “become” another person, as if acting as someone else. Like Westwood, revolutionary designer Alexander McQueen referred to historical periods for inspiration but combined them in ironic postmodern constructions. Recently deceased, McQueen, entered the fashion industry when England was in a recession during the 1980’s. McQueen said positively of periods of recession: “I think it’s a great time for new growth.” McQueen, who was renowned for his enchanting, fairy-tale-like catwalk shows, said in addition: “In times of recession, I think fashion is escapism, it’s sort of a luxury sort of escapism.” Designer Narcisso Rodriquez disagrees, having said: ‘When times get tough, people want things that are real and lasting.’ Dressing in vintage fashions, such as those associated with the 1940’s period, could be said to be a form of escapism due to their ‘costume’ connotations, but also in agreement with Rodriquez’ comment, where clothes from that period were well made, and made to last. Experimental and innovative designer, John Galliano, also believes in fashion as a form of escapism: ‘I want fashion to be beautiful, escapist, aspirational. Fairy godmothers are hard to come by so let me tell you: you shall go to the ball! Make life more of a fantasy and more of the story you imagined.’ Galliano led the way in the mid-eighties with his historically influenced designs. His fascination for period detailing and adaptation of traditional styles into highly contemporary pieces is evident throughout his work. Past styles are often updated by contemporary designers by exaggerating traditional traits of glamour, producing looks which ‘fetishise femininity or luxury’. Galliano believes that by learning from the past, fashion can continue to progress; he draws on the past for inspiration and represents it as the future. Galliano’s creativity is: ‘born not out of the love of the modern, but of the antique.’ Although criticised by many as merely copying previous styles, and thought of as exploitation of the past by some, drawing on the past for inspiration is a common practice with countless fashion designers. Compared to other contemporary designers, John Galliano has progressed more of an historical element, with an acute eye, which is seen within his collections. Galliano, whose talent stemmed from an obsession with history, has demonstrated that historicism does not necessarily have to be channelled through the use of costume. By taking inspiration from the past, he is also creating a new vision where there is a fusion of historical aspects merged with the modern. Innovative fashion is said to emerge during bad times, such as periods of war and recession. Regarded as one of the most influential fashion designers of the late 1940’s and 1950’s, Dior dominated fashion after World War II with ‘a full blown romantic nostalgia’, through the use of the classic hourglass silhouette of his opulent ‘New Look’. Dior’s collection was received with excitement by post-war women of that era, where society desired newness and innovative change, after so many years of war, brutality, shortages and hardship. The new fashion was a dramatic change from the wartime austerity styles where clothing was predominantly for function only. The romantic collection was reminiscent of the ‘Belle Epoque’ ideal of long skirts, cinched-in waists and luxurious fabrics; and other traditional signs of femininity. Following the rationing of fabric, Dior’s lavish use of material was bold and shocking, as his designs would utilise many metres of fabric; this was frowned upon by both the UK and USA governments and society was discouraged from wearing such extravagant clothes which “wasted” fabric. During WWII, women had replaced the role of men in the work place and they were sent to labour on farms and work in factories, whilst the men were away at war. Once the war had finished, women were expected to return to their previous passive housewife roles, leaving their new employment open for the returning soldiers. The approved paradigm of post-war womanhood was that of the domestic housewife, where women’s priorities were home-making and creating a perfect family life image. The fifties was an ‘aggressively positive decade’ and the fashions of this period reflected this. The ‘New Look’ represented the beginning of a tremendous cultural shift, predominantly because it reinvented fashion after the Second World War. New fabrics, brighter colour palettes and patterns began to appear. Glorification of the female figure was an innovative development in fashion.

Slaves and Slavery in Ancient Rome Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Main text Conclusion Works cited Introduction The revolt of slaves under the direction of Spartacus 73-71 BC is considered the most significant event of the period of crisis of the Roman republican regime in the first century DC and is estimated as the brightest display of class struggle in an antiquity. Main text Spartacus was born in Thrace (modern Bulgaria). Antique authors give inconsistent data on its life. According to one source, he was a prisoner of war, he has got in slavery and has been sent to the school of gladiators at Capua. “Spartacus, a Thracian by birth, who had once served as a soldier with the Romans, but had since been a prisoner and sold for a gladiator, and was in the gladiatorial training school at Capua, persuaded about seventy of his comrades to strike for their own freedom rather than for the amusement of spectators” (Appian, The Civil Wars, I. 1ll; 116-121). Under the other version, Spartacus served as the mercenary in the Roman army, and then he ran and, on having been taken prisoner, has been given in gladiators. Spartacus was famous for his physical strength, dexterity, and boldness, he skillfully used the weapon. For his capabilities he has received freedom and became the teacher of fencing at gladiatorial school. Spartacus had the huge authority among gladiators school at Capua, and later among the rebelled slaves of Ancient Rome. The greatest in the Ancient world revolt of slaves had under itself the favorable circumstances. Wars have flooded Italy with slaves of various ethnic groups: Gauls, germen, inhabitants of Asia and Syria. The revolt in Italy governed by the Thracian gladiator in 73 “proved to be the catalyst to a major attack on Sulla’s constitutional arrangements” (Shotter, 1994, p. 50). The main mass of slaves has been involved in agriculture and was in the heaviest conditions. The life of the Roman slaves because of their severe conditions of life was rather short However, it did not really worried slaveholders, as victorious campaigns of the Roman army provided uninterrupted deliveries of cheap slaves on slave markets. If to consider city slaves it is possible to say that on special positions there were gladiators. Any festival did not pass without gladiatorial performances in Ancient Rome that epoch. Well-skilled and trained gladiators came to the arena in order on joy of thousand Roman citizens to kill each other. There were special schools where physically strong slaves trained in gladiatorial art. One of the most known schools of gladiators was in the province Campaign, in the city of Capua. In arenas mostly battled the condemned criminals from the slaves. It was the lowest social class, people deprived of civil rights. Basically there were Gauls and Thracians, not without reason considered in Rome as aggressive and rebellious people. “At this time, gladiatorial combat was becoming increasingly popular at Rome because of its close association with the ideology of Roman power, as ambitious politicians sought to manipulate spectacles in the arena to demonstrate their political and military authority to the Roman masses” (Futrell, 1997, 29-33). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is not inconceivable that the certain percent from them made prisoners of war, who only recently have lost their freedom, and have not got used to slavery. In such conditions for the revolt they needed only the leader, and Spartacus has became it, being born leader and organizer, brave and courageous man. The revolt of slaves in Ancient Rome has begun that the group of slave-gladiators (nearby 70 persons) ran from the school at Capua after disclosing of the plot and has found a refuge at the top of the volcano Vesuvius. Fugitives have become stronger at remote mountain top, having transformed it in military camps. To the beginning of 73 BC the group of Spartacus has quickly grown up to 10 thousand persons. Numbers of the risen gladiators every day were filled up with ran away slaves, gladiators, poor peasants of the province Campaign, deserters from the Roman legions. Spartacus sent small groups on neighboring estates, everywhere releasing slaves and taking Roman’s weapons and foodstuff away. Soon the whole Campaign, except for the cities protected by strong fortifications, has appeared in hands of the risen slaves. Soon Spartacus gained a number of convincing victories over the Roman armies, which tried to suppress the revolt of slaves and to destroy its participants. Spartacus has shown excellent organizing capabilities, having transformed an army of the risen slaves in well-organized army on the sample of the Roman legions. The army of the risen slaves had high moral spirit and discipline. We almost do not know anything about other heads of powerful revolt of slaves in Ancient Rome. In the history were kept only the names of Crixus and Oenomaus, two most likely germen, who have been selected by the risen gladiators in assistants to Spartacus and became military leaders of his army. It is possible to agree with Gruen (1974, p. 20), who claimed that It was not the governing class alone “that would react in horror to the prospect of a slave insurrection. Whatever the grievances of men disenfranchised and dispossessed by Sulla, they would have found unthinkable any common enterprise with Thracian or Gallic slaves. It causes no surprise that Marxist historians and writers have idealized Spartacus as a champion of the masses and leader of the one genuine social revolution in Roman history. That, however, is excessive. Spartacus and his companions sought to break the bonds of their own grievous oppression. There is no sign that they were motivated by ideological considerations to overturn the social structure”. Spartacus revolt has deeply shaken Ancient Rome and it slaveholding regime it has entered into the world history as the largest revolt of slaves at all times. This revolt has accelerated transition of the government in Rome from the republican form of board to imperial one. Created by Spartacus military organization has appeared so strong, that for a long time could resist with success to perfect Roman army. The image of Spartacus has found wide reflection in world fiction and art. “Since the eighteenth century, popular versions of the story of Spartacus have been inspired by his “age-old fight for freedom,” but have typically concentrated on private conflicts and family drama, interpreting his political importance through a personal lens” (Joshel, Malamud,

Cuyamaca College Childhood Trauma and The Barriers It Creates Paper

Cuyamaca College Childhood Trauma and The Barriers It Creates Paper.

Step 1: Watch!Please watch the two videos below. As you watch, try to connect the information provided with our class discussion on education and your own experiences. It might help you to take notes as you watch. Step 2: Respond! Then, answer the following questions in journal form (remember that I am the only one who will be able to see your answers). What did you learn from the videos about the relationship between childhood trauma and one’s ability to learn?What were your reactions as you watched? Were you surprised? Did you find yourself agreeing or disagreeing? Can you connect something from your own childhood that could be considered traumatic and could therefore have become a barrier to your ability to learn? What happened (share only as much as you are comfortable sharing).There is no minimum word count for these questions, but I ask that you do your best to provide as detailed an answer as you can. Please reply to each question individually. Grading: This is a journal assignment, meant for encourage you to think about and reflect on our first unit. You will receive full points as long as you answer all of the homework questions with as much detail as you can and submit your homework to Canvas.
Cuyamaca College Childhood Trauma and The Barriers It Creates Paper