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WORKPLACE MOTIVATIONSLP Assignment Overview A 2014 study by Judge and Papata found that all personality traits are more predictive of job performance when the work was performed in an unstructured env

In addition, the study found that employees’ traits also indicated how they would act in a situation because of those same traits. You took a test about your own personality traits for the Case Assignment in Module 1. Did you find that the results were what you expected? Most people find that they are generally correct but they all have a surprise or two. Did you know that if you were to wait an hour and retake the test that your results would be different? This is because, as you read your first test results, you rationalize why the findings were correct or incorrect and then you try to change up your answers in an attempt to change your results. If you were to take the test after a much longer period of time after taking it the first time, your results may also be different. This is because your frame of mind when taking a test also impacts the answers you select! To combat people changing their answers to get a “better” result, test designers reframe questions in several ways, inserting multiple ways to ask the same question. Some test takers are bothered by the repetition of questions, most likely because they do not realize it is done intentionally. If they were to list all of the repeat questions, though, they would find that each is written differently from the others. SLP Assignment In Module 1, you learned about personality characteristics and how those characteristics affected your behaviors as am employee (and in life in general). In the Module 2 SLP assignment, you will take another test, but this one is about what motivates you. Please take the test at this site (or another site of your choice, or do both tests for comparison of results): For this SLP assignment, after completing the test about what motivates you, address the following questions related to topics covered in this Module in a paper that is 2-3 pages, not counting the cover and reference list pages. Note that when the assignment calls for a submission of 2-3 pages, this means the professor is hoping for three pages but is willing to accept two as long as those are two full pages. • What are your top three most important needs, according to the test? • How do you satisfy these needs? • Are your needs the same at home as they are at work? • How do your needs affect your motivation to do well in life? • What motivates you to get up every day and go to work? Then, meet with your best friend, a trusted manager, or a coworker who know you well, and discuss the results of your motivation test. Write about the results of your personality test and your answers to the above five questions. Having met with your selected trusted person, is how you see yourself the same as how they see you? In the final submission of this SLP assignment, include a paragraph of at least 150 words (or ½ page double-spaced) covering the highlights of your discussion with that person. (This is in addition to your responses to the five questions above.) (If you are not currently working, you can select a family member, friend, neighbor, or someone else who knows you well to complete this part of the assignment.)
Activity questions After you have read the section ‘Estimating Magnitude’ (Chapter 1 or in Appendix): 1. What is the purpose of magnitude estimation? 2. Describe the procedure for a magnitude estimation experiment for estimating the relationship between a stimulus (line length) and perception. 3. What is a power function? What does the exponent of a power function indicate about how perceived magnitude increases with stimulus intensity? How is this related to how the senses are adapted to the environment? 4. In Steven’s Power Law P = (K)Sn. Imagine K = 1, calculate P when S = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and n = 3. What is the relationship between P and S? Is it linear? Does this demonstrate response compression or response expansion? Once again, make sure you answer using your own words. Do not quote from the text. Do not copy from the text. Your answer should be around 300-400 words. Discussion board questions This week, we are discussing and assessing a theory of how vision works: the information processing model or computational theory of the mind. This theory conceives of minds as software and brains as hardware. In other words, it says that the brain takes in information from the outside world through receptors, processes that information according to some program or algorithm, and the result is an output: some behavior, perception, or cognition. If this is how the mind works, then it would suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) is possible. We can create computers that can think and perceive as we think and perceive. However, philosopher of mind John Searle has famously argued in his Chinese Room argument against what is called strong AI (as opposed to weak AI). No computer, Searle argues, will ever be able to perceive or experience the world as human beings do. He discusses this with AI engineer Igor Aleksander on the radio show on artificial intelligence we are listening to this week. They have quite different views on the future of artificial intelligence. First: What is the information processing theory or the computational theory of how the mind works? (Hint: Look at the Palmer chapter in Course Materials, listen to the radio show, and watch the videos) Second: What do Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Brooks think about the computational theory of mind (see the YouTube videos under Course Material)? Do they think it can explain everything about how the mind works? If not, what can it not explain? Third: Compare and contrast Searle’s and Aleksander’s opinion in the BBC Radio 4 show. Who do you find yourself agreeing with? Why? Fourth: What is meant by weak AI and strong AI? Do you think strong AI is possible? Why? Why not? Make sure you refer to the material covered in class this week in your answers to these questions. Important: You must have done the reading, engaged with the material, and researched this subject before you answer. Your original post (excluding your responses to classmates) should be around 500 words (again, that is roughly 2 sides, double-space, 12 pt. Times New Roman on Microsoft Word). Do not post a word document, but make sure you post in the space provided.
Accounting Conservatism and Risk Taking Decisions. Introduction Manager is in a position of Captain in Charge in ship of the Organization, so that to make organization more beautiful Manager has duty to make an important decision on Corporate Investment. These types of decisions create Agency Problems because of the time interest differences between manager and shareholder. This research is carried out to understand how conservatism accounting reduces agency problems, and examines the effect of conservatism on manager’s high risk investment decision. This research also examine that whether accounting conservatism solves the misalignment of interest between managers and organization through increasing hurdle rates used by managers during project selections, and sheds lights on literature attempting to identify the relation between accounting conservatism and manager’s investment decisions. Motivation A study was conducted by Givoly and Hayn (2000), Beatty et al. (2008), and Khan and Watts in 2009, to measure accounting conservatism and firm’s characteristics such as size, leverage, and market-to-book ratio. They found evidences to support their hypothesis that accounting conservatism improves firms’ investment efficiency. According to Khan and Watts managers’ investment hurdle rates and induces conservative investment decisions are significantly increase under conservatism accounting, even when the agency problems are more severe this effect is more pronounced. According to the positive accounting theory accounting conservatism plays very effective role in the roll contracting process. Corporate investment is an important decision, but this decision are not always made in the best interest of shareholders, so many time manager invest in a risky and even negative net present value projects just because of their personal interest in of investment. Accounting conservatism is a reporting mechanism which reflects accountant’s trend to require lower threshold to recognise bad news than good news. Accounting conservatism helps to improve corporate investment by preventing investment in high risk or unsuccessful investment projects by early terminations of such projects. This early terminations of projects reduces managers compensation and increases managers interest of job turnover. If manager is rational to predict the accelerated recognition of losses, and the timely termination of unsuccessful projects, they will be more cautious to make the investment decisions. (Francis and Martin (2010) and Bushman et al. (2007)) The increased cautiousness to invest will be reflected in the hurdle rate, which used to evaluate an investment project. In theory, hurdle rate is as equals as the cost of capital; managers should not take decision to invest in a project if the return is lower than the cost of financing. Indeed hurdle rate is observed to be either lowers than the cost of capital in practice, because of managerial discretion. The result of the study state that Corporate governance role have established the roll of accounting conservatism in resolving information asymmetry, reducing agency costs, and improving debt contracting efficiency. (Ball (2001), Ball and Shivakumar (2005)) Literature Review There are many research has been carried out in about the relation of the accounting conservatism and manager’s risk taking decision. Ahmed and Zhang, 2009 found that accounting conservatism reduces information imbalance between lenders and borrowers, and also reduces cost of capital for borrowers. They also found that if conservatism cause financially constrained firms to under investment than the relation between conservatism and firm’s future performance will negative. On the other hand reduce overinvestment problem for financially constrained firms, than the relation will be expected positive. Another research carried out by Leuz (2001) and Guay and Vierrecchia (2006) and found that accounting conservatism force manager to avoid positive NPV projects, because Impaired incentives created for managers if gains not recognize timely untimely gain recognition, and manager force to avoid those types of positive projects. In particular, if gains are not recognize timely than manager will responsible for investment for those project, and may no longer be in the office by the time gains are realized. This is because always expect their future incentive rate higher in long term, than the firms required rate of return. If gains recognise by timely than even positive NPV for shareholder became negative for manager. Accounting conservatism increases corporate investment efficiency in two ways. First is, by timelier incorporating bad news into earnings, accounting conservatism inform the board’s investigation of the unsuccessful investment project that may lead to its early abandonment, saving shareholders from unexpected future losses (Watts 2003). On the other hand, the expected personal costs related to project such as compensation, reputation and career concerns would increase managers’ cautiousness in choosing investment projects at the outset. Extant studies by Ball and Shivakumar, 2005; Francis and Martin, 2010 believe that accounting conservatism can restrain managers to investing in negative NPV projects by accelerated loss recognition. In addition, if managers recognise ex ante about failure of particular project, they should record losses timely, because it will affect to their reputation and income as well, so manager should postpone investing in those project. Furthermore, Roychowdhury (2010) found that risky projects are mostly become negative projects, therefor managers try to avoid risky projects due to timely loss recognition, because it creates also risk-averse, even if the projects have profitability to shareholders. If managers know that the project is have many risks of failure, manager have to write losses more timely before failure of project, because manager’s reputation income linked with compensation will be affected by it, so that manager avoid to involve to invest in those projects, even though projects are profitable. Smith and Watts 1992; Kwon and Yin 2006 found that, firms with higher growth opportunities prefer to assets have higher contracting costs, because growth opportunities are often intangible in nature, so that information related to them are likely less verifiable. Therefore, managers have greater unrestricted power, and are more likely to manage earnings through accruals, so that agency costs are higher in high-growth firms. Furthermore high growth firms are more likely to have more volatile returns and higher probability of lawsuits, which creates a higher demand of accounting conservatism (Khan and Watts, 2009). Empirically, we use book-to-market ratio (an inverse measure of growth opportunity) to measure the growth opportunity of firms. Driver and Temple (2010) found that, if the manager is aware of the embedded risk a hurdle rate that is higher than the cost of capital will be used by the irreversibility of the investment project. Corporate investment is efficient in the situation where internal funds flow gives the highest returns from investment project. However, managers deviate from the optimal level of investment, because of dysfunctional investment incentives (Stein et al. 2003). These dysfunctional incentives can be reflected in the hurdle rates used to select projects. Finance textbooks state that managers should benchmark the investment return to the cost of capital, so that with the project with lower returns than the cost of capital are rejected. In addition, managers use hurdle rates which sometimes higher or lower against the cost of capital, it depends on the managerial incentives invest. Consistent with Hayn (2000),andWatts (2003), They found that both not only firm with goodwill purchased but also without goodwill have increasing trend in conservatism over time. Indeed He argue that lach of information will limit managers to random affect to recognize impairment losses agains their advantage timely. The following hypotheses are proposed for this study: H1 Accounting conservatism improves firms’ investment efficiency. H2 Accounting conservatism helps manager to recognize bad news timely. H3 Accounting consarvitism accelerates terminations of successful projects. H4 Accounting conservatism can restrain managers to investing in negative NPV projects by accelerated loss recognition. To testing hypothisese Basu’s (1997) used measure of conditional conservatism, because of theverification standerds of the hypotheses of recognizing bad newsand good news assumsions. (Richardson, 2006; Denis and Sibikov, 2010) they also examine relation between accounting conservatism with the component of investments by ussing total investments and changes in firm capital. This study conclued that accounting conservatism is an important monitoring and contracting mechanism, and its helps manger to recognize bad news timely,so that manager could increase their managerial interest regarding project. Indeed accounting conservatism accelerates terminations of unsuccessful projects, also study found that conservative accounting increases hurdle rates, in addition conservatism changes hurdle rate because it reducing the future financial cost rather than by increasing the efficiency of contracting with the managers. We also find conservatism adds value to firms. This study also sheds lights on relation between accounting conservatism and managers’ investment decisions. The study also show that the accounting conservatism negatively correlate investment and firms future operating performance. Accounting Conservatism and Risk Taking Decisions

Art History Paper

Art History Paper.

Process:Choose one object covered in Weeks 2-4. Late Antiquity, Islamic, Byzantine, early medieval, Carolingian, or Ottonian. I highly suggest to use this: Saint Matthew from the Ebbo Gospels(Gospel Book of the Archbishop of Reims)Write a visual analysis in which you analyze the artwork using the three forms of analysis: formal, historical and contextual. Format:Your NameTyped, 12pt. font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, 1-in. marginsAn image and image citation: Artist’s Last name, First Name, title of the artwork, date, medium, size, name of museum or location, city, URL.3 pages of text, which include:Formal AnalysisHistorical AnalysisContextual AnalysisMLA or Chicago Citations for more information see OWL PurdueBibliography- minimum requirement is 2 sourcesExample:See “Visual Analysis Example.pdf” in Assignment on MoodleGrading:See: “Grading Rubric” on Moodle or Shared Google Drive.Note: You should edit your paper carefully for correct spelling and grammar.
Art History Paper

Colorado Technical The Manufacturing Process Operations Management Discussion

research paper help Colorado Technical The Manufacturing Process Operations Management Discussion.

Within the Discussion Board area, write 200-300 words that respond to the following with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. Using what you learned in the game module, please explain the following aspects of a production process:Provide an overview of what a manufacturing process is and how it is organized. Explain the concepts of setup time, utilization time, production scheduling, and bottlenecks in a simple manufacturing process and what the role of the operations manager is.Respond to at least 2 of your fellow classmates with at least a 100-word reply about their Primary Task Response regarding items you found to be compelling and enlightening. To help you with your discussion, please consider the following questions:Keep comments positiveWhat did you learn from your classmate’s posting?What additional questions do you have after reading the posting? What clarification do you need regarding the posting? What differences or similarities do you see between your posting and other classmates’ postings? post 1 JJThe manufacturing process is turning raw good and materials into a finished products for customers in the least amount of time and for max profit and low cost. The job of the operations manager is to come up with ideas to help maximize the manufacturing process. It is important to always be thinking about how you can speed up with your production and also cut out any unnecessary cost. Your set up time is the amount of time that it takes to change a machine from the last part of a production to the next production part. Your utilization time it he amount of time that a production machine is being used. Production scheduling in organizing your productions orders in a way the the material can flow the fastest through the production process. This is key at my work, when we have poor production scheduling we produce about 50% less products than we do when we have good scheduling. Bottlenecks are the slow down in production that happen there is things like poor moral at work, mechanical issues, poor scheduling , and supply overstock. There are many things through the production process that can cause a bottleneck effect and slow everything down. Post 2 KCThe time the employees take to prepare the machine for the production process before beginning the actual production is the set-up time. The time taken to change a machine from the final part of the production to the first stage of production is the set-up time for repetitive processes. Set-up time is normally considered as part of the production time. In the automobile industry, the set-up time is usually one to one and a half hours. The building of a car often starts with the recycling of scrap metals. For a company to meet its deadlines in supply chain management, it must ensure that it keeps its set-up time at the minimum. This also reduces the labor costs that are incurred (Aguilar, 2011).In the manufacturing process, the utilization time is defined as the total amount of time a machine is used to produce the goods. The utilization rate is found by taking the amount of time that a machine works by hours set aside for production. It reveals the efficiency of a machine. On the other hand, the production schedule refers to allocating the resources utilized in the production process over the available time. The process involves determining the tasks to be completed, prioritizing the tasks, and allocating them to a particular time. Static scheduling involves activities remaining constant during the production process, while for the dynamic, the process change (Branke et al., 2015). The schedule could involve setting the production start time, packing time and shipping time, among others. In the automobile industry, the scheduled activities include delivering the metal to the manufacturing plant, welding process, and giving it a clean, shiny glow.A bottleneck is a constrain in the production system that could cause a defect in the production system. The operation is overwhelmed by too many contracts or commitments. For instance, it could congest the production system and make it function at a lower rate. An effective production should identify the bottlenecks since they tend to limit its profitability. An example of a bottleneck in automobile manufacturing is the assembling stage, where the operators have to assemble the cross members and fit them simultaneously.Finally, the operations manager’s role is to determine activities, plan, communicate and oversee operations in the production department. The operations manager manages regular usage of the production materials and other resources, including human resources. They also work together with the finance department to come up with a budget for the company. Similarly, the operations managers set the production department’s objectives and interact with other departments to achieve overall organizational goals. ReferencesAguilar, M. A. (2011). Set-up Reduction Time At A Batch Manufacturing Plant.Branke, J., Nguyen, S., Pickardt, C. W., & Zhang, M. (2015). Automated design of production scheduling heuristics: A review. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 20(1), 110-124.Timilsina, B. (2012). Removing bottleneck from a manufacturing unit: A case studies to BETKER OY, Ylivieska-84100, Finland.
Colorado Technical The Manufacturing Process Operations Management Discussion

How Racial Segregation Contributes to Minority’s Poverty? Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Literature review Discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Racial segregation has been the proverbial thorn in the flesh of the American society. A basic definition of racial segregation states that it is the separation of people along racial lines (Schelling 488). The separation of races would not be so much of an issue, were it not for the fact that, with racial segregation, comes some negative social aspects. Such include discrimination, stigma associated with being from an inferior race and limited socioeconomic opportunities (Williams 173). This research paper seeks to determine the contribution that racial segregation has towards concentrated poverty in minority communities. In a research sponsored by the U.S. Census Bureau, it is revealed that while Asians and white Americans are more likely to live in areas with low poverty rates, American Indians, African Americans and people of Hispanic origins are over-represented in high poverty areas (Bishaw 6). Additionally, people from minority racial groups are under-represented in areas that register low poverty rates. In 1987, W. J. Wilson (cited by Sampson and Wilson 42) tried to explain the link between racial segregation and concentrated poverty. W. J. Simpson argued that racial segregation leads to concentration effects whose presence in the society is manifest in social deviance, poor job networks, low rates of school involvement, and none exposure to role models (Sampson and Wilson 42). Walks and Bourne (275) also note that there are strong neighborhood effects that emerge when people from one racial group live together. Racial concentration in wealthy neighborhoods, for example, increases the chance that a person living therein will have better socioeconomic opportunities compared to a person living in poor neighborhoods. This research paper uses a review of existing literature to establish how racial segregation contributes to concentrated poverty in minority communities. The paper finds out that racial segregation has among other things compromised the political representation of minority communities. Additionally, racial segregation has affected vital social services such as education. In the discussion section, the paper indicates that living in a poor neighborhood increases the chances that one will grow up as a poor person. The foregoing observation is true if one is to consider findings that indicate that poor education services are a predictor of poverty. In the conclusion section, the paper argues that racial segregation though a contributor to concentrated poverty in minority communities, is a social issue that arguably cannot be legislated. The paper, therefore, recommends that government should pursue other options in order to alleviate poverty among minority communities. The paper also recommends future research to concentrate on identifying how governments and other stakeholders in the society can enhance racial integration in the American society. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review The Civil Rights Act that was enacted in 1968 in the US made discrimination illegal during the sale or renting of a house (Williams and Collins 405). The foregoing Act notwithstanding, integrated neighborhoods are still a mirage for most Americans, and especially those who belong to minority communities. Consequently, a great percentage of members of minority communities still live in poor neighborhoods, not by choice, but because they cannot afford better lifestyles. As Massey and Denton (American Apartheid 85) noted in a research done among black and white Americans, more black people are willing to live in integrated communities compared to their white counterparts. On their part, Lichter, Parisi and Taquino (368) note, “most impoverished racial and ethnic minority populations live in geographically isolated rural areas.” African Americans, Hispanics, and Native American Indians are specifically the minority communities that are racially segregated, and who experience the worst form of concentrated poverty. Further, Lichter, Parisi and Taquino (368) found out that living in poor areas worsened the situation for minority communities since such areas have registered poor health, low earnings, low education, and high employment dislocation. Arguably, therefore, minority communities are exposed to recognized risks, simply because they are segregated into communities that register the foregoing identified factors. Racial segregation impacts negatively on educational opportunity (Williams and Collins 406). One of the main reasons why education is affected by racial segregation is that schools are funded using community resources. A school in an affluent neighborhood is, therefore, likely to get more funding for infrastructure development and enhancement of student learning. The reverse is true for schools located in poor neighborhoods. As Williams and Collins (43) note “public schools with high proportions of Blacks and Hispanics are dominated by poor children”. It is not a coincidence that students in such schools are poor; rather, it is a reflection of the poverty among the communities that they come from. Notably, poverty is not the preserve of the minority communities only; rather, poverty exists among white American families too. The only difference between poor white students and poor students from minority communities is that the former reside in ‘desirable’ neighborhoods. Notably, and unlike the poor white families in the US, poor people from the Black and Hispanic communities educate their children in the same poor neighborhoods. The foregoing situation is unlike what is registered among the poor white American populations; even though they are poor, they do not always live in poor neighborhoods and they send their children to good public schools. Only one-third of poor white families educate their children in schools in poor neighborhoods (Quillian 355). We will write a custom Research Paper on How Racial Segregation Contributes to Minority’s Poverty? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The kind of school a student attends affects their economic welfare in future because as Williams and Collins (406) note, segregated schools are characterized by “lower test scores, fewer students in advanced placement courses, more limited curricula, less qualified teachers, less access to academic counseling, fewer connections with colleges and employers…and higher dropout rates”. When combined, all the aforementioned factors place students in segregated communities at a disadvantage. Resultantly, the students are less likely to graduate from high school or enroll in college. In the end, such students have lower chances of getting into good jobs, hence meaning that their income levels will not be any better than their parents’ current earnings. Racial segregation has historically condemned some minority communities to a life of joblessness and poverty (Quillian 354). One such minority community is the African American community in the US, which has historically registered high rates of educational, social and economic failure. Arguably, concentrated poverty and racial segregation have a historical genesis, whereby, upon emancipation from slavery, most African-Americans did not have the education or skills to enable them secure well-paying jobs. Consequently, they took low paying jobs, and settled in poor neighborhoods because that is all they could afford. Although Hispanics do not have a history in slavery, Quillian (355) notes that they too “live in working-class or poor neighborhoods and send their children to high-poverty schools.” Williams and Collins (406-407) offer a different but equally valid perspective by indicating that social isolation, which results from racial segregation, can induce responses that weaken community norms in a racially segregated community. For example, a community that previously had a strong work ethic may end up losing the same through a combination of frustrated dreams and lack of opportunities. In the end, such a community is caught in a web of poverty. In an attempt to explain why racial segregation is so pervasive in America, Massey and Denton (American Apartheid 83) notes that in the African American community, the isolation was achieved through a combination of factors. The factors include “racist attitudes, private behaviors and institutional practices” (Massey and Denton American Apartheid 83). All the aforementioned factors disenfranchised the minority African American community from accessing modern housing, and as a result, poor housing in the form of ghetto emerged. Discrimination from the white Americans further worsened the economic situation of the African Americans because they could not access jobs, nor enroll their children in good schools. The white Americans also avoided neighborhoods that were occupied by African Americans, and as a result, the country had patterns “of intense racial isolation that could only be described as hypersegregation (sic)” (Massey and Denton American Apartheid 83). Not sure if you can write a paper on How Racial Segregation Contributes to Minority’s Poverty? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Massey, Gross and Eggers (397) have also developed a theoretical model that connects residential segregation to concentrated poverty in specific areas in the US. The three authors argue that residential segregation worsens the socioeconomic deprivation among communities, and this only aggravates the poverty therein (Massey, Gross and Eggers 398). Massey and Denton (802) note that since the 1970’s segregation in America has worsened. The two authors cite five social areas that have arguably contributed to increased racial segregation. The identified areas include the US economy, social class, federal law, immigration and public attitudes (Massey and Denton 802). The authors argue that as anti-discrimination laws were enforced in the 1970s, racial groups that were previously denied specific legal rights started enjoying the same. However, with more freedom came a chance to earn more decent income. The emergence of a middle-income class among the African American community, for example, saw a significant number of them move away from the poor neighborhoods. The foregoing movement meant that instead of investing their incomes in the poor areas they lived in, most people who had improved earnings chose to move to more affluent neighborhoods. Unfortunately, when resources are not invested in poor neighborhoods, the social and economic outcomes are likely to remain the same. If, for example, there no infrastructure development in poor areas, unemployment in such areas remains high, the quality of education does not improve, and the cycle of poverty is never broken. Social class is also an issue that Massey and Denton (American Apartheid 84) have addressed. The authors indicate that the US society is not only status-conscious, but market driven too. Consequently, people belonging to different social classes do not always mix especially in matters related to schooling and housing. The prevailing residential patterns in the US today are, arguably, partly a result of the social status of different racial groupings. Blacks, Hispanics, and Indians were economically disadvantaged compared to the white Americans. The African Americans, for example, had a dark history in slavery, and even upon emancipation, poverty has still persisted in the community. It is argued that part of the reason poverty is still high among African Americans is because they have not been able to access equal opportunities in areas such as education and employment (Massey and Denton American Apartheid 84). There are also sentiments that indicate that subtle and overt prejudice and discrimination against the African American community still exist (Massey and Denton American Apartheid 84). It has been established that minority groups, who are also poor, are not as active in politics compared to the white Americans (Williams and Collins 409). The importance of political representation in fighting poverty is underscored by Lichter, Parisi and Taquino (364) who note that in some places in the US, political decision makers exclude minority communities and the poor. The authors specifically point out “persistent poverty among minority populations is driven by political and economic processes rather than narrowly defined neighborhood dynamics” (Lichter, Parisi and Taquino 368). The foregoing argument means that the issues that the minority communities face do not get as much advocacy from the lawmakers as would have been the case if they (the minority communities) were adequately represented in politics. Williams and Collins (409) note that without proper political representation, services to poor areas by the government can be reduced easily, and without much political opposition. Such reductions are a disinvestment in areas that should otherwise enjoy more investment. Consequently, areas where minority communities live are characterized by poor environment and an equally poor urban infrastructure. The quality of life is also much lower compared to the quality of life in areas occupied by the white Americans. Racial segregation creates four distinct neighborhoods. They include “poor black areas, poor white areas, “rich” (non-poor) black areas, and “rich” non-poor) white areas (sic)” (Massey 335-336). The author further notes that unlike the poor African Americans, the poor white Americans are not confined to poor neighborhoods; consequently, they are exposed to better infrastructure and services. Such exposure improves their chances of overcoming poverty. The foregoing argument is especially relevant to school-going children, whose chances in leading better lives than their parents is improved by the mere fact that they study in good schools. Such schools have qualified teachers and proper educational facilities. With spatially concentrated poverty in neighborhoods occupied by minority communities, Massey (337) notes that racial segregation also “focuses and exacerbates any change in the economic status of minority groups”. Unfortunately, positive changes, (e.g. rising employment among members of a minority racial grouping) do not have major positive effects on minority communities. On the other hand, negative changes often have more obvious effects. Negative changes in the past have included mechanization of industries and closing down of industrial plants. The foregoing changes lead to downsizing of employees. In the end, minority workers who do not have the necessary skills always end up losing their jobs. Unfortunately, job losses not only affect individuals, but the whole community. The foregoing situation occurs because loss of jobs leads to loss of disposable incomes, something that in the end suppresses the economy of the minority communities’ neighborhoods. Massey (342) offers an arguably accurate description of what happens when negative changes occur in poor minority communities. He says “reduced buying power, increased welfare dependence, high rates of family disruption, elevated crime rates, housing deterioration, elevated infant mortality rates, and decreased educational quality” are the effects of negative changes in a minority community (Massey 342). In other words, racial segregation destabilizes the socioeconomic environment in minority neighborhoods, hence making them vulnerable to negative shifts in the economy. Massey and Fischer (671) have found evidence indicating that as segregation increases, poverty rises in minority communities. Racial segregation, for example, intensifies the minority communities’ disadvantage in such areas as education. Specifically, poor education facilities make it hard for most students who study therein to full concentrate or get all the necessary knowledge, hence compromising their grades. Without good grades, such students do not enroll in colleges. Without a college education, they cannot compete effectively in the job market. Consequently, they work low-paying jobs and the poverty cycle goes on from one generation to another. In a review of the Canadian context, Walks and Bourne (276) note that racial segregation implies that the assimilation has failed. Although racial and ethnic enclaves may have a positive implication on the culture and group identity of minority communities, they become problematic when people do not voluntary join such enclaves. In the American context, for example, Massey (342) notes that the people in the minority communities would prefer to live in more racially integrated neighborhoods. The white Americans, unfortunately, register some reluctance when racially integrated neighborhoods are suggested. In the US, racial segregation has a historical aspect to it; arguably, most of it is as a result of the White majority refusing to integrate with the minority communities based on their racial identities (Walks and Bourne 276). Racial concentration in specific areas is mainly occasioned by discrimination, and the fact that members of a racial minority group get a sense of belonging among their peers. The spatial mismatch has also been used to explain why poverty is concentrated among racially segregated minority communities (Boustan 330). The foregoing theory emphasizes the fact that minority communities often live far from areas where employment opportunities are found. Their places of residence make it hard for them to learn about new employment opportunities. On the other hand, those who already have jobs have to pay more in commuting costs. Bouston (330) further found out that the farther a firm was located from minority communities, the less likely it was for that firm to employ members of such communities. Neighborhood effects may also partially affect the concentration of poverty in racially segregated areas. According to Bouston (331), racial segregation means that people from minority communities do not have many outside contacts. Failure to have contact with people from the white American population, who have contacts in the labor force, arguably means that, minority communities would not know when new job opportunities arise. Overall, it appears that no reason can fully explain why racial segregation contributes to concentrated poverty in minority communities. The foregoing notwithstanding, there is enough evidence herein that racial segregation does indeed contribute to concentrated poverty. As Bouston (332) notes, however, racial segregation is not something that the American society can address through urban planning or public policy. Urban planning targeting minority communities would have been a good solution were it not for the legal constraint that prohibits race-based housing. Arguably, racial segregation is to a great extent a result of racial pathologies that have developed over the years among the majority white communities and the minority communities alike. On one hand, the majority white community has discriminatory tendencies towards the minority communities; on the other hand, the minority communities find a sense of belonging in living on racially homogenous enclaves. The foregoing notwithstanding, Karlsen and Nazroo (628) observe that racism is not only evident in discrimination and interpersonal violence but in socioeconomic disadvantage. Inequities in sectors such as medical care, neighborhoods and socioeconomic indicators have also been found to be more common in areas that have a high population concentration of minority communities (Williams and Jackson 325). Arguably, concentrated poverty in minority communities is evidence that indeed racial segregation can lead to socioeconomic disadvantage. Discussion As the literature review section reveals, racial segregation occurs because of social pathologies that have for a long time denied the minority communities a chance to get better in life through education. Without a good education, members of the minority communities are unable to get good incomes, which trap them in a cycle of poverty and living in the same poor neighborhoods. Without proper education, minority groups are not adequately represented in US politics, and this means that funding for specific infrastructures can be reduced without opposition. When such a reduction happens, the socioeconomic status of the minority neighborhoods is compromised. A search through literature further reveals that although researchers have suggested several possible ways of ending racial segregation (e.g. indirect solution, people-based solutions, and place-based solutions) most of them ignore the sociological origins of racial segregation. Recently, Boustan (330) noted that in neighborhoods where racial integration is gaining pace, people from the white racial divide are relocating to other areas where racial integration is not so common. In other words, the economic upward mobility of minority communities is discomforting to the white Americans so much that, some people are willing to relocate rather that stay in the same neighborhoods with people from minority communities. Wilson (14) suggests several interventions that could improve the concentration of poverty in minority communities. He suggests that racial discrimination especially in employment and the real estate sectors should be combated (Wilson 23). While it is illegal to deny someone employment or a rental house on the basis of their racial affiliation, Wilson (23) observes that such practices are still common albeit in a concealed manner. Through a research featuring true stories, Yinger (4) found out “African American and Hispanic American households often encounter” unfavorable treatment by White real estate agents when searching for houses to rent or purchase. Specifically, it did not matter how much money the Blacks, Hispanics or Latinos had, real estate agents were found to favor (in terms of showing different house and offering call back services) the White majority compared to members of the minority communities (Yinger 4). Notably, housing discrimination leads to other forms of segregation (e.g. segregation in schools). Segregation in schools, on the other hand leads to negative labor market outcomes for members of the minority communities. Together, all the foregoing factors enhance the unbroken concentrated poverty in minority communities. The second suggestion that has been offered to end poverty in racially segregated neighborhoods is to revitalize such neighborhoods by eliminating “abandoned buildings and vacant lots” (Wilson 23). Through such revitalization, there is a possibility that the neighborhoods where the minority communities live would be attractive to investors. New investments would create jobs for the residents and improve the quality of people living therein. The foregoing suggestion would, however, not solve the racial segregation issue, especially if the investors are not from the white Americans. The foregoing notwithstanding, new investments would improve the socioeconomic statuses of minority communities, and this would alleviate the poverty levels therein. Arguably, and although this would take a longer time, socioeconomic improvement would naturally lead to higher education standards, which would in turn mean that more minority students would go to college. Education will arguably enhance the possible income that such students will earn in the future, making it more likely that they would infuse more money into the minority communities’ neighborhoods. Training members of minority communities in order to make them more employable has also been identified as one of the possible ways of improving the poverty situation among racially segregated communities in the US (Wilson 23). Upon training, such people would probably be more employable, hence enabling them to access incomes. Improved earnings would in turn increase the disposable incomes among members of minority communities. Training on its own, however, would not improve the poverty outcomes in minority communities. Federal and regional governments would need to open investment opportunities in such areas so that industries and service providing companies would employ the trained community members. Improvement of public education services is also another suggested solution to concentrated poverty in minority communities (Wilson 23). Currently, education services are funded through community resources, and this only means that a poor neighborhood can only afford to direct a measly amount of funds to the education sector. Wilson (23) observes that once public education is improved, many of the students studying therein will most likely secure stable and well-paying jobs in the economy, which will in turn contribute to the alleviation of poverty in minority communities. It is worth indicating that while each state is charged with the responsibility of maintaining and operating public schools, the federal government should not pay a blind eye to schools that have a historical disadvantage. Schools in minority communities fit the historically disadvantaged category. Finally, it has been suggested that strengthening labor unions will provide a short-term solution to the poverty situation in minority communities (Wilson 23). Labor unions were (and still could be) vital in agitating for worker benefits, which include enhanced wages and job security for most of the low-skilled workers in minority neighborhoods. With better pay, the workers would have more disposable incomes. Conclusion In conclusion, it is important to note that while racial segregation has negative implications in the American society, the government cannot legislate on the choices that people make. If White people do not want to interact and integrate with people from minority communities, there is nothing much the government can do. However, it is important for government to enforce the laws that protect minority communities from discrimination in such areas as employment and education. It is also important for the government to realize that concentrated poverty affects the minority communities most, but it also has an effect on the larger US economy. A point in case would be the millions of taxpayers’ money that goes into welfare programs such as food stamps. If the government invests enough in infrastructure development in the poor neighborhoods, the number of people dependent on government social welfare programs will arguably decrease considerably. Such reduction would in turn enable the government to redirect the taxpayers’ money to other social issues. The suggestions made in the discussion section above are made in recognition that racial segregation is a social issue that the government, however well-intending it may be, cannot legislate. The literature review section has determined that indeed, racial segregation contributes to concentrated poverty in minority communities. Different authors featured in this research paper reveal that racial segregation has limited the social facilities (most especially schools) that minority communities have access to. Racial segregation has also made it difficult for minority populations to get gainful employment. The lack of gainful employment affects the economy of minority neighborhoods hence making them sink deeper into poverty. Racial segregation also makes it hard for minority groups to get political representation either from within or from the White majority. Arguably, the findings in this paper are not entirely new; as implied by the use of different authors in the literature review section, different researchers have always established a connection between racial segregation and concentrated poverty in specific areas of the US. The main question that remains unanswered, however, is whether government or other players in the society can help foster more racial integration in the American society. The answer to the foregoing question is pertinent because it would offer hope that concentrated poverty in minority communities will be dealt with in the future. The aforementioned question arguably provides the basis for future research. Until the answer to that question is found, the government and different stakeholders in the private sector can try tackling concentrated poverty by empowering the minority communities. Works Cited Bishaw, Alemayehu. “Areas with Concentrated Poverty: 2006-2010.” United States Census Bureau (2011): 1-10. Print Boustan, Leah Platt. Racial Residential Segregation in American Cities. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 2012. Print. Karlsen, Saffron and James Y. Nazroo. “Relation between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health among Ethnic Minority Groups.” American Journal of Public Health 92.4 (2002): 624-631. Print Lichter, Daniel T., Domenico Parisi and Michael C. Taquino. “The Geography of Exclusion: Race, Segregation, and Concentrated Poverty.” Social Problems 59.3 (2012): 364-388. Print. Massey, Douglas S and Mary J. Fischer. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23.4 (2000): 670-691. Print Massey, Douglas S. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass.” The American Journal of Sociology 96.2 (1990): 329-357. Print. Massey, Douglas S. and Nancy A. Denton. “Trends in the residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians: 1970-1980.” American sociological review 6.4 (1987): 802-825. Print Massey, Douglas S. and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard: Harvard Uni. Press, 1993. Print. Massey, Douglas S, Andrew B. Gross and Mitchell L. Eggers. “Segregation, the Concentration of Poverty, and the Life Chances of Individuals.” Social Science Research 20.4 (1991): 397-420. Print. Quillian, Lincoln. “Segregation and Poverty Concentration: The Role of Three Segregations”. Am Sociol Rev. 77.3 (2012): 354–379. Print. Sampson, Robert and William Wilson. “Toward a theory of Race, Crime and Urban Inequality.” In Hagan, John and Ruth Peterson (Eds.). Crime and Inequality (37-54). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995. Print. Schelling, Thomas C. “Models of Segregation.”The American Economic Review 59.2 (1969): 488-493. Print. Walks, Alan and Larry Bourne. “Ghettos in Canada’s Cities? Racial Segregation, Ethnic Enclaves and Poverty Concentration in Canadian Urban Areas.”The Canadian Geographer 50.3 (2006): 273-297. Print. Williams, David and Chiquitta Collins. “Racial Residential Segregation: A Fundamental Cause of Racial Disparities in Health”. Public Health Rep. 116.5, (2011): 4–416. Print. Williams, David R and Pamela Braboy Jackson. “Social Sources of Racial Disparities in Health.” Health Affairs 24.2 (2005): 325-334. Print. Williams, David R. “Race, socioeconomic status, and health the added effects of racism and discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896.1 (2009): 173-188. Print. Wilson, William. “Being Poor, Black and American – The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces.” American Educator Spring (2011): 10-26. Print. Yinger, John. Closed Doors, Opportunities Lost: The Continuing Costs of Housing Discrimination. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1995. Print.

Political Science homework help

Political Science homework help. This is an assignment that describes the creation of an infographic on the topic of telehealth. It entails the comparison of telehealth and telemedicine that is easily understandable to the public in general.,Creation of an Infographic on the topic of Telehealth,Firstly, infographics are visual representations of information. They can include numbers, text, images, or any combination of the three. Just as in traditional writing assignments, an infographic can take on any of the various rhetorical modes — informative, instructive, descriptive, persuasive, etc.,Secondly, infographics provide quick way to convey a lot of information. For example, this infographic on ,Integrating Virtual Clinics, conveys interesting data much more concisely than another paragraph inserted here could have: (See attachment) Students will create an Infographic on the topic of Telehealth.,Thirdly, for this assignment, Students should create an infographic that is easily understood by the lay public or general population. The infographic should provide information useful to communicating the “What, Why, When and How” of Telehealth.,Students may choose to focus on one or mor‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍e the following suggested topic areas, however, students may choose their own relevant telehealth topic areas of: * Telehealth Versus Telemedicine * Environments or Systems * Population Health * Health Promotion and Illness Prevention * Integrative Health * Technologies and Innovation * Provider Access * Patient Access * Policy Implications * Legal Implications * Clinical Practice Issues * Education/Training Needs * Research Implications * Quality of Care *,Lastly,these are the outcomes that the management hopes the students will achieve at the end of this assignment: 1. Students will select a platform (tool) for building their infographic. There are a number of great infographic platforms available online. Many are free, but most require that you do set up an account. Check out, Easelly, Piktochart, and Visme. 2. Create the Infographic using one of the above platforms. 3. Post completed infographic in PDF ‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍formatPolitical Science homework help