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Working Women and Stress

Gender-specific work stress factors, such as sex discrimination and balancing work and family demands, may have an effect on women workers above and beyond the impact of general job stressors such as job overload and skill under-utilization. Discriminatory barriers to financial and career advancement have been linked to more frequent physical and psychological symptoms and more frequent visits to the doctor. The most effective way of reducing work stress is through organizational change in the workplace. This holds true for reducing work stress in female and male workers alike. Workplaces that actively discourage sexual discrimination and harassment, and promote family-friendly policies, appear to foster worker loyalty and attachment regardless of gender, studies indicate. Organizational changes effective for reducing job stress among women workers include expanding promotion and career ladders, introducing family-support programs and policies, and enforcing policies against sex discrimination and sexual harassment. 2.28 The article “Women in Construction: Occupational Health and Working Conditions,” finds that: Women may receive less on-the-job safety mentoring than men from supervisors and co-workers. This can create a potentially dangerous cycle in which tradeswomen are asked to do jobs for which they are not properly trained, then are injured when they do them or are seen as incompetent when they are unable to do them. Women in construction have reported harassment and verbal abuse by co-workers and isolation on the job severe enough that some women have looked for other employment. Patterns of work-related construction fatalities differ for men and women. For example, women construction laborers are at higher risk than male laborers of death from motor vehicle injuries, but less likely to be at risk of death from falls, machinery related injuries, or being struck by objects. Further research is needed to determine why these differences exist.( (14) 2.29 In one study relating to MSDs, NIOSH worked with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to examine interventions for reducing discomfort among IRS data entry workers, the majority of whom are female. NIOSH found that periodic rest breaks throughout the work shift reduced musculoskeletal discomfort, while allowing workers to maintain job performance. (15) 2.30 According to NIOSH ,Stress at work is another issue of concern., stress at work is a growing problem for all workers, including women. In one survey, 60 percent of employed women cited stress as their number one problem at work. Furthermore, levels of stress-related illness are nearly twice as high for women as for men. Many job conditions contribute to stress among women, according to NIOSH. Such job conditions include heavy workload demands; little control over work; role ambiguity and conflict; job insecurity; poor relationships with coworkers and supervisors; and work that is narrow, repetitive, and monotonous. (16) -2.31 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(2005) show Health care expenditures are nearly 50% greater for workers who report high levels of stress. 2.32 Encyclopaedia of Occupational Safety and Health (2001) with title Job Stress and Health: What the Research Tells Us; 2.32.1Cardiovascular Disease Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. 2.32.2Musculoskeletal Disorders On the basis of research by NIOSH and many other organizations, it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper- extremity musculoskeletal disorders. 2.32.3Psychological Disorders Several studies suggest that differences in rates of mental health problems (such as depression and burnout) for various occupations are due partly to differences in job stress levels. (Economic and lifestyle differences between occupations may also contribute to some of these problems.) 2.32.4Workplace Injury Although more study is needed, there is a growing concern that stressful working conditions interfere with safe work practices and set the stage for injuries at work. 2.32.5Suicide, Cancer, Ulcers, and Impaired Immune Function Some studies suggest a relationship between stressful working conditions and these health problems. However, more research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn- 2.33 NIOSH(2001) research has identified organizational characteristics with title Stress, Health, and Productivity Some employers assume that stressful working conditions are a necessary evil-that companies must turn up the pressure on workers and set aside health concerns to remain productive and profitable in today’s economy. But research findings challenge this belief. Studies show that stressful working conditions are actually associated with increased absenteeism, tardiness, and intentions by workers to quit their jobs-all of which have a negative effect on the bottom line. Recent studies of so-called healthy organizations suggest that policies benefiting worker health also benefit the bottom line. A healthy organization is defined as one that has low rates of illness, injury, and disability in its workforce and is also competitive in the marketplace. NIOSH research has identified organizational characteristics associated with both healthy, low-stress work and high levels of productivity. Examples of these characteristics include the following: Recognition of employees for good work performance Opportunities for career development An organizational culture that values the individual worker Management actions that are consistent with organizational values(19) 2.34 St. Paul Fire and Marin(2007) Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings.(Journal of Applied Psychology) one with title Stress Prevention and Job Performance Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress, (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress, and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. 2.34.1 In one study, the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities were implemented in a 700-bed hospital. In a second study, there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. In contrast, there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. – 2.35 According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics(2004), workers who must take time off work because of stress, anxiety, or a related disorder will be off the job for about 20 days. – 2.36 Northwestern National Life Insurance(1992), Minneapolis, 1992, as reported in Work in America, Vol. 17, No. 6, June 1992.] Employee burnout: Causes and cures, Part 1: Employee stress levels, GENDER WORK AND STRESS In a survey carried out in 1992 of nearly 1,300 full-time employees in a random sample of private companies in the United States, it was found that gender, among other factors (the level of the employee in the organization, income, occupation and family situation), accounted for differences in job stress at the workplace. The survey found that stress affects women more than men, and that they are significantly more likely to report burnout, stress-related illnesses or a desire to resign from their jobs. The researchers suggested several reasons for this. In the first place, women are often paid less than men for their work, even if they have college degrees. Many organizations also lack policies which respond to family issues. Single women with children, along with low-paid college graduates, are at highest risk of burnout. Some 50 per cent of single women with children reported burnout, compared to 31 per cent of married women with children. [ 2.37 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2001)reported these figures in Research on work-related stress, The following are recent estimates which related to the cost of work-related stress: In the United Kingdom, it has been suggested that over 40 million working days are lost each year due to stress-related disorders; In Australia, the Federal Assistant Minister for Industrial relations estimated the cost of occupational stress to be around A$30 million in 1994; In the United States, over half of the 550 million working days lost each year due to absenteeism are stress-related. 2.38 Several recent studies by ILO(2004) have highlighted the links between work-related stress, violence at work, the abuse of drugs and alcohol and tobacco consumption. These studies tend to suggest that stress at work plays an important role in the development of negative individual and organizational factors and forms a common element linking working conditions, substance abuse and violent acts. There appears to be a significant correlation between difficulties in relaxing after work and negative emotions such as fear, helplessness and failure. Stressful work may contribute to the development of a desire among workers to reduce tension by drinking, using drugs and other harmful substances. Alienating work has negative consequences for the development of a healthy human personality and can result in a range of problematic behaviours at the individual level, which may include the destructive use of alcohol and other substances, as well as depression and a deterioration in normal affective life. Stressful conditions may also constitute an antecedent to an episode of workplace violence. (ILO) (http// $2.39 University of utara(2004), Malaysia, school of accounting, Report on job stress among professional accountants working in selected public firms, a Malaysia case, replicates and extends earlier studies on job stress in public accounting conducted in UK and Britain. It is done through an extensive review of literature on job stress and field study using the same questionnaire utilized in the earlier two studies with a little modification to suit Malaysian context. The study seeks answers to what may be the sources of stress. Psychological outcomes and moderators of the stressful situation in selected public accounting firms and whether there exist significant linear relationship between job stressors and mental strains. Further more, it attempts to find out whether different from sizes, functional areas and position levels differ significantly in the stressors confronted and strains experienced by public accountants. The finding indicates that stressors faced by most respondents are quantitative workload, variations in workload, responsibilities for persons and travel, very few reports confronting role conflict and role ambiguity. As for the mental strains, respondent do not show that they are experiencing any except for job and workload dissatisfactions and pay inequity. It is also found that more than 10 percent of the respondents feel that they have job autonomy and that they do not possess the type A personality traits. (24) 2.40 A research report in Saudi Medical Journal , (2003) titled “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment for nurses” found that nurses in public hospitals are slightly satisfied and committed to their hospitals. Besides, satisfied nurses tend to have a higher degree of commitment than less satisfied ones. 2.41 A report in journal of health(2003) with title “stress and suicide in nurses” revealed that the relation between stress and suicide remained U shaped.when the job stress and home stress are combined,five fold increase in risk of suicide among women occurs.risk of suicide among high stress women is more compare to low stress experience by women. 2.42 School of Health Science (2002), Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona, Sweden entitled “The stress experience of nursing staff in intensive care therapy, concludes” that stress contains amongst other the element of moral there is shortage of nurses in the health care and organisational structure too impede nursing performance to avoid the negative consequences of stress for nurses moral support is required. In ICU stress and complex situation are common for all nurses, the stress implication are sometime ethical issues, morbidity and burn out, the report revealed. 2.43 Queensland University of Technology(2002), thesis with the title “THE INFLUENCE OF WORK STRESS AND WORK SUPPORT ON BURNOUT IN PUBLIC HOSPITAL NURSES” states that Australian nurses reported low to moderate levels of work stress, moderate levels of work support and moderately high levels of burnout. Work stressors, were the main predictors of Emotional Exhaustion, Conflic. Changes in the objective conditions at work have had major implications for nurses’ subjective experiences of work, with increasing numbers of nurses feeling stressed and as a consequence, are opting to work part-time or leave the profession . 2.44 HSJ – HEALTH SCIENCE JOURNAL (2005), REPORT CARRYING THE TITLE “FACTORS INFLUENCING STRESS AND JOB SATISFACTION OF NURSES WORKING IN PSYCHIATRIC UNITS” A strong negative relationship was found between clinical leadership, inter-professional collaboration, and stress and job satisfaction. Although a positive relationship between clinical leadership and nurses’ job satisfaction was found, the association between clinical leadership and quality of inter-professional collaboration is unclear. The association between these variables and job satisfaction is positive but tenuous. In addition, a positive but weak relationship was revealed between the clinical leadership and the quality of relationships amongst nurses. Organisational issues, lack of nursing staff and patient care were found to be related to ward type mental health nurses’ stress emerged as mediating variables between stress and job satisfaction. A hypothetical model of the relationships between these variables is presented for testing at a future study. 2.45 A research study by Deptt of medicine (2006). University of Ottawa, enitiled, “prevalence of burnout, job stress and job satisfaction” The findings are that medical personnel are experiencing burnout and high levels of stress and that large numbers are considering leaving or decreasing their work hours. This is an important finding for the cancer care system, where highly trained and experienced health care workers are already in short supply. 2.46 A research paper, School of Health Care Practice 2006, Anglia Polytechnic University, Chelmsford, Essex(2009), UK, entitled “Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review,finds” . Workload, management style, professional conflict and emotional cost of caring and leadership style, lack of reward and shift working are the main sources of stress for nurses for many years. Stress management programe should concentrate on stress prevention as well as how organization should takle this vital issue. 2.47 The Graduate College University of Wisconsin-Stout(2005), a Research Paper with title OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELORS,concludes that The Weiman Occupational Stress Scale, introduced in 1978, is designed to measure perceived levels of occupational stress. The mental health counselors involved in completing the survey instruments scored an average of 2.57 on a five point scale, with past administrations of the Weiman Occupational Stress Scale having yielded a baseline score of 2.25. The mental health counselors in this study scored on average 13% higher than the calculated WOSS baseline. employees in publicly funded institutions (Winnebago Mental Health) experience greater perceived work stress than those counselors in privately funded clinics. 2.48 Research survey conducted by Carol Brewer(2000) has shown that new nurses face considerable professional stress and would benefit from improved nursing management Newly licensed nurses considered their jobs difficult, and they worked long hours: 51 percent worked voluntary overtime, 13 percent mandatory overtime. Sixty-one percent were assigned to nights, evenings or rotating shifts. Nearly two-thirds — 62.78 percent — said their work interfered with family life on at least four days a month, according to the results. Survey participants also reported a somewhat hazardous working environment: a quarter of respondents sustained at least one needle-stick in a year; 39 percent at least one strain or sprain; 21 percent a cut or laceration, 46 percent a bruise or contusion, and 62 percent reported experiencing verbal abuse on the job. A quarter found it “difficult or impossible” to do their jobs at least once a week due to inadequate supplies, the study showed. 2.49 An Exploration study of Job Stressors of Clinical Nursing Instructors in Taiwan(2001) found that clinical nursing instructors’ work-related stressors include inadequate role occupancy, increasing work demands, deficient role preparedness, lowered role control, insufficient role support, and role bargain. When a clinical instructor with lowered role control experiences more stressors, the situation of role stress will deteriorate. Role support and role bargain are the buffers of work-related stress to adapt clinical instructors for the rapidly changing educational and medical environment. Consequently, adequate role credibility for role occupancy is a necessary strategy for reducing clinical instructors’ work-related strain during organizational rapid change. 2.50 European Journal(2005) of Social Sciences ,article entitled “Link between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction”,Show that there is a significant negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. According to Stamps
SAILS Exam – Information Literacy.

Prepare: Knowing how to thoroughly research a topic is extremely important while achieving your education. You may be asked to support your information with peer-reviewed scholarly resources, but how can you find this type of resource? The Ashford University Library allows you to search through different avenues to find the requested types of resources. You can narrow your search by the author, year published, title, subject, and by indicating what type of resource you are looking for. You even have access to a librarian if you need some guidance in finding more resources on your topic.
Reflect: Given that you have been in college for awhile, it’s time to reflect on what you have learned through the use of the Ashford University Library in relation to how you learned to acquire new information from a variety of sources.
Write: This week, you will take the Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (SAILS) Exam. This exam is not graded, and your results are anonymous. The exam will exit from your screen immediately after completion, and you will not receive feedback or results. This is a nationally-normed, standardized exam for students in universities all over the United States. The results of this assessment will guide Ashford University in developing the best possible library resources and research methodologies training. Results will be published (in aggregate) on Ashford’s assessment website. Your participation is voluntary, so thank you if you choose to participate. Click on the link in your online course to access the SAILS Exam (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
After completing the SAILS Exam, in at least two paragraphs (of five or more sentences each),
•Describe your experiences using resources, including concerns encountered when conducting academic research through the Ashford University Library. Areas of concern may include developing a research strategy, using the search function within a database, or evaluating sources.
•Explain how using the Ashford University Library has improved your experience in conducting research. For example, you could identify and explain how specific tutorials that you have used have helped improve your ability to conduct research.
The Information Literacy Assignment
•Must include at least two paragraphs (of at least five sentences each) that respond to the two prompts

SAILS Exam – Information Literacy

Ghana has had a long history of gun manufacture. Gun manufacture dates back several hundred years, when iron working was first introduced. In pre-colonial and colonial Ghanaian society, guns were used in a variety of different contexts, but were most often deployed in the slave trade.. While blacksmiths and locksmiths have been at work for thousands of years since working iron was discovered in Ghana, it was only in the early twentieth century that the capacity of gunsmiths to manufacture guns became a problem for the authorities. This was when such guns could be used to oppose colonialism and the expansion of British influence into the hinterland of Ghana. Legislation was then passed to criminalize, gun manufacture. [1] According to Kwasi Anning, among the several Ghanaian ethnic groups that were involved in the slave raiding expeditions, guns are a symbol of a “glorious” past now colourfully recreated during festivals. In some of the 10 regions of Ghana, gun manufacturing has been in existence over several years. In the Volta Region, gun manufacture is deeply embedded in the colonial history of the region. Oral tradition suggests that the region’s first gun manufacturer, a man called Asamoah learned his trade from working with Europeans and studying in India. Some even claim that Asamoah knew how to make guns even before the arrival of Europeans. [2] In the Central Region, Agona Asafo, a town considered as one of the oldest towns in the Central Region boasts of two workshops of between two or three gunsmiths and apprentices each. A number have been in business for more than a century, and their primary clients have been Asafo (warrior) companies who deploy weapons for musketry displays during the annual ‘akwanbo’ (literally, ‘clearing the path’) festival. [3] The history of Ghana’s ethnic groups could be an indication of gun manufacture and proliferation of small arms. Not much is known about the types of weapons which were used by the Ashantis in their wars. After gun manufacture was criminalized by the Europeans, gunsmiths have gone underground for fear of arrest and prosecution. However the illegality of gun manufacture has rather made it difficult for locally manufactures weapons to be traced and properly monitored. Efforts could therefore be made by government to identify and legally register the local gunsmiths in order to be able to monitor their activities and encourage them to serialize their products for easy tracing. 2.2 SOURCES OF LOCALLY MANUFACTURED WEAPONS IN GHANA Local production of small arms offers a good explanation to the proliferation of illicit SALW in Ghana. The dominant locally manufactured weapons are pistols, shotguns and single-barrel guns. Each of the 10 regions in Ghana houses gun-manufacturing workshops [4] . In the Volta Region, Kpando, Tafi Atome and Ho are towns known to maintain significant levels of gun manufacture. Decades of conflict between the people of Alavanyo and Nkonya has contributed immensely to the gun making skills in the region. In places like Alavanyo and Nkonya, children start to learn the art of gun making at an early age. They begin by making toy guns for Christmas and by the time they are young men it is second nature to them [5] . Due to the skills acquired from years of practice, gunsmiths in the Volta Region now produce pistols known as ‘Klosasa’ or ‘Tukpui’ and single barrel weapons known as ‘Apirim’. Also manufactured in the Volta Region are pump-action short guns and traditional Dane guns known as ‘Gadoe’ and ‘Nueze’ respectively. A lot of weapons manufactured in the Region are as good as the imported to the extent that it is difficult to distinguish between the locally manufactured weapons from the imported ones. These weapons cost between US$15 to US$120. [6] The low cost of weapons in the region makes it easy for people to purchase such weapons for all manner of crime in the region and other parts of the country. If weapon manufacturers are identified and registered, the government could control the prices of these weapons by imposing heavy taxes on them in order to prevent easy access by criminals. In the Central Region, Agona Asafo has two workshops of between two or three gunsmiths and apprentices each. Manufacturers here retain no organizational structure owing to the belief that it could spell disaster if one of its members were to be arrested [7] . Because small arms manufacture is more or less a family undertaking, expertise is usually passed on from father to son. Owing to increasing police pressure, artisans normally purchase weapon parts from out of town in order to avoid detection [8] . According to a police report from the Central region, weapons manufactured in Agona Asafo differ from imports only in the appearance of the trigger and the lack of distinctive marks. Both stocks and barrels are highly polished and smooth. [9] In the Northern Region, the people of Tamale are known for their blacksmithing skills, including the manufacture of tin drums and agricultural implements. Local artisans can also produce pistols and convert discarded steel pipes into lethal weapons. The name of one of Tamale’s suburbs, Sabunjida-Machelene, literally means ‘a colony of blacksmiths in Sabunjida’ A craft gun costs between USD 100 and 200 and can be produced within three days. Tamale gunsmiths have found ready markets for craft weapons following civil disturbance in several districts in the North, especially in and around Yendi. In the Kumbungu area, in the central part of the Northern region, demand for guns is driven by Dagomba warriors whose profession, identity, and manhood rest upon gun ownership. Warriors and blacksmiths have thus developed a symbiotic relationship and recognize the importance of each other’s skills to ensure the collective survival of the clan. [10] In the Ashanti Region, the Suame-Magazine area of Kumasi is probably one of the most established gun-manufacturing centres in Ghana. This is largely owing to the presence of numerous mechanical workshops specializing in different products. This large manufacturing capacity has resulted in larger numbers of highly skilled craftsmen, which has in turn facilitated the proliferation of manufacturers producing high-quality weapons. Suame-Magazine and Techiman in the Brong Ahafo Region, are host to a large group of manufacturers organized under the rubric of the Ashanti Region Association of Blacksmiths (ARAB). Because raw materials are cheap and the retail price high, gun manufacture is profitable. Depending on demand, each manufacturer may produce more than a hundred weapons a year-mainly rifles and single-barrel guns are produced. [11] The manufacture of a pistol or a pump-action gun does not take place at a single workshop. Rather, different artisans produce and deliver parts to a central assembling point. Several reasons are behind this. First, subcontracting the manufacture of different parts to specialized artisans enhances the quality and increases the quality of products. Second, subcontracting individual parts ensures the financial survival of manufacturers. Also, because some gun parts are not identifiable they can be passed off as something else. [12] Furthermore the Brong Ahafo Region houses some 2,500 manufacturers with the capacity to produce small arms [13] In Techiman, customers include both international traders and local users. Efforts could be made to give formal recognition to ARAB to be able to identify and properly register their members who are engaged in small arms manufacture. This will not only make it easier to control their activities but also assist the police to trace the people who have purchased weapons from them for criminal purposes. Again efforts could be made to strengthen the snap road blocks on the highway from Techiman through the North to Burkina Faso in order to arrest criminals who trade in small arms between Ghana and other countries. Kasoa in the Central Accra Region is a well-known and technologically advanced gun manufacturing and trading centre. According to officials, a workshop raided by the police had developed the capability to produce an imitation AK-47 as well as revolvers that could hold up to eight bullets each. Proximity to the capital has facilitated technological developments in two ways: first, Accra’s strong industrial base makes possible the transfer of widely available technological skills. Second, in the capital there is a strong demand from land guards, macho-men, vigilante groups, and customers from Nigeria, Togo, and Benin. [14] It is evident that, land litigation and its associated land guards have a direct correlation with the state of illegal proliferation of weapons in Kasoa. Therefore tackling the problem of land ownership and litigation could reduce the demand for weapons. This could significantly reduce local manufacture of weapons in the Kasoa area. Gun production in the Eastern region is limited, and tends to occur in small villages and towns. Manufacturers primarily specialize in the repair and servicing of guns. Most gunsmiths appear to produce the bulk of their weapons for farmers and hunters in the forest regions, or for purchasers who want their guns specially engraved. This uniformity of demand encourages better collaboration and support among manufacturers. Middlemen smuggle locally manufactured weapons to sell in larger towns such as Nsawam. In addition to local clientele, long-distance drivers heading to Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger also stop over in Nsawam to purchase weapons. [15] Takoradi has become geographically critical to the exportation of weapons to other West African states. Due to the conflict in Cote d’Ivoire demand for weapons is high in that country. Consequently locally manufactured weapons, smuggled to Cote d’Ivoire through Takoradi. Some gunsmiths in the Western Region have claimed that they have been invited to demonstrate their skills and train Ivoirians to make their own weapons. [16] Middlemen from Takoradi also facilitate the purchase of guns by foreigners residing in Ghana. Although gun manufacture remains profitable, serious seasonal price fluctuations occur depending on demand and security situation in the Western Region and in the wider West African sub-region. As of September 2004, prices fluctuated around USD 10 for a pistol, USD 135 for a double-barrel gun, and USD 100 for a rifle. [17] Ghana’s oil find off the coast of the Western Region is likely to attract a lot of criminal activities in the Region. There is therefore the need to improve on security in the Region to prevent weapon manufacture in the region in order to prevent more proliferation of small arms in the Region. In the Upper East and Upper West Regions, gun violence appears to be on the increase especially due to the recent Bawku crisis. Also, armed robbers and cattle rustlers armed with AK-47s have forced herders and communities to arm themselves. Fulani herdsmen, who criss-cross the West African sub-region searching for cattle pasture, are also well armed owing to struggles with locals over access to grazing lands and watering holes. Bolgatanga and Bawku are among the principal gun-trading centers in the North of the country. [18] The recent Bawku crisis has to a large extent contributed to the booming trade of small arms manufacture. Often times it has been reported that the belligerents use sophisticated assault riffles which make it difficult for the security agencies to deal with the situation. While there is a strong suspicion that some politicians supply such weapons to their supporters, there is a high possibility that such weapons are locally manufactured. There is therefore the need for the security agencies to diligently trace the origins of weapons found in the conflict areas, in order to be able to tackle the problems associated with small arms in the conflict areas. 2.3 EFFECTS OF PROLIFERATION OF SMALL ARMS ON THE SOCIO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF GHANA This portion of the study deals with the effects of small arms and light weapons in general on the socio – economic development of Ghana. The study goes beyond locally manufactured arms, in order to portray the devastating effects small arms in general could have on Ghana. While the basic humanitarian suffering resulting from the use of small arms might be evident, the underlying damage to a society caused by these guns is often less clear. Beyond being used to kill more than 300,000 people a year in conflicts around the globe, usually in the world’s poorest countries, small arms are often the primary instruments that can set back the development process for years or sometimes decades. These illicit weapons often affect whether people can live in their own homes and communities, whether they can earn a livelihood and whether they will enjoy any legal rights or protection. [19] The abundance of small arms in Ghana constitutes a major threat to the country’s political stability. Small arms fuel internecine conflicts in various parts of Ghana, particularly in Bawku and Yendi in the Upper East and Northern Regions. The proliferation of small arms in Ghana is also bound to significantly change the character of conflict in homes, workplaces and communities, making conflict resolution altogether difficult. [20] Small arms also proliferation also facilitate conflicts, chieftaincy disputes, armed robbery among others. 2.3.1 Armed Robberies and Criminality. According to the Ghana Police Service, about 90 percent of guns used by armed robbers arrested in the country in 2007 were locally manufactured. [21] The menace of armed robberies has been consistently increasing in Ghana over the years. This situation arguably can be a consequence of increasingly harsh socio-economic conditions, within the context of the inability of the State to provide basic human needs. There is however a mutually reinforcing relationship between SALW availability and armed robbery in Ghana. While social deprivation and poverty may have directly led to armed criminality, the easy availability of SALW has also facilitated the process of transforming frustration into crime. Even more disturbing is the fact that while most armed robberies employ guns as aids in their crimes, middle class Ghanaians are feared to be anxiously arming themselves, creating a veritable recipe for inter-class conflicts reprisal attacks. These pose a threat to individual and public safety, as well as to the health and longevity of Ghana’s political stability and democracy. [22] 2.3.2 Ethnic Conflicts. In addition, despite its overall peaceful existence, Ghana, like many of its regional counterparts, has been affected by violent ethnic conflicts. Land disputes in the north resulted in ethnic violence during 1994 and 1995. This led to about 1,000 people being killed and over 150,000 being internally displaced. In April 2002, a state of emergency was declared in the north when a tribal chief and thirty others were killed as ethnic violence increased. The Northern Region is currently in the grip of the Dagbon crisis which has resulted in the loss of several lives and property. Consequently, a dusk to dawn curfew was put in place in the region which significantly affected economic activities in the Region. Availability of SALW, both imported and locally-produced, are reported to have fueled these ethnic conflicts. 2.3.3 Land Guards. Furthermore, the prevalence of multiple claims to land in Ghana has resulted in the phenomenon of land guards. These land guards whose function is to enforce the land claim(s) of their employer(s) against all rival claimants are normally armed with small arms. There have been instances where people have lost their lives in shoot outs among land guards. For example in May 2003, nine people took refuge at the palace of a local chief near Accra (Anyaa), following an attack on the residents of the town by suspected armed land guards and thugs wielding locally manufactured weapons and machetes. The availability of small arms makes it easy for land guards to operate since possessing a weapon gives them a sense of security. 2.3.4 Protracted Chieftaincy Disputes. Over the years, chieftaincy disputes have resulted in violent confrontations between disputants. Supporters of the disputants and their factions have sometimes resorted to the use of small arms to resolve their problems. This development is not only worrying but also a serious drain on the meagre resources of the country. It is key to note that several of these conflicts that result from chieftaincy disputes have been facilitated by the availability and use of locally manufactured small arms. Security personnel are sometimes deployed in the troubled areas to keep the peace and prevent further destruction of lives and property. The resources the government spends in keeping troops in the conflict areas is phenomenal and a drain on the meagre resources of the government. 2.3.5 Effects on Investment. Foreign investment suffers in areas where there is instability and insecurity. It has been observed that the three northern regions of Ghana are the least developed areas in the country. Several factors are attributable to the state of development in these regions. However, a survey conducted on some natives of the three regions revealed that 80 percent of them were unwilling to invest in the North for fear of losing their investments as a result of continued conflicts. 60 percent of the respondents who do not hail from the North indicated their reluctance to invest in the North for similar reasons given by other respondents, who hail from the northern regions of Ghana, 2.3.6 Civil Wars in Neighboring Countries and Influx of Refugees. SALWs have contributed immensely to the civil wars in the sub region. The conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d’ Ivoire and many conflicts in the sub region are fuelled by the availability and easy access to small arms and light weapons. These conflicts have not only claimed lives and property but have cost governments millions of dollars to maintain security forces in these conflict areas. These monies could have been used for other developmental projects. It is estimated that locally manufactured weapons account for about 40 percent of the weapons used in all the conflicts in West Africa. [23] 2.3.7 Possible Political Instability. There are so many illicit weapons in the wrong hands to the extent the political stability of Ghana could be under serious threat. The Political atmosphere now seems calm. However, with the over 100,000 illegal small arms in the country of which 75,000 are craft guns now circulating in Ghana, the political stability being enjoyed could be a mirage if there should be outbreak of civil strife of any form at a scale that could engulf the whole country. The number of illegal weapons in circulation will make it extremely difficult for the security services to handle the situation. 2.4 SOLUTIONS TO ILLEGAL SMALL ARMS MANUFACTURE IN GHANA 2.4.1 Legalization and Registration of Local Manufacturers. The Arms and Ammunition Act 1962 (Act 118) as amended by the Arms and Ammunition Decree 1972 (NRCD 9) and the Arms and Ammunition (Amendment Act 1996) prohibit both the manufacture and assembly of firearms. On the other hand, these laws legalize the repair of guns after a licence has been acquired. The effect of this legislation is that, local artisans have over the years acquired more skills through the various repair jobs that they undertake on guns. This cognitive process of acquiring more skills has resulted in a number of the artisans acquiring the skills to manufacture all manner of weapons [24] . Paradoxically, guns cannot be legally manufactured. This has driven the trade underground with no official statistics on the number of gun manufacturers in Ghana and the number of weapons manufactured locally. In solving the problem of illegal local manufacture of small arms, parliament could pass a legislation to legalize small arms manufacture. This may seem odd initially but the country could benefit immensely in the long term since small arms manufacturers will come out in the open to operate. This will make it possible for their activities to be closely monitored, and people who have illegally purchased weapons from them can be traced. The Ministry of Interior could also insist on marking of locally manufactured weapons by the manufacturers. This will enable the ministry to trace the weapons and possibly arrest people, who will legally acquire these weapons and use them for criminal activities. Perhaps it is about time the country offer training to local manufacturers of weapons to produce to augment the weapons used by the country’s security forces. This will not only create employment but also reduce government expenditure on importation of weapons for the security services. 2.4.2 Strengthening the Police. Also the police could be strengthened to undertake snap road blocks in suspected areas which are believed to have illicit weapons. The police could then arrest the culprits and prosecute them. The police could also intensify their patrols on the highways linking the country and other countries in the sub region in order to arrest and prevent illicit trade in weapons across the country’s boarders. This measure will not only send a clear message to the populace about the capabilities of the police, it will also restore the confidence of the populace in the police and reduce drastically the number of illegally manufactured weapons in circulation 2.4.3 Voluntary return of weapons (buying back). Furthermore, when the police has been strengthened enough to protect and win back the confidence of the populace, a commission could be set up to buy back weapons from people who are illegally in possession of weapons. The government could set up a time by which people should bring their weapons for its monetary value without fear of prosecution. However after the expiration of the time, anyone found in possession of weapons could be prosecuted and given severe punishment. These weapons that would be collected could be destroyed openly, in order to avoid people thinking that the weapons are being used for different purposes. 2.4.4 Public awareness of dangers of small arms. There is also the need for the National Commission on Civic Education to educate the populace about the dangers of the proliferation of locally manufactured weapons and the negative effects they have on the socio economic development of not only Ghana but also the entire West African Sub region. This would make the populace aware of the real threat that confronts the country’s democratic stability in order for the populace to cooperate with the police to deal with the small arms proliferation in Ghana. ENDNOTES

Body Building and Steroids Effect on the Body

What do all these names have in common? Arnold Schwarzenegger, Ronnie Coleman, Jay Cutler, Flex Wheeler and Rich Piana, yet many may say that it’s the fact that they all looked superhumans being 10x the size of a normal human or that they were all regarded as the top bodybuilders of all time at some point of history. Those are both true statements but I’m regarding to a much darker similarity one which is often brought up, but as often as it is brought up its disregarded as a normal practice. If you are still asking what the practice is it the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS), but what’s AAS it’s a super synthetic form of testosterone which is illegally used in the sport of bodybuilding increase muscle growth and performance at an astronomical level compared to a natural builder. The following text will explain what steroids are, what the positive effects steroids and finally what are the negative effects of steroids. According to Medical News Today “AAS are synthetic versions of the primary male hormone, testosterone. They affect many parts of the body, including the muscles, bones, hair follicles, liver, kidneys, blood, immune system, reproductive system and the central nervous system” (“Anabolic Steroids: Uses, Abuse, and Side Effects”). AAS weren’t always created for such vile purpose originally testosterone was synthesized in Germany in 1935 to treat depression, but not long after its creation in 1954 Russian athletes got their hands on the anabolic steroids and began using them to weightlift in the Olympics of that year. Soon in about the 1980s steroids made their way into general population to both athletes and nonathletes around the world looking to either increase their aesthetic appearance or extreme weightlifting performance (National Institute on Drug Abuse). The most popular AAS or Anabolic Performance Enhancing Drugs (APEDs) include anadrol, oxandrin, dianabol, winstrol, deca-durabolin, and equipoise (“Anabolic Steroids”). Those and other steroids are taken a number of different ways which include orally in pill form, intramuscularly via syringe injection or through a less common technique either gel or cream for which is rubbed on the skin, but there are numerous different techniques on how you can take that are cycling, stacking, pyramiding, and plateauing. To briefly describe those, cycling “Steroid Cycles – Basics and Example Programs.”, 7 Apr. 2017, Figure 1. is when you have a specific time or schedule where you alternate on whether you are on or off a specific steroid or steroid ( See example Fig, 1), stacking is a method of using multiple types of steroids or stacking them to reach a higher level or specific goal, pyramiding which is the next method that is believe to be better but not scientifically proven includes a process of usually 6-12 week where you would start at a low dose of AAS and thought that time you would gradually increase to your max dosage then go to an absolute zero dosage where you will give your hormonal system to recuperate, and the last and the most complex one of them all is plateauing where you can stagger, overlap or substitute with other types of steroids to avoid tolerance and get the most effects (National Institute on Drug Abuse). According to the Kanayama “The vast majority of people who misuse steroids are male non-athlete weightlifters in their 20s or 30s (“Steroid Cycles – Basics and Example Programs”). Due to the high levels of trafficking illicit steroids congress passed the Anabolic Steroid Act in 1990 which classified AAS to its own class which covered over 12 different substances, but in 2004 they also “banned over-the-counter steroid precursors; increased penalties for making, selling, or possessing illegal steroid precursors; and provided funds for preventative educational efforts” (National Institute on Drug Abuse). According to Medline Plus AAS were used to treat hormonal problems in men which were either delayed puberty or excessive muscle loss from certain diseases (“Anabolic Steroids” Medline). Also, the United States government used the steroids in World War 2 to aid malnourished soldiers in gaining weight and eventually increasing their performance, so much that soon after it helped some of the soldier-athletes in the competitions after the war (“Anabolic Steroids “Cesar). Eventually, there was a new discovered and it was in the sport of bodybuilding it was like the nitrous to muscle building and nothing else could compare. Above the most popular AAS include these benefits: Anadrol is considered to be the most powerful of the anabolic steroids possible due to its high anabolic activity it can cause 20-30 pounds of muscle within a 6 week span(“Anadrol (Oxymetholone”), Oxandrolone or Anavar was designed to have a very strong separation of anabolic and androgenic effect, and no significant estrogenic or pregestational activity it can provide significant muscle and strength gain without significance side effects, as this is usually used by dieting bodybuilders, swimmers or track athletes because it can gain pure muscle without water or fat retention(“Anavar Oxandrolone”) , Dianabol is a AAS which was synthesized so the androgenic properties are decreased and the anabolic tissue building properties increase for physique improvement purposes(“Dianabol methandrostenolone”), Deca-durabolin is a less intensive slow release AAS that promotes lean muscle gain without high side effects(“Deca-Durabolin nandrolone decanoate”), Equipoise which was created as a cheaper alternative to Deca with higher androgenic level and could commonly replace Deca in cycles with change of result. So, the effect of steroids is that it increases muscle mass and testosterone at an abnormal level to either retain water in muscle for building material or promote lean muscle gain. The negative effects of AAS are extremely risky and often fatal among athletes or bodybuilders. For Over the Counter purposes in special prescribed medical situation AAS are completely safe with controlled risk but, often is not the case with athletes because studies show that they overuse the safe usually prescribed dosages by 10-100 times (“Anabolic Steroids: Uses, Abuse, and Side Effects”). According to NHS there are a spread amount of sides effect through men and women which have a much higher effect in men that are reduced sperm count, infertility, shrunken testicles, erectile dysfunction, baldness, breast development, increased risk in prostate cancer, severe acne and stomach pain. Also, the side effects in women are facial and body hair growth, loss of breast, swelling of clitoris, deepened voice, increased sex drive, problems in periods, and hair loss. Resulting in terrible side effect taking steroids dose not only effect you physical it affects the mental in both men and women it can create aggressive behavior, mood swings, paranoia, manic behavior, hallucinations, and addiction which has its own effects. The fatal side effects of steroid in both men and women are heart attack, stroke, liver and kidney failure, hypertension, blood clots, fluid retention and high cholesterol (“Anabolic steroid misuse”). In conclusion though AAS was not created for such uses as bodybuilding or misuse in sports, but for a medical conditions it has been alienated for its vast range of side effects and various deaths due to its use. The following essay explained what steroids are, what were the positive effects in health and bodybuilding and the negative effect when used out side of its purposed use for treatment and not a sports shortcut for, anything either used in an adverse way that is was supposed to or overused promotes a risk often fatal gives AAS a classification near opioids or narcotics. In a closing statement studies show that you shouldn’t take steroids unless medically prescribed because the benefits do not outweigh the fatal risk. Works cited NHS Choices, NHS, “Anabolic Steroids.” CESAR, “Anabolic Steroids.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 30 Apr. 2019, “Anabolic Steroids: Uses, Abuse, and Side Effects.” WebMD, WebMD, “Anadrol (Oxymetholone).”, 14 Apr. 2017, “Anavar (Oxandrolone).”, 7 Apr. 2017, “Deca-Durabolin (Nandrolone Decanoate).”, 7 Apr. 2017, “Dianabol (Methandrostenolone).”, 7 Apr. 2017, “Equipoise (Boldenone Undecylenate).”, 7 Apr. 2017, Kanayama, Gen, and Harrison G. Pope. “History and Epidemiology of Anabolic Androgens in Athletes and Non-Athletes.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 464, 2018, pp. 4–13., doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.02.039. National Institute on Drug Abuse. “What Is the History of Anabolic Steroid Use?” NIDA, Feb. 2018, “Steroid Cycles – Basics and Example Programs.”, 7 Apr. 2017,

Homeschooling Factors Research Paper

cheap assignment writing service The successful implementation of homeschooling is determined by several factors such as politics as people present in major decision making organs across the country are capable of rendering the practice illegal. The law makers have the ability to make rules, regulations and policies that will either encourage or discourage the process of homeschooling. This situation has led to a higher degree of awakening among homeschoolers on the need to develop inroads among God fearing persons in congress and legislature (Blumenfeld 1995). This feat can be achieved through remaining politically active. The idea of schooling at home significantly influenced the elections in November 1994. A need arises to examine the relationship between religion, society and education. A balance between such concepts leads to better co existence among people of divergent views in the society. The issues concerned with homeschooling are slowly taking root thus making people who are interested in the concept more conscious. This is seen in their desire to attain deeper understanding of the processes related to this kind of education. Homeschoolers are very important persons to the future of America. Their usefulness can be equated to individuals carrying out the sacred work of God (Blumenfeld 1995). It is important to picture the end of public schooling and the impact of such an occurrence on the education system especially in training children towards acquisition of a better future. A need arises to shift from public schooling not because of change in the policies related to provision of education but as a result of an increase in the level of awareness among parents. The tax payers may just decide to keep the public schools running out of knowledge on the possibility of some parent’s rigidity in embracing homeschooling. It is however futile to remain loyal to a system that does not work; measures need to be taken to embrace other suitable means of educating children (Blumenfeld 1995). It is important to note that a specific timeline required in implementing such a dream remains indefinite. The report on homeschooling carefully reveals what is absent in numerous sources. This is the case in the manner in which it brings forth the influence of religion and moral law in shaping the tenets of life in the American society and in this particular case the education sector however this has changed with the emergence of different situations that have necessitated conformation to liberalism. The main point expressed in the article is the extent in which the society and its practices engage children with or without the consent of their children to a certain manner of schooling and attaining education (Blumenfeld 1995). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A case evident in the report is that of Barry who could clearly benefit from home schooling but was frustrated by the courts and government in general as seen in his forced placement in schools and foster care, the point that is therefore put across is the importance of home schooling as a more effective way of educating children especially among families who conform to Christian values. The main issues addressed in the article reveal that the American population values the influence of religion and in particular Christianity in ensuring that a family and its members grow and develop in reference to the word of God, this is further applied in education. An illustration is evident in the manner in which the homeschooling idea assumes a high degree of importance especially at a time when America is experiencing cultural civil war (Blumenfeld 1995). A number of people fathom that the only way to restore the value of education in reference to the requirements of Christianity is when people home school their children. In as much as the author of the article highlights a number of points such as the role of the family, religion and legislature in controlling the status of education in America, It is necessary to point out that public schools are considered more useful in making an individual grow and develop socially; this is not the case in home schooling. Reference Blumenfeld, S.L. (1995). Why Homeschooling is important for America. Montana. City News.

New Hall International School the Power of Place Book & Geography Essay

New Hall International School the Power of Place Book & Geography Essay.

Your five page typed double spaced essay on The Power of Place book (De Blij, Harm) using 12pt Times New Roman font should reflect your understanding of the five themes of the course. You do not need to reference every chapter in the book, but include a variety of examples from throughout the book. You must use the five themes (culture regions, spatial diffusion, human environment interaction, globalization, and cultural landscapes) to organize your essay. Please make sure that you have included all five themes in your paper and that you have included at least two examples from the book for each theme–do not just repeat Topic 1; show that you have read the book and understand each theme
New Hall International School the Power of Place Book & Geography Essay

MCCMCC Philosophy of Education Pedagogy of The Oppressed Discussion

MCCMCC Philosophy of Education Pedagogy of The Oppressed Discussion.

Directions:The last piece of writing we are going to work on for this first unit of ours is Paulo Friere’s: Chapter 2 of Pedagody of the Oppressed. I want to warn you that this text is a tough read, so you will
really want to take your time with it this week. You are all capable of
reading and understanding it. I have no doubt! But you will have to read
slowly and use the reading strategies we learned about last two weeks. Step 1:Below is your text. Please read it carefully. Take notes, annotate, highlight if you can. Philosophy-of-Education-Chapter-2_-Pedagogy-of-the-Oppressed.pdf ATTACHED BELOW STEP 2:The text is 12 pages long. I know it might seem long, but I
know you can do it. For each page, write a short summary (2-4
sentences) that tells me you understood what that specific page was
about. I should see 12 little summaries. You can either upload your
summary notes handwritten or you can upload them as a Word or PDF
MCCMCC Philosophy of Education Pedagogy of The Oppressed Discussion

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