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Working With Marginalized Communities

Working With Marginalized Communities. I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

Many individuals face challenges in career decision-making due to sociocultural factors that limit or otherwise negatively influence their ability to make self-directed career choices. Discrimination, economic constraints, and social supports are just a few of these factors that are highlighted in this Week’s Learning Resources,. In this assignment, you will build on your discussion post considering how these and other factors might influence the career development of your future clients or students, focusing on your role in addressing these factors.
To Prepare for Activity

Review this Week’s discussion posts about the factors that might influence the the career development or access to decent work for marginalized groups.
Research the Walden Library for peer-reviewed articles about how to address factors that influence career development of marginalized populations.
Read through the template that is located in the Learning Resources for this assignment.

By Day 7
Develop an advocacy statement that addresses the importance of diversity and advocacy as it relates to career counseling. When creating your advocacy statement, be sure to address the key components of advocacy, including a discussion of how you might advocate for clients and students across micro, meso, and macro levels of society. Much like a theoretical orientation statement, your goal is to describe your commitment to social change and advocacy for all clients and students in a fair and safe manner.

Note: Your advocacy statement should be one to two paragraphs in length. A meaningful statement requires more than a simple sentence stating your beliefs or aspirations. Your advocacy statement should be a tool to begin dialogue between you and your clients/students to explain the ways you work in your role as a counselor to address the needs of clients/students who may be marginalized on the basis of some aspect of their social identity.

Describe how your clients or students might be challenged by various sociocultural factors on their career development. Then, in 2-3 pages,

Describe three culturally sensitive ways in which you might apply career development theories while also addressing these socioculural factors.
Include specific advocacy strategies to address the client’s/student’s needs at the appropriate levels.

You must cite at least 2 peer-reviewed articles to justify how you are addressing the sociocultural factors and the specific advocacy strategies you selected.
Pitcan, M. M. [email protected] co., Park, T. J., & Hayslett, J. (2018). Black Men and Racial Microaggressions at Work. Career Development Quarterly, 66(4), 300–314.…
Sangganjanavanich, V. F., & Headley, J. A. . (2013). Facilitating Career Development Concerns of Gender Transitioning Individuals: Professional Standards and Competencies. Career Development Quarterly, 61(4), 354–366.…
Working With Marginalized Communities

Starbucks and Second Cup Brand Deconstruction Report

Brand Analysis for Starbucks Objectives, strategy, and plans The objectives, strategy and plans of Starbucks are geared towards improving and popularizing the brand identity of the company. Hence, the company is keen towards popularizing its brand by enhancing a firm expression across the board especially in view of other competitors in the market. This implies that brand expression plays a major role in marketing the company. Some of the key tenets valued in the brand expression include the name of the company, the color, shape and pattern of its logo, typography, icons/symbols and its worldmark (Zmuda 3). In other words, it is crucial to mention that the brand name of this company is a major area of marketing that cannot be ignored at all. Unique positioning The company was incepted way back in 1971. After operating for close to two decades, it was made a public limited company in 1992. By the year 2002, the company was operating close to 6000 stores across the globe. This number has since gone up remarkably. Its sales growth was stable throughout the years before the 2007 recession began. Although the identity of the company remained strong, profitability went down slightly below the projected margins. So far, expansion has been witnessed in the service and product sectors. As it stands now, one of the key objectives of Starbucks is to maintain a high standard in the quality of processed coffee. This objective has been attained progressively over the years. Another objective has been to develop a wide variety of customizable drinks and increase product differentiation in order to meet the various tastes and preferences of customers. The past, present and future One of the strategies that the company has used to maintain coffee standards is through direct control of its supply chain. The white collar people, the educated individuals and those are affluent in society have among the main targets of Starbucks. In terms to product positioning, the image of the company has so far changed into ‘a convenient place.’ It is readily positioned for growth due to its large class of the targeted market. The above mentioned target groups have supported the growth of the company over the years. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, customizing drinks is yet another growth factor because the varying tastes and preferences of customers can be met almost instantly. It is also crucial to mention that the customer base targeted by Starbucks has been widened to comprise those who are less educated and less affluent in society. At this point, it is vital to vividly lay out where Starbucks has been, where Starbucks is currently, and where they plan to go. To begin with, the brand was transformed into a public entity in 1992 when customer base was still very low. The number of stores were also concentrated in north America. In fact, there were only about 140 stores in the United States of America. The whole bean coffee was the main source of revenue way back in 1992. However, a need arose after the company went public and as a result, product variety was gradually introduced into the market (Anita 21). SWOT analysis The most updated SWOT analysis of Starbucks is described below: Strengths Effective management of employees and the entire workforce The most established coffee chain across the globe Remarkable customer experience A leading brand in coffeehouse The financial record of the company is sound Weaknesses It has a negative publicity Product pricing may not suit certain segments of society The profitability of the company largely relies on the price of coffee beans Opportunities A vast opportunity to expand retail operations Ability to extend product offerings Emerging economies are rapidly expanding and increasing investment opportunities Extending supplier range is possible Threats Supply disruptions may affect profitability of the firm The developed economies already present saturated markets Stiff market competition from both local and global supplies of coffee products Trademark infringements The ever-rising prices of raw materials such as coffee beans. Starbucks’ Media Plan In order to remain relevant and marketable as a viable coffeehouse in the world, Starbucks has developed several marketing campaigns through various media channels. Starbucks Iced Coffee is one of the best-marketed products in the media. It is marketed as a cold coffee drink that is refreshing. Customers are promised that this product from Starbucks is of high quality and sweet to taste. The product was launched in north America in 2006. The varying tastes and preferences of customers were also met by producing different categories of the product. Although it is made from Italian roast coffee, different types of flavours were availed to the market. These included the regular and light varieties. Media activities of Starbucks has also been witnessed via the North American Coffee Partnership. During the mid-1990s, bottled Starbucks Frappuccino was developed and intensively marketed. In 2002, Starbucks DoubleShot espresso was also heavily marketed though the above outlet. We will write a custom Report on Starbucks and Second Cup Brand Deconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company is also attempting to launch a media company so that it can be ain a position to exclusively market its coffee brands. Besides, the company has taken social media marketing by storm. Its presence in social media definitely targets the educated segment of society as well as those who are more affluent. Starbucks has remained to be a more engaging company in the online media marketing. It first created its Facebook page way back in 2008. By 2011, it had already hit a total of 20,000 fans. Currently, the fan page has 35 million likes. Through the Facebook page, the company advertises its products. Recommendations for Starbucks The international segment offers Starbucks the biggest growth platform. Other opportunity areas include the growing middle class population and the strong. Hence, it is highly recommended for the firm to open up new stores in the emerging economies so that new line of targeted customers can be reached. The management teams should be given the liberty to manage the firm based on their individual creativities and innovation. Besides, price points and local product mix should be introduced. These will enable the company to meet the varying degree of tastes and preferences. The core competences and capabilities should be transferred in the international operations of Starbucks (York 12). This will enable several areas of operations to build profit drivers. Additional healthy product offerings should be included in Starbuck’s menu instead of relying on snacks and other junk products. Finally, Starbucks should work towards mitigating price volatility of raw coffee beans (Morrison par. 12). An effective hedging tactic can be implemented by the company. For example, the estimated input of quantities can be locked or made rigid by developing and adopting future contracts so that suppliers of raw coffee beans do not increase the pricing at will. Brand Analysis for Second Cup Objectives, strategy, and plans An exclusively unique coffee experience is the main operating concept of Second Cup. Several meetings are held over a cup of coffee in most Second Cup’s stores bearing in mind that they are well furnished. In 2014, the company announced a new strategic plan and objectives that were to drive the company for three successive years (Shaw par. 9). The growth plans and strategies provided the much-needed roadmap for transforming the growth of the company. Both innovation and top-notch quality are enshrined in the vision of the firm. To begin with, share offering was identified as one of the most profound ways of supporting the set objectives and growth plans. Not sure if you can write a paper on Starbucks and Second Cup Brand Deconstruction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Raising additional fund through various means has enabled the company to expand and improve the quality of its production. By strengthening the firm’s balance sheet, it will be possible to advance and retain its market strength. In addition, the surplus funding sources have enabled the firm to improve the overall status of outlets located in prime spots. The desire to reinvent the brand has been a major area of operational concern over the years. Every touchpoint has been reflected in the collaboration, creativity and superior quality products offered by Second Cup. The firm has also set the right stage to be an authority in the coffee industry. A passionate café experience is also another key area that Second Cup has been focussing upon over the last few decades. If café experience can be delivered in the most effective manner, then the company can be well positioned to tap the potential of the coffee market industry. finally, close and efficient collaboration between the company and other world class partners has been a crucial area of operation to boost both local and international investment. Groundwork for growth has been established and fast-racked for about one year. In this paper, Second Cup’s brand will be assessed through various parameters such as product offerings, differentiation, the ability to engage the targeted markets in north America and overall profitability margin. For instance, are the brand name and logo appropriate in marketing the firm? What about trademark and brand equity? From the outset, it is evident that the brand personality of Second Cup requires some reinvention as will be discussed in the recommendations section. Unique positioning Second Cup was founded in 1975. Since then, it has dominated the north American market besides expanding to other territorial markets across the world. As a Canadian speciality supplier of coffee in small quantities, Second Cup has managed to train its coffee experts. The coffee firm is indeed committed to ensuring that it offers the best coffee experience to both active and prospective customers. Although Second Cup’s products are considered to be equally enjoyed by customers in the north American market, it is vital to mention that it still lags behind its key market competitors. This implies that the brand image is not adequately positioned to lure more customers. The pricing factor is a major drawback in the market positioning of the company. However, even if the price of Second Cup’s coffee is above those of the rivals, its products are generally of superior quality. Therefore, it is better positioned to be loved by customers who prefer quality to price or the element of cost. Past, present and future Long-term commitment to sustainability is evidently non-existent at Second Cup. If the firm cannot leverage on the latter, it will continue to miss out on its market positioning to other rivals such as Starbucks. The positioning statement adopted by the company can indeed yield the expected returns if sustainability methods are revamped and fast-tracked. The firm desires to be a company that cares as far as coffee offerings is concerned. The corporate giants in the industry are less passionate about their offerings and therefore, Second Cup coffee firm can still leverage on its positioning statement. This requires the company to constantly meet its marketing objectives (both short and long term). The coffee firm plans to set several unique selling points as part and parcel of the transformational plan to advance the growth agenda (Stantford par. 6). It can be recalled that out of the $2 billion retail coffee market in North America, Second Cup managed to capture only 0.6 percent of this market share in 2013. The third party certifications are presumably the main cause for the high price of coffee processed by Second Cup. The company has expanded its market to include the United States and other international subsidiaries. The expansion plan is still underway for the company in order to gain a sensible share of the available market. SWOT analysis Strengths Its staff members are well knowledgeable. Hence, customer experience is up to the required mark. Good tasting products and quality. The supply chain in place has been credibly established. Service provision is customer-oriented. Expansion to international markets. A well established and known brand in Canada. Weaknesses Missing product innovation Existence of middlemen increase the cost of products Some stores are outdated Store experience for customers lacks consistency An old and outdated logo There is no clear target market Most Canadians are not familiar with current branding of the company (Gorges par. 3) Opportunities Consumption is on the increase. Hence, more consumers are expected in the future. The young age is rapidly embracing the speciality coffee. This is bound to expand the target market. Ability to leverage on current health trend by developing products that are nutritious. Introducing ultra-premium price regimes for products that are considered to be upscale. Threats Barriers to entry in new markets The ever-rising price of coffee The dropping price of pods Competition from other corporate giants in the coffee industry Second Cups’ Media Plan One of the recent media plans of Second Cup coffee company has been the launching of a mobile app through which customers can gain a better experience of coffee. By using this app, customer earn points which they can later redeem in exchange for special offers and discounts. This initiative is aimed at revolutionising the brand to the next level of competition. S econd Cup also markets itself through social media outlets such as Facebook and twitter (Strauss par. 3). The main products being offered by the company are displayed alongside their benefits. Customers can also ask questions directly regarding their concerns. Other modes used by the firm to advertise its products include online media channels such as Youtube and search engines. It also promotes itself through the company’s website at Recommendations First, the company should change its logo that apparently appears out-dated. There is urgent to embrace innovation at the company in order to outwit market competition (Banerjee par. 10). The number of intermediaries should be reduced so that its offerings can be afforded by all segments of the population. It is equally crucial to develop a target for a particular market instead of focusing on ‘everyone’. The out-dated stores should be revamped besides enacting viable marketing strategies that can improve the publicity of the current brand. Works Cited Anita, Chang Beattie. “Can Starbucks make China Love Joe?” Advertising Age 83.40 (2012): 20-21. Print. Banerjee, Sidhartha. Second Cup to review Quebec signs after outcry. 2007. Web. Gorges, Mary. 90 percent of young people wake up with their smartphones. 2014. Web. Morrison, Maureen. “Starbucks Ad Blitz Positions Triple-Duty Coffeemaker as Singular Sensation.” Advertising Age 83.36 (2012): 6. Print. Shaw, Hollie. Starbucks Canada to open 150 outlets in biggest expansion ever. Financial Post. 2014. Web. Stantford, Jim. Coffee profits are grounds for a raise. The Globe and Mail. 2014. Web. Strauss, Marina. Second Cup tweaks blend with new president, menu. 2008. Web. York, Emily Bryson. “Starbucks CMO: McD’s Java Push Will Work In Our Favor.” Advertising Age 80.21 (2009): 12. Print. Zmuda, Natalie. “Starbucks Adds a Few Doses of Flavor to Perk Up its Packaged- Coffee Sales.” Advertising Age 81.33 (2010): 3. Print. Appendices Appendix 1: Distribution of Starbucks shops globally Appendix 2: Сonsumer price level in most emerging economies Appendix 3: Starbucks’s product portfolio Type Description Coffee fresh-brewed coffee § more than 30 coffee blends available § both – hot or cold options for any coffee beverage § customized milk options – regular, skinny, non-fat or soya milk available on consumer’s request § possible to add different flavored syrups, such as vanilla, hazelnut, caramel and other (for additional fee) Other handcraft beverages Starbucks Frappuccino coffee § Non-coffee blended beverages § Smoothies § Tazo teas Ready-to-drink beverages Starbucks bottled Frappuccino coffee drinks § Starbucks Discoveries chilled cup coffees § Starbucks Doubleshot espresso drinks § Starbucks Doubleshot Energy Coffee drinks § Seattle’s Best Coffee Iced Lattes § Starbucks RefreshersTM beverages § Tazo bottled iced and juiced teas Food products fresh baked pastries § sandwiches § salads § oatmeal § yogurt parfaits § fruit cups § Starbucks Ice Cream Packaged coffee and tea whole bean and ground coffee (Starbucks and Seattle’s Best Coffee brands) § Starbucks VIA Ready Brew § Starbucks K-Cup portion packs § Tazo tea filter-bags § tea latte concentrates Branded merchandise coffee- and tea-brewing equipment § mugs and accessories § packaged goods § music albums § books § other gifts Appendix 4: Mobile store Appendix 5: Second Cup mobile application

ACC 573 Academy of Art University Snapchat IPO Company Valuation

help me with my homework ACC 573 Academy of Art University Snapchat IPO Company Valuation.

Company ValuationOverviewIn March 2017, Snap Inc., the California-based creators of the popular Snapchat multimedia messaging app, held their initial public offering (IPO) on the New York Stock Exchange, which they announced in this press release: Snap Inc. Announces Pricing of Initial Public Offering.Using the Internet or Strayer Library, research Snap’s IPO and subsequent financial performance.InstructionsWrite a 5–6 page paper in which you:Evaluate the possible valuation methods used to establish the initial public offering (IPO) value of Snap stock, based on the valuation techniques studied in the course. Assess the potential challenges in the valuation and how such challenges can be minimized. Provide support for your response.Assess the performance of the stock within the first year of the public offering, indicating the primary drivers of the stock performance.Compare the Snap IPO to the Twitter IPO from 2013. Explain the similarities and differences in the initial issuance as well as subsequent stock performance.Assess the role of the chief executive officer (CEO) in relation to the stock performance, suggesting how the person in that role may influence the performance of the stock and value to investors. Provide support for your suggestions.Evaluate the risk/reward position to an investor when purchasing stock during an initial public offering, indicating under what circumstances you would advise an investor to do so.Predict the stock price of Snapchat over the next five years, indicating the key drivers of the performance and the resulting impact to the stock price. Provide support for your prediction.Use at least five quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources. You have access to Strayer University’s Online Library and the iCampus University Library Research page.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Evaluate issues related to a given stock’s performance, including leadership’s influence, risk analysis, and valuation methods.
ACC 573 Academy of Art University Snapchat IPO Company Valuation

Asian Philosophy: Veddic Period and Early Buddhism Essay

In the creation hymn of the Rg Vega, Aditi is acknowledged to be the god of all gods because he is the creator and has equally been granted the status of five men. Aditi is the god through whom all has been born and shall be born from because he is a god. He has an everlasting law that forgives all the wrong doings of people. The hymn of this everlasting law is exciting and radiant, because it has enlightened the deaf ears of the living people. The external rules of the law are fundamental and deep rooted and the law is impressive because it is unbiased. The central question on the creation hymn of the Rg Vega is the following ‘Why should sin be condoned by the gods of all gods?’ According to the lessons of philosophy found in Changdoya Upanisad, everything that exists in the world originates from life and pulsates in it. The dialogue between Svetaketu and his teacher Uddalaka Aruni illustrates the lessons of the philosophy. The upanisad also declares that when all these things are converted into someone, no one can be able to identify who is known by whom. The supreme spirit is inevitable to everybody because it has light and exists above, below, to the front and back, before, and sideways. The reality of Atman can be defined as the supreme essence in which the whole universe has as itself. This is illustrated by the way in which the body is reduced to ashes and the mind dies when a person passes away. The Atman is the self in which there is existence, wisdom, and delight. The Atman is equally universal and eternal. The objective world is reliant to the reality of Atman. Buddha’s doctrine of dependent origination as a response to the problem of dukkha can be defined as one thing being dependent on another entity. Buddha claims that life is a flow of development into something else. Everything passes away from tears, people’s aspirations and dreams. The universal preeminence of death is inevitable to every single person in the world. Buddha thus claims that there is nothing everlasting in the pragmatic self. The law of independent origination illustrates that the self is a combination of person’s emotions and perception. Buddha’s doctrine of dependent origination is attributed to the ignorance of people which has been listed as comprising of reliance. The ignorance of people can instigate from any of the constituents of being, for instance, karma and the rest. Dependent origination can only exist when people are reliant on one another and in this particular case, when none of their details is absent. Buddha’s doctrine of dependent origination may equally exist when people can have eradication of existence in the world. Other factors such as nihilism and inefficiency of karma also contribute to the dependent origination theory. These aspects by all means together define the complete expression of dependent origination. As much as such characteristics of being may come into existence, there can also be a continuous succession of their complete harmonization in the law of dependent origination. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buddha’s doctrine of no-soul can be defined as the theory of no existence for human beings. It originates from the theory of believing that self can also fail to exist. This is illustrated by the assumption that the entire human race will not live forever.

Effect of Different Lights and Miracle Grow on Plants

Effect of Different Lights and Miracle Grow on Plants. Research Question: To what extent does different lights and miracle grow have on the effect of the roots of forsythia? Background Information: Forsythia are deciduous shrubs that are mostly native to eastern Asia. The Forsythiaplant got its name from William Forsyth, a Scottish botanist. Leaves on Forsythiaare opposite of one another and are quite simple looking. The plant is known for being a tough and reliable garden plant. Low hanging boughs often take root. It is suggested that cuttings be taken from November to February(University). Parenchyma cells, also called ground or fundamental tissue, are mostly unspecialized cells, with thin and flexible primary walls. Most all parenchyma cells lack a second wall. These unspecialized cells carry out most of a plant’s metabolic functions. Photosynthesis occurs within the parenchyma cells of plant leaves. Parenchyma cells make up the mesophyll and cortex of plant leaves and the pith of stems and roots of plants. The mesophyll of a leaf is the internal layers, while the cortex is the outside layers of a leaf. The pith of stems or roots is the most internal layer. Many plant cells that are developing, are originally parenchyma cells. They then started to develop into their specialized structure or function. Collenchyma cells have unevenly thickened primary walls. However, there can be some secondary thickening. They provide support to the parts of the plant that are still growing and developing, particularly the young and not yet mature parts of a plant shoot and their leaves. The cell walls of collenchyma cells are composed of cellulose and pectin. Botanists tend to group collenchyma cells into four groups: angular, annular, tangential, and lacunar. Angular collenchyma cells are the most common type and their cell corners are thickened more heavily. Annular collenchyma cells have evenly thickened cell walls throughout. Tangential collenchyma cells have thicker cell walls only when they are parallel to the surface of the structure where they are present. Lacunar collenchyma cells contain thickening around the cell walls facing the inter spaces. Collenchyma cells are flexible and have the ability to elongate, in order to support the leaves and stems(Arrington). Sclerenchyma cells are specialized cells for support. These cells have secondary walls hardened with lignin. Lignin is a complex organic compound that makes plants rigid and woody. When sclerenchyma cells are fully mature, they are dead. There are two types of sclerenchyma cells: fibers and sclereids. Fibers are elongated sclerenchyma cells and they usually occur in groups. They are found in most all aspects of the plant body, including the stem, roots, and vascular bundles in the leaves. Sclereids are irregularly shaped sclerenchyma cells. They have very thick and lignified secondary walls. They are found in different tissues of the plant such as periderm, cortex, pith, xylem, and phloem. Monocotyledons, or monocots, are flowering plants that have only one cotyledon. Cotyledon is an embryonic leaf, or a seed leaf. Monocots have veins that are usually parallel. Their vascular bundles are usually arranged in complex ways. Their stem is usually unbranched and fleshy. The root systems of monocots are fibrous. They have floral parts that usually come in multiples of threes. The leaves of monocots are usually thin because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not on the inside the seed leaf(refer to printed off charts). Dicotyledons, or dicots, are flowering plants that have two cotyledons. The veins on their leaves are usually netlike. Their vascular bundles are usually arranged in a ring shape. Dicots typically have a tough stem. Their root system is a taproot, with smaller roots growing from it. The floral parts usually come in multiples of four or five(refer to printed off charts). Plants also have meristems. Meristems are tissue in plants that contain undifferentiated cells, or meristematic cells. Meristematic cells are capable of continuous division, since they grow into a specialized structure later on. There are two types of meristems: apical meristems and lateral meristems. Apical meristems are located near the tips of roots and shoots and are responsible for primary growth, or growth in length. Lateral meristems are elongated and located in the shoots and in the roots. They are responsible for secondary growth, which is adding girth and strength to the roots and shoots. A stem is an alternating system of nodes. Nodes are the points on a stem in which leaves, branches, or roots grow. The stem segments in between nodes are called internodes. The number of leaves that grow from a node can help determine of what species a plant is. Each plant has many nodes. The morphology of plants reflect their evolutionary history as terrestrial organisms that must simultaneously inhabit and draw resources from two different sources: soil and air. The soil contains water and oxygen. The oxygen in soil is found in air pockets and it gives the plant the ability to break down sugars and release energy to allow the plant to live and grow. The water helps nourish the plants and helps it live and grow. The air(including sunlight), provides carbon dioxide for the plants. The air allows the plant to breathe and photosynthesize, to make food. A cross section of a leaf allows one to view the three tissue systems of a leaf: dermal, ground, and vascular. The dermal tissue includes the upper epidermis, the lower epidermis, and the stomata, or guard cells. The ground tissue is the mesophyll, which contains the palisade parenchyma and the spongy parenchyma. These parenchyma cells are equipped with chloroplasts and they are specialized for photosynthesis. The vascular tissue contains the xylem and phloem, which are the plants “veins”. The infrastructure of the vascular tissue acts as a skeleton that reinforces the shape of the leaf. Dermal tissue, or the epidermis, is a single layer of tightly compacted cells that cover and protects all young parts of the plant, best known as the “skin” of the plant. Ground tissue is neither vascular nor dermal. Ground tissue has many functions such as photosynthesis, storage, and support. Vascular tissue continues throughout the plant and is involved in transport of materials between roots and shoots. The veins of plants, which are the xylem and phloem, are within the vascular tissue. The xylem conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into shoots. The phloem transport food made in mature leaves to the roots and nonphotosynthetic part of the shoot. The epidermis of leaves and other photosynthetic organs pores are stomata, which supports photosynthesis by allowing the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the outside air and leafs interior. Stomata is the main avenue for water to exit leaves through evaporation. Stomata changes the shapes of the cell that border, stoma can close pores to minimize water loss in hot, dry conditions. Transport in plants occurs on three levels: (1) the uptake and loss of water and solutes, absorption of water and minerals from the soil by cells of roots; (2) short-distance transport of substance from cell to cell at the level of tissue and organs, loading sugar from photosynthetic cells into sieve tubes of phloem; (3) long-distance transport of sap within xylem and phloem at the level of the whole plant. The start of transport in a whole plant starts when roots absorbs water and dissolved minerals from soils. The water and minerals are transported upward from roots to shoots as xylem sap. Transpiration occurs, the loss of the water from the leaves through stomata pulls up the xylem sap. The gas exchange occurs in the stomata, exchanging carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and expelling oxygen. Sugars is produced in the leaves by photosynthesis, then the sugar is transported as phloem sap to roots and other parts of plant. Ending back where roots exchange gases with the air spaces of soil taking in oxygen and leaving carbon dioxide, the gas exchange supports the breakdown of sugar, cellular respiration in the root cells. Hypothesis: The aim of the experiment was not only on rooting, but how it occurs by looking into the transpiration. As previously discussed, the plants with the most Miracle Gro quickly died. The roots of said plants were quite black and their leaves were droopy. However, the control, or the Forsythia with 60 mL of water, was the tallest and strongest. In addition, the control plant provided a clearer example of lateral rooting. From this experiment, it is notable that Miracle Gro may be helpful for taller plants with need of a “push” to grow. In the case of our Forsythia, the plants with less, or no Miracle Gro at all, were the healthiest. The stomata count lab gave us a clearer understanding of the movement of water in and out of the plant. From this lab, connected this idea to the previous lab: Every time I came back to class, and observed our plants, we noticed less water in each tube. The plants with less Miracle Gro had less water, thus, more homeostasis. The plants with the most Miracle Gro seemed to have let water out, but let the salt and solutions in. Thus, there was little to no homeostasis. Table 1: Variables Type Description Reason Use Independent The independent variables are variables that can be changes to test the dependent variables. To test whether miracle growth changes the rate of growth and transpiration on a plant. Using light and miracle growth as the dependent variables it can altered to different lighting and different amounts. Dependent The dependent variable is the variable that is being tested and relies on the independent variable to have changed. The dependent variable is the reason for the whole experiment. The hypothesis is centered around testing the dependent variable. The dependent variables would be water and the plant itself because those are the only variables that aren’t altered and that depend on the independent variables Control The variable that is not altered at all, the variable stays the same to see whether the dependent variable has changed. Is the variable to tell whether the independent variables has changed the dependent variables. The plant that will stay the same which is some of the forsythia. Materials: 24 large test tubes Four test tube holders Deionized water Miracle Gro ( 5ml, 10ml) Two micropipettes 24 branches of Forsythia Microscope Clear nail polish Blue dye Graphing Paper Procedure: Lab #1 For the first lab, decided to use six tubes, with one Forsythia in each, for our results to have more validity. Each tube had 60 mL of water. However, the control tube was the only one that solely contained water. The other five tubes also contained water, but a specific number of Miracle Gro, in mL, was placed in each tube. For example, the second tube contained 55 mL of water and 5 mL of a water/Miracle Gro solution, the third tube contained 50 mL of water and 10 mL of water/Miracle Gro solution, etc. The aim of the lab was to determine the effectiveness of a stimulant in plant cell differentiation and cloning. The lab lasted an estimate of three weeks. We measured the plants to have the same amount of stomata dipped in water. The number of stomata dipped in water were four on each branch. Every Forsythia branch weighed 6 grams. In addition, we tried to use Forsythia with 15-17 leaves to be as accurate as possible. Procedure #2 By taking one of the leaves from one of the Forsythia used in the previous lab, our group aimed to count the number of stomata in a leaf to investigate more on the transpiration. I placed clear nail polish on the leaf. After the nail polished dried, I carefully removed the nail polish layer, as it contained most of the stomata. The role of the nail polish was to stick onto the leaf, thus, the stomata to stick on the layer. Then traced the leaf using graphing paper to cut a specific centimeter “square.” Lastly, placing a blue dye on the square, and placed it under the microscope. After counting the number of stomata in that square, we had to multiply that to the total number of squares that were inside of the leaf from the graphing paper. The final amount was around 5,000 stomata. Data Collected: Each day I went back and water the plants with the same amount of water. I also so paid attention to root growth and the leaves. When the roots finally started to grow I begun to measure the root growth of each plant remembering to write down my data. It was too much for me to put the root growth of every one of the twenty-four plants, so i averaged the growth according to which variables it was. Being that they are in the same variable group that they are giving the same amount of miracle growth. Table 2: Miracle growth in forsythia Type Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Growth of roots (inches) Dependent 5 mL 10 mL 5 mL 10 mL 5 mL 10 mL 5 mL 10 mL .75 inches .25 inches 1 inches .5 inches 2.3 inches .9 inches 2.8 inches 1.2 inches Control 1.5 inches 2.8 inches 3.4 inches 5 inches Evaluation: The lab investigation was limited in some ways. First, being that there was low ecological validity in the investigation since the experiment was done inside and not outside. Second, miracle growth isn’t a substance that is naturally outside that can be tested. Third, the forsythias was clippings that was from an uprooted plant, as to measure the root growth, which couldn’t be done if the experiment had high ecological validity. The quantitative data collected is enough to support my conclusion of miracle growth affects the root growth of forsythia also that miracle growth mixtures slowly kills the forsythia clippings. The data also shows that miracle growth mixtures also controls the increase stomata and transpiration of the forsythia clippings. Conclusion: The goal of my experiment was to determine whether my hypothesis that miracle growth concentrations would not only help in root growth but also kill the plant also growing the stomata count and transpiration of the forsythia clipping. The experiment was done by comparing different concentrations of miracle growth and water to a controlled forsythia group. The experiment somewhat supported the hypothesis in the portion that concerns root and stomatal growth, not so in the killing of forsythia being as I didn’t start early and didn’t have time to determine whether the forsythia will die. The goal of the experiment was reach in a way that it could be seen that the strengths and limitations. Works Cited “BBC – Gardening: Plant Finder – Forsythia.” BBC News, BBC, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. “Easy Biology Class.” Easybiologyclass, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Parenchyma.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 July 1998, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Sclerenchyma.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 July 1998, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. Wise, Nicole. “The Science Behind Holganix: Monocots vs Dicots: What You Need To Know.” HOLGANIX The Natural Green Solutio, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. Wise, Nicole. “The Science Behind Holganix: Monocots vs Dicots: What You Need To Know.” HOLGANIX The Natural Green Solutio, Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. Effect of Different Lights and Miracle Grow on Plants