Get help from the best in academic writing.

Working with Babies from Birth to 12 Months essay help Finance

Working with babies from birth to 12 months E1-Summarise the factors which may influence the health and development of babies in the first year of their lives   Environmental factors such as not having enough space in the garden for the baby to play and explore will influence their development as they may not be able to expand their gross and fine motor skills. “Generally, people with a high level of earnings enjoy a better lifestyle, with better housing, food, clothes and own transport. Parents may not have enough money to buy toys and the essential equipment for the baby, which means they will have different experiences. Another factor could be the parents own experiences of being parented were compromised and have difficulties parenting their children. Having good role models as parents impacts on the parents were going to become. Another reason could be the financial climate rising, so parents have to return to work sooner after birth. This has a knock on effect when bonding with the baby e. g. not being able to breastfeeding or spending quality time together.

Thus putting strain on the parent/child relationship. Finding appropriate supervision, long working hours, tired, stressed all these factors have effect. Another factor is genetics which may influence the health and development of the baby. Some illnesses are inherited through genes. For example Down’s syndrome, this is resulted from a chromosomal abnormality. The baby can have problems such as heart defects and chest infections. http://www. marchofdimes. com/baby/birthdefects_chromosomal. html accessed on the 27th January 2012

Illnesses such as meningitis can cause epilepsy and hearing problems, whilst asthma is long term and the baby may need to have asthma pumps. The baby may have a poor appetite, constipation and feel ill. Their weight and height may be below average, if they have not been developing correctly due to illness. Antenatal factors influence development of the baby, during pregnancy. The mother may have taken illegal drugs or alcohol. This can cause the baby to develop an addiction, and may have to be weaned off. Infections can pass through the umbilical cord such as rubella, which can leave the baby deaf or blind when born.

Another is if the parent smokes during pregnancy this can have an effect on the foetus reducing blood flow which reduces oxygen significantly that the foetus requires developing correctly. Babies that are born to smokers are more likely to be either premature or have low weight issues or in some cases both. http://www. helpwithsmoking. com/smoking-and-pregnancy/effects-on-foetus-pregnancy. php accessed 27th January 2012 During delivery, there may be complications which can affect the baby’s health such as lack of oxygen. This can be caused by the umbilical cord becoming entangled.

As a result, the baby can be left brain damaged. Premature births can effect a baby’s growth and development. The child may develop breathing difficulties also prone to infection as the child hasn’t developed the antibodies they require to fight infections It’s crucial for a baby to be around others and have different experiences, in their first years of life, children develop the social and emotional capacities that prepare them to be self-confident, trusting, empathic, intellectually inquisitive, communication skills and social skills.

Not having opportunities the likely outcome they’ll form fragile relationships, and affect the way children react, relate to others and respond to the world around them. E2-Describe how indoor and outdoor environments can be made safe, reassuring and stimulating. The indoor environment can be made safe by never leaving children unattended, because of accidents. There should always be correct staff to baby ratio, which is 1 Adult to 3 Children. Whilst the baby sleeps, practitioners should be aware of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and keep the baby at the end of the cot. Risk assessments should also be made inside and outside. It is important that the environment children are playing in is regularly checked, before and during activities. ” Tassoni. P (2007) (Page 193) Outside, gates should be locked and the practitioner should follow policies and procedures that are in place. Making sure they understand them fully ensuring the child’s safety and wellbeing. Activities should be the appropriate age ranged and correct stage of development for each child. * Make toys accessible to babies so there free to choose what they want to play with and changing toy choices regularly keeps the babies interested and free to explore without danger. Provide safe access to windows so babies can look out onto the world, unbreakable mirrors to look into, and brightly coloured pictures at eye level. * Have a variety of floor surfaces for the babies to practicing crawling and walking (e. g. , mats, carpets, smooth floor surfaces) * Space where baby can take a time out from group activities. Indoor can be reassuring by following Key worker system with this, baby and parents will have one practitioner whom they will form a bond. The practitioner makes sure babies have individual routines, by working in partnership with parents, as they find the child’s individual needs.

They adapt their voice and body language so the baby feels comfortable. Outside, they can be exposed to new experiences slowly. The practitioner can also support the baby if upset by strangers, as they are aware of them from 6 months. The environments can be made stimulating by activities which build the babies sensory development, fine and gross motor skills. E. g. treasure basket which has different natural objects in, this will encourage the baby to use their different senses. The displays can be low down so the babies can interact with them by touch.

Whilst outdoors, the practitioner can take the babies to parks or mini zoo’s and let them explore nature. C1 –Discuss the importance of an environment that is safe, reassuring and stimulating  It is important for the environment to be safe as it is a government and legal requirement. This is because the Childcare Act 2006 affects the “adult to child ratio in rooms, the qualification levels of staff. ” Tassoni. P (2007 page 117) These are embedded in the Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum. (2008) Here are a few of the legislations and regulations Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

The nursery will cater to produce fresh, healthy meals each day and taking any dietary needs or cultural needs into account and provide children with different foods but again taking all dietary needs, cultural backgrounds into account at all times . The nursery should offer children cow’s milk or water at snack times and have access to water throughout the day. Practitioners should understand and make meal times an enjoyable social occasions and this then providing an opportunity for children to develop their social skills and independence by feeding themselves.

All parents are informed of what the child/children does eat within the setting throughout the day, every day through sharing sheets and the sharing of information via the practitioner. Another way is by nursery practitioners identify and manage risks to children and adults through carrying out risks assessments. The risk is a likelihood of a hazard occurring and the hazard is anything that could cause harm to others. All activities need to be considered, and significant risks are identified, measures are put in place to control or eliminate risks and all hazards and measures are recorded.

Other risks that are identified must be controlled appropriately. For example a child standing on a chair is a risk and must be controlled; however this would not necessarily be recorded. All risks should be dealt with promptly by either the manager or the practitioner in charge of that room. In my setting each room is checked at the beginning and end of the day for hazards, in accordance with each rooms risk assessment The garden area is checked for hazards before children go out to play.

This is carried out in accordance with the nurseries outdoor play policy. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) This treaty sets out the rights and freedoms of all children in a set of 54 articles. Included in those rights are those which ensure that children are safe. Article 19 states children’s rights to be ‘protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse by those looking after them’. Children Act 1989

This Act identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who work to ensure the safety of the child.. Section 47 states that the Local Authority has ‘a duty to investigate when there is a reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering or likely to suffer, significant harm’. Section 17 states that services must be put into place to ‘safeguard and promote the welfare of children within the area who are in need’. http://www. cumbrialscb. com/pagesall. aspx? id=425 accessed on 27th January 2012 The Education Act 2002

This sets out the responsibilities of Local Education Authorities (LEAs), governing bodies, head teachers and all those working in schools to ensure that children are safe and free from harm. Children Act 2004 This provides the legal framework for Every Child Matters. It includes the requirement for: The Children’s Act 2004 was designed with guiding principles in mind for the care and support of children. These are: * To allow children to be healthy * Allowing children to remain safe in their environments * Helping children to enjoy life

The setting should apply simple rules in a positive way that children understand and respond too. Children should engage in many conversations about their feelings, behaviour and that they are familiar with the daily routines, whilst respecting their privacy and dignity at all times. In some cases the safety and welfare of children may depend upon multi-agencies working together as a team. Childcare Act 2006 – The aims of the Childcare Act 2006 A good start in life is essential if children are to fulfil their potential and high quality early childhood services will result in better outcomes for young children, their families and society.

There are three main points of the Childcare Act 2006 and they are as follows: * Reduce child poverty: To support parents to work, and focus on the provision of good quality childcare for working parents. * Reduce inequalities between young children: Focus on supporting children most at risk of poor outcomes because of deprivation and disadvantage and promote social mobility. * Improve wellbeing for young children: Focus on the 5 Every Child Matters outcomes: Safety, Health, Economic Wellbeing, Enjoy and Achieve, Making a Positive Contribution. http://www. derby. gov. k/ChilldrenSchoolsFamilies/Services/Childcare/Childcareact2006. htm viewed on 27th January 2012 The environment must also be safe as this prevents accidents. The parents will feel reassured, if their baby is in a safe environment. This means they will want to continue sending their baby to the setting. It also helps the baby’s development; they will have opportunities to learn. If not they may not develop skills such as fine and gross motor skills. But it is important to provide children with certain element of risks in order to help them learn how to keep safe, so provide a different range of activities.

Boundaries, rules and limits are vital to help children feel safe and confident as they learn to understand what is acceptable and what isn’t. Children thrive best when their physical and emotional needs are met and giving them responsibility by allowing them to make their own decisions. A reassuring environment will make the baby feel secure and settled. As a result, the baby will want to attend the setting. Their also be building up their self-esteem which will benefit them later in life. The baby’s social and emotional health will increased, which reassures their parents.

They will also form an excellent attachment with their key person, which will be an advantage as they will plan activities around them. As a result their individual needs will have been met. A stimulating environment is important as the baby will develop a variety of skills. They will increase their sensory development by having activities such as treasury baskets and water play. They’ll feel motivated and want to explore different activities. A stimulating environment can be challenging, this will encourage the baby’s progression and learning and promote overall development.

Nursery practitioners follow settings policies and procedures to ensure the nursery’s a safe environment. Staff should have a copy of all the policies and procedures of the setting and familiarise themselves with all the policies and procedures ready to put them into practice. Hold regular staff meetings to discuss the current policies and procedures and to delegate responsibilities according to individual needs are also continuously updated on any change in legislation or policies and procedures through team meetings to get their ideas, knowledge and expertise. Some of the ways that we are aware of procedures are: By maintaining correct ratio’s for the age group * Make sure that staff has access to regular Health and Safety training * Do regular risk assessments on all equipment e. g. toys (inside and out), electrical sockets etc and any trailing wires * Make sure that all accidents and incidents are recorded correctly

E3-Describe the expected stage of development of babies at 7 months and how they can be expected to develop in the next 2 months of life. When the baby is seven months old the baby will be using their senses so a familiar feel and smell of a favourite blanket may be reassuring for the baby where as when the baby is 9 months they could be interested in different textures this is where a treasure basket could be introduced as they are all natural and harmless here is a example: Heuristic play was a term coined by a child psychologist Elinor Goldschmeid in the early 1980’s.

Heuristic play describes the activity of babies and children as they play with and explore the properties of ‘objects’. These ‘objects’ are things from the real world. http://www. littleacornstomightyoaks. co. uk/Articles/Treasure_basket accessed on 27th January 2012 At 7 months there able to sit without support for little time which will free their hands for exploring and reaching for toys as well as trying to get up on their hands and knees, whereas when there nine months, they might be pulling themselves up to a standing position and in some cases cruising along the furniture.

This is because their balance and gross motor skills have developed. At seven months the baby may uses palmer grip, whereas at nine months the baby uses the pincer grip. Also at 9 months their fine motor skills have progressed. Fine motor skills are those actions like picking things up between the thumb and finger. “can deliberately release objects by dropping them. ” Tassoni. P (2007, page 41). And where at 7 months the child as an understanding that if you let something go it will fall. At 7 months a child will respond to their name and look up when a adult says “no” but they will show enthusiasm and excitement when a adult plays.

At seven months, the baby watches objects in their visual field. However this progresses at nine months, as may be able to follow falling objects, which is object permanence. This is due to their intellectual development extending. Their language also progresses, as at seven months there babbling tunefully. At nine months it’s more complex as there repeating and imitating others. The baby also enjoys care routines at seven months, at nine months they may be wary of strangers and “shows distress when her mother leaves. Bruce. T, Meggit C (1999 page 91) as the child distinguishes between familiar faces and new ones. This is improvement of their emotional development. At seven months the baby forms a positive attachment with the adult, but at nine months their social development increases as they offer toys to others. At 7 months a baby’s favourite games is peek-a-boo as they have mastered the actions after playing this game several months e. g. covering themselves, then uncovering themselves and then acting hysterically surprised.

But at 9 months they love to play hide and seek and when you pop out they will giggle. Also at 9 months they realise that they are the ones in the mirror. By this age they are ready to start feeding themselves. Each baby is unique and meets milestones at their own pace. These are simply guidelines what your baby has the potential to do, if not right now, then soon some babies may develop rapidly in an area such as physical and less quickly in language. E4 -Explain how 2 different play activities/experiences can support the overall development of the baby described in E3.

One activity which can support a seven month baby is using musical instruments. These may include instruments such as a drum, rattle, xylophone and a music box. The baby’s sensory skills will develop whilst using the instruments, as they are using their sight to see the instruments, hearing to listen to the sounds they produce and touch by exploring the different materials on the instrument. Their fine motor skills will also develop as they pick up the instruments and discover them by shaking, pressing or pounding.

The instruments also help the baby’s hand to eye co-ordination and concentration. The musical instruments will also help the baby’s language development as they may babble whilst playing. The activity also develops the baby’s emotional development, as they may be feeling agitated so the music will calm and comfort the child. Also their social development will increase as they are bonding with an adult. “Music is an easy way for parents to relate to their children. When an infant hears you sing to them, you are connecting with them, and they are connecting to you. www. childcareaware. org accessed on 27th January 2012 Another activity is using building blocks to support the baby’s development. This is due to the seven month baby using its fine motor skills to pincer grip the blocks when picking them up, and their gross motor skills by picking them up with their hands and arms. They will also develop good sitting skills, as they will be able to balance for longer periods of time when they are playing. As a result, the baby will develop their hand to eye co-ordination from this activity.

They will also start recognising different colours, shapes and patterns. Their language and social development will improve as they may babble and bond with the adult. E5- Describe the role of the practitioner in meeting the particular needs of babies in a group care setting. ‘Children learn in many different ways. Practitioners have a crucial role in this learning and should draw on a range of teaching and child development and care strategies. ‘ http://www. nurseryworld. co. uk/news/722565/Partners-Learning—role-practitioner/?

Define polygenic and pleiotropic traits and explain their significance for researchers’ efforts to link human genotypes to phenotypes

Define polygenic and pleiotropic traits and explain their significance for researchers’ efforts to link human genotypes to phenotypes.

DNA is responsible for your phenotype, but to what extent? How much, if at all, do environmental factors play a role? Can you find examples (remember keep your sources academic)? Define polygenic and pleiotropic traits and explain their significance for researchers’ efforts to link human genotypes to phenotypes. Use what you know about meiosis to explain Mendel’s law of segregation and law of independent assortment. Should genes be patented? Why or why not?

Essay Help “>Essay Help