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This part of the paper focuses on the Systems’ Architecture and process design, in terms of data, processes, interfaces, and networks. Created charts and diagrams represent the activity explained in the following paragraphs. When finished, this part of the paper should display the solution for solving the issue of the accountings systems’ poor tracking of transactions and maintenance repairs.

Poor Tracking and reduction In Maintenance Solution The problem involved poor tracking of transactions and several maintenance repairs. To correct this problem a new design is developed. After testing the system with several types of analysis methods, the following designs for a system proves as the optimal solution. System’s Architecture Every system’s architecture largely permits or prohibits a system’s quality attributes such as performance or reliability.

This Accounting Transaction processing system’s performance will depend heavily on the system’s input/output architecture, data communications architecture, and the efficiency of the system software (Satzinger, 2004). An account transaction processing system’s architecture must support sharing data with many clients, tracking transactions, and most important support the organizational structure of business. Possessing the ability to access daily activity and provide quality service in an efficient way; makes room for good customer service.

Also this newly designed system will eliminate wait time for customers; most requests are processed while the customer waits. With this being the case, this architecture contains scalability to handle high volumes of requests. The Client-Server System is the chosen architecture design for this project. The system allows database functionality to be divided into a request and reply side. This architecture client application takes a load off shared network resources and server machines, and then puts it onto the client computers; this makes room for better performance and application flexibility.

The architecture includes independent, cooperating components (services) that can be allocated around and about an organization’s physical boundaries and security domains, using varying platforms; see figure 1, the architecture design. System Flow Chart In the illustration of Figure 2, the application software illustration identifies the various subsystems and their relationships (Satzinger, 2004). Setting the system in this fashion will let multiple transactions go through with just a minimal chance for delay.

To stay within budget, a system as this is adequate to maintain a mid-size organization’s business operations. If the system needs upgrading/restructuring in the future, this application can start out as a local client/server program, and later be run from anywhere in the world, efficiently accessing a database via the Internet, without costly reimplementation (Base, 2010). Data Flow Chart A flow chart shows the exact sequence of operations performed by a program completing a process (Flow, 2009). The data flow chart to this system illustrates the flow of operations.

The customers are the main driver for this system. Customers purchase product and an order is generated. Next the order is recorded and tracked in the system, and then the customer makes payment. Once complete this transaction is traceable for any after sale activity such as refunds or product returns. If the transaction is not internal then the billing part to the system activates and generates a statement for billing. The statement gets printed and mailed out to the external customer. The following illustration, Figure 3 displays a visual description to this data. Figure 3. Data Flow Diagram

Conclusion Accounting Transaction processing systems are relied upon in the business world. These information systems must accomplish task, provide reports, and maintain records on a regular basis. Through reading several articles, it seems accounting systems make accounting management more manageable (Matthews, 1967). In addition; when implemented correctly; an organization can provide their customers with a quality of excellence.




Bullying In Schools


Institutional Affiliation


Bullying is an issue that has been there for a long time. The term refers to the use of one’s influence, strength of power to cause intimidation to an inferior person. It can be physical psychological. Individuals from some of the major institutions in the society experience this vice either knowingly or unknowingly. The learning institutions are a major setting that bullying exists. Other areas include in the armed forces, at the work place as well as in the local groups in the society among others. A feature story emerged in the Worthington post about a teenager who could not take it anymore after two years of alleged mistreatment. Emilie Olsen, then a student of Fairfield Intermediate and Middle school had grown up happily with her adopted parent for over four years. This case can be attributed to racism since the student had been adopted from China. Her race came into the picture when fellow fifth graders made fun of her dressing and consistently abused her on social media. They even made it look like she was a lesbian and created social media accounts to intimidate her. It got to an extent of physical bullying characterized by bitter verbal pronunciations from her peers as well as physically violent feuds. They got so rampant that the bullies got to the point of telling her to go take her life. After her death, the parents filed a lawsuit against the school. This case relevantly points out what is happening in the society today. There are a lot of social injustices that happen with and sometimes without the knowledge of the authorities. In most cases, little or no punitive action is taken and this socials the level of ignorance in the Canadian judicial and educational systems. Despite the strict laws that stand against the vice, bullying has continued to be a major problem in the Canadian education system. Several factors should be considered when talking about bullying and these include the various causes, the different ways which exhibit bullying, the results and recommendation of what should be done to contain it (Juvonen & Graham, 2014).

Causes of bullying in schools

Bullying in learning institutions involves threat, force, coercion and intimidation, and faculty and administration taking place at institutions of higher education whether universities or colleges. Although over time it has not received much attention, it is believed to be common. Any student regardless of gender, ethnicity, weight or race can be targeted and can suffer from bullying. Whether physical, emotional, verbal or physical in nature, bullying should be addressed with great concern. It must meet a certain criteria for it to be considered and may include imbalance of power, hostile intend, provocation and distress and can result to psychological stress to the victim. There are many factors which contribute to bullying in learning institutions and these factors may include, ego, culture of the institution, administration taking part in bullying, student past experience and also the back ground of a student.

Satisfaction of ego

About ego, victims of the act experience mostly feelings of self-pity, anger and vengefulness while the bullies are indifferent or either sorry. More females than male victims get the feeling of self-pity. More male victims develop the vengefulness feeling. Research shows that ego mostly drives the bullies to carry out such inhuman acts mas they see themselves superior and better than others. These bullies take the advantage of not being reported to the administration as the they inflict fear upon their victims not to report with threats and also show offs as if they run the institutions.

Low self-esteem from past experiences

Bullies often have low self-esteem. They may also have been victims of bullying themselves whereby they may tend to use bullying as a tool of making they feel more powerful. Bullying others may be a way of hiding their weaknesses. Their fear of being noticed as weak may contribute to their behavior.

Structures and policies

Lack of proper rules policies poor structures in learning institutions may contribute to bullying. Institutions which don’t have proper written rules about addressing the issue of bullying always suffer more of the act. At times administrations have taken part in the bullying of students. Student mistreatment by staff while the administration does nothing may make people see it as a culture of the institution and thus develop the same.

Social status and ethnicity

Ethnicity may too contribute to bullying in learning institutions. A person of a different race may be seen as inferior by the dominating race in a school. This may contribute to him being despised by others over jealousy or even the culture from where he or she is from.

Lack of knowledge

Lack of knowledge and skills may be a factor to consider when it comes to bullying in learning institution. Institutions as well as the community not handling the issue with much seriousness may contribute to more of encouraging the menace. Children should be taught the consequences of bullying by their parents as they grow and also schools should come up with programs and policies which address the issue as it is. Sometimes lack of understanding how to live with certain people may contribute to the increase of cases of bullying within the learning institutions. Especially in the 21st century the concern of homosexuality has stood on escalation and sometimes understanding how to live with such groups may be a challenge. These people mostly suffer a lot from bullying ranging from psychological bullying to physical bullying. Institutions must take part and the community as a whole to address the issue fully and establish recognition of such people by each and every member in the society.

Forms of bullying in schools

Bullying is schools and other learning institutions seem to be displayed in different forms. These are based on both the environment and the social set up of the institution. The factors that motivate this vice come in different forms as discussed below (Yang & Salmivalli, 2013).

Mental bullying

This is whereby the actions of the bullies intimidate the victim mentally without the use o physical advances. The psychological set up of the victim is greatly affected by the actions of the offenders. Sometimes the bullies use verbal means to discredit the victim while in other times they perform action that discredit the victim. The actions are normally in a negative way and this is the reason whim the victim’s mental set up is greatly hurt. In most cases, bullies identify a negative feature, a weakness, and disabilities or even the social characteristics of the victim to cause intimidation to them. In the article, the other students use Emilie’s racial characteristics to make fun of her. They claim that her dressing is not fit for people of her race and tease her about her use of bright color claiming that she was gay. The fact that she is a minority gives the bullies an advantage and this gives her a lot of stress and as an adopted child, the psychological impact is very evident.

Physical bullying

Physical bullying involves intimidation through physical confrontation between the bully and the victim. Though it does not necessarily mean that there is physical violence, it may be the use of violent words, phrases of gesture towards the victim. For example, the bully may decide to speak negatively about the victim in public or in the presence of interest subjects, like a partner of a teacher. The insults in the comments made are considered to be physical abuse since is an activity that people witness and is performed physically. Physical bullying may cause injuries to the victim and especially if the bully is violent. This is not only a gross violation of one’s constitutional human rights and privileges, but also a crime punishable by law. Such instances lower the ego of the victim greatly making the focus more on the affliction than other relevant things in school. Emilie was involved in a physical confrontation at the gym and this affected her concentration in the class as she though more about what had just happened more than what was happening in class at the present.

Cyber bullying

Just like the name suggests, cyber bullying involves the use of internet based platforms to reach out to the victim with offensive messages. It is a very serious crime and may be prosecuted under the Cyber Crime act which was established to protect internet users across the wide world web. The use of social media has seen most people adopt online communities through various social media sites and applications. The worst thing about cyber bullying is that a large number of the victim followers will be able to access the posts made about them. This makes the emotional reception of the news unavoidable. The online community is normally composed of one’s close friends, family and peers. The stories therefore spread to a wide range of audience within a short period of time since most of the social media platforms have reposting and sharing functions. In the case of Emilie, the bullies created fake accounts of depicting her as a lesbian. This means that it was hard for her to explain to other people about the truth. She also did not have control or certain knowledge of the people who saw that posts and their thoughts.


Students can be discriminated or secluded in the learning environment by the offending group. This can be in major activities like sports, class work, field assignments as well as in general team functions that require the participation on several members. The bullies make plans to exclude the victim from the groups because the feeling that he or she should not associate with them. A sports team for instance may have a good performer from a minority group the offending elements get jealous of the good performance and decide to seclude the victim to prevent them from getting all the credits. This form of discrimination is deeply rooted in the social vices engraved in the culture and requires a more conclusive solution. Children are brought up with the idea that some groups are superior to other and this is what cultivates the culture to the school level. The girl Emilie from the case suffers a lot of attacks by the bullies just because she is an Asian among a Caucasian dominated community. They make fun of her race and this traumatizes her to the point that she eventually takes her own life. Discrimination may also be based on the victim’s religion, health, abilities or disabilities, financial and social status as well political ideologies among others.

Effects of bullying in schools

Bullying is a serious act which causes a lot of extensive effects to the victims. Some may be mild effects while others are to the extreme. Any form of bullying can simply not fail to affect the person and some of the resultant effects last cause lasting impressions on the image of the school (Wolke & Lereya, 2015).


Most bullying victims end up stigmatized. The abuse done to them causes their minds to adapt some characteristics of depression, low self-esteem and inactivity. The victim may also decide to keep to themselves because of the feeling of unworthiness instilled to them by the bullies. This affects their relationship with their peers as well as their family members. The victim begins to look down on themselves and disapproves the efforts they put. This as in the case of Emilie may even lead to suicide or self-punishment.

Lack of concentration

The student may become overwhelmed by the bullying to an extent that he or she cannot concentrate in major activities. The grades of the student may drop either drastically or gradually and the facts down on them. In most cases, the victim spends their time on their own but whenever they are with the people seem distracted or confuse. This can be attributed to the stress they are going through every time though remember the intimidation they are getting. Lack of concentration may affect the student’s performance both in class and in other extracurricular activities.

Rebellion and change of attitude

Bullying victims may develop a change of attitude as a way of responding to the abuse. This change may see the becoming violent and rebellious both at home and in school. This comes as a defense mechanism that ends up being directed toward others close to the victim. For instance, the student may stop respecting the parents at home, become violent towards the siblings and other children in the neighborhood. They do this to vent out the anger they have within, which if not addressed may change to adverse vices like crime, the use of drugs and violence. Bullied children are most vulnerable to adopting criminal lifestyles.


In general, the case of Emilie Olsen brings out several concerns, insights and questions concerning the subject of bullying in schools. The causes of bullying are well elaborated. It also brings out several forms of the vice and ways in which it affects students who are exposed to them. The adverse effects seem to pose a major threat to the learning institutions especially when the effect involves major criminal cases making it a legal issue. It is high recommendable the all schools adopt a serious anti bullying policy to discourage the vice. Strict punishment should be introduced so that students may fear engaging in the activity. Parents also need to be encouraged to instill proper discipline on their children from an early page so that when you grown up, the main keep the good values. It is also a great thing for parents and teachers to hold consultative follow ups about the students and make it frequent so that action may be taken for any cases of indiscipline. The guidance and counseling department comes in handy when it comes to dealing with bullying cases. This is because the department has professional therapists who have the relevant skills and capacity to handle the case. By studying the students past, they are able to understand the reason being the student’s violence against the victim. This means that the problem is addressed direct to the root and that a solution would be relevant. Finally, every person has the obligation to responsibly handle any bullying cases that they come across and this issues calls for a collective responsibility.


Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2014). Bullying in schools: The power of bullies and the plight of victims. Annual review of psychology, 65, 159-185.

Wolke, D., & Lereya, S. T. (2015). Long-term effects of bullying. Archives of disease in childhood, archdischild-2014.

Yang, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Different forms of bullying and victimization: Bully-victims versus bullies and victims. European journal of developmental psychology, 10(6), 723-738.