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Work, Families, and Children

Work, Families, and Children.

Consider the following assertion: “In the traditional American nuclear family of today, once the couple has one or more children, the wife should not be employed outside the home. Rather, she should devote the majority of her time to child-rearing activities and “being there” for the children. This is the best environment for the development of healthy children in all senses of the word – physically, mentally, spiritually, and socially.”Alternatively, one could assert something such as this: “In the contemporary American family, it often takes more than one income to provide for the family’s needs. Thus both parents may need or wish to work outside the home. There is little or no evidence to suggest that children who are cared for by qualified, attentive, and nurturing adults in a setting outside the home (e.g., a licensed daycare facility, a friend or a neighbor’s family home, an after-school program) grow up to be somehow disadvantaged or damaged emotionally, mentally, physically, or spiritually.”Choose one of these two perspectives and write an essay of 750-1,000 words that summarizes the research evidence against that perspective. (Thus if you choose the first assertion above, you will look for evidence that this assertion is not accurate.) You may use the Marriage & Family: the Search for Intimacy text (Chapter 11) and the sources cited in the text, but you also need to use at least three scholarly sources to support your argument.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
Work, Families, and Children

Having a baby and changing your life with a new being is a very important part of life. Regardless of culture and traditions, it is a very special process for most mothers, fathers and families in all cultures around the world. This essay will look in depth into the ways the Hindu culture views child bearing, infant feeding, post partum beliefs and in general how their beliefs differ from our Canadian modernized culture. Child-bearing The Hindu religion in itself is a very tight-knit culture, relying a lot on the power of their God’s and finding enormous strength in the faith itself. The child-bearing process is no exception. “Ceremonies are usually performed during pregnancy to ensure the health of the mother and growing child” (Hindu, 2012). Initially at conception a ceremony called ‘samskar’ is performed and this involves prayers of hope that a child will fulfill the parent’s obligation to continue the human race. There are rituals that the father practices with the mother such as the father parting the hair of the pregnant mother three times upward from the front to the back, this is believed to assure ripening of the embryo inside. Also, charms may be placed on or around the mother that ward off evil eyes and witches and demons. As the pregnancy advances there are a set of prayers that are held during a ceremony to continue the blessings of the mother and child. Between the fourth and seventh months of pregnancy a ceremony called ‘Simantonnayana’ is held in which the father combs his wife’s hair and expresses his love and support for her. Traditionally in the seventh month of pregnancy Hindu’s have another ritual that is performed which would be compared to a modernized Canadians version of a baby shower, this is called ‘Seemantham’. This event is organized by the family members and involves gift-giving and religious rituals. “A prayer to fire is recited to sooth the expectant mother. Light instrumental music is played, and it is believed that this will refine the development of the baby’s ears” (Hindu, 2012). “During pregnancy the mother usually assumes a passive role and follows directions of the trained professionals” (Leifer, 2011). During all examinations and the actual birthing process a female couch is usually preferred and they value the teachings of professionals. While the woman is in labour, her head is usually covered and if any examinations are to be done to the mother the husband must always be present. Rituals immediately following the birth of the child are practiced as well. “Prior to the cutting of the umbilical cord, the father may touch the baby’s lips with a gold spoon or ring dipped in honey, curds and ghee. The word ‘vak’ (meaning speech) is whispered three times into the right ear, and mantras (prayers) are chanted” (Leifer, 2011). This ritual is normally called ‘Jatakarma’ and is viewed as a sacrament or samskar. This ritual is given by the father to welcome and give blessings to ensure a long life, peace and to continue the generation of talent for the newborn child. After the newborn is delivered the sex of the child is not revealed until the placenta is delivered. This information is with-held to delay stress of the mother if the gender of the child is not of her preference until after the placenta is delivered. One of the last rituals in this category includes the performance of ‘Namakarana’ (a ceremony done to name the child). This is held between the tenth and forty-first days of life. This particular ceremony marks the child’s formal entry into his or her seat of Hinduism. “Names are chosen according to astrology” (BeliefNet, 2012) and a consultation is done in deciding the name of the child and usually names of Hindu gods or goddess are chosen and preferable. Hindu’s believe this tradition is special and a blessing because you will have an added benefit of remembering how your child was named. Infant Feeding Typically a newborn baby in the Hindu culture is breastfed; the belief is that by feeding the child breast milk, mothers are worshipped by the Hindu goddess ‘Durga’ (the mother goddess). It is believed that breast milk is thought to have special powers which are in their religious text as the ‘Sushrauta Samhita’. These texts also recommend delaying breastfeeding until ‘true milk’ comes in.” (McKenna, 2009). Following religious beliefs a mother’s colostrum and prelacteal feeding is discarded. Among some Hindu’s “colostrums is discarded because of a belief that its thickness and viscosity may be difficult for the newborn to swallow. Also, there are beliefs that the first breast milk is ‘stale’ or ‘old’ from being stored in the breasts for the duration of the pregnancy” (McKenna, 2009). Mothers ensure that their breasts are washed and all colostrums are discarded for the first day until the true milk comes in. Hindu’s also believe that by discarding the colostrum they are ‘purifying the tubes of the mother’s mammary glands. Prior to the mothers giving their child the true milk, Hindu’s give ‘prelacteals’ which their religious beliefs and cultural backgrounds state they are to have positive effects on the baby’s gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. “Hindu’s use prelacteals like honey and ghee, which are thought to evacuate meconium, reduce colic and act as a laxative” (McKenna, 2009). When the infant reaches an age of six or seven months an ‘Annaprasana’ ceremony is performed for the first solid foods. Annaprasana’s meaning is anna= rice and prasana= to enter, thus the reasoning why rice is typically the first food given, and is given at this ceremony. The difference of the month for the ceremony depends on the gender of the child. A girl child’s ceremony is held on an odd month, while a boy’s ceremony would be on an even month. When a baby gets solid food for the first time numerous prayers are offered to the child. It is believed with Annaprasana that the flaws that arise due to intake of impure food are removed. At the ending of this ceremony different articles such as books, fruits, toys and money are spread in front of the child. The baby is allowed to touch these items and it is believed that what the baby touches first will be his interest for rest of its life. Post Partum Beliefs Typically in most Indian cultures after a baby is born there is a lot of family support for the mother and many believe that the baby is to be handled as little as possible to allow its spine to grow normally. For the post partum women “sponge baths are usually done” (Leifer, 2011) in the Hindu culture. Usually the woman who delivered the child is “kept in seclusion for 40 days postpartum” (Leifer, 2011). This time of seclusion allows for bonding of the woman and child and immediate family. After this bonding time is complete then other family, friends and presents are welcomed into the home of the child. A traditional art of painting the skin with Henna is also performed on the woman after having a baby. “Hennaing a woman after she gives birth is a traditional way to deter the malevolent spirits that cause disease, depression, and poor bonding with her infant. The action of applying henna to a mother after childbirth, particularly to her feet, keeps her from getting up to resume housework. A woman who has henna paste on her feet must let a friend or relative help her care for older children, tend the baby, cook and clean. This allows her to regain her strength and bond with her new baby” (Cartwright Jones, 2002). Personal Reflection The process and importance of having a child in the Hindu religion really intrigues me. Although every culture finds importance and happiness in the process of a new child being welcomed into their family, the Hindu religion has opened my eyes into how special and meaningful this process can be. All the ceremonies and special activities that are done to embrace this beautiful time in life made me wish some of these special events were incorporated in modernized Canadian cultures. I truly believe that having this much culture and religious belief incorporated into having a child makes it even more special. It is very important as a nurse that you take the time and consideration to value all the different areas that cultures around the world celebrate and embrace different parts of life, such as having a baby. As a nurse you must be respectful of each and every person’s beliefs and be culturally aware that every person regardless of race, color or culture may choose to embrace this part of life in their own way. It is the responsibility of the nurses and health professionals to make this the best possible experience for them and in turn being respectful to their wishes, regardless if they are different than your own.
answer the questions 3 sentences minimum each. Help me study for my English class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Please avoid plagiarism. Please use simple words. Answer questions below. 3 sentences minimum.
Need ASAP. Thanks in advance!
DJCA 100: JOURNAL QUESTIONS PART I
**For each question, please answer in AT LEAST three (3) sentences**
**Please include the question AND answer for each entry**
**Please spellcheck and PROOFREAD – points will be deducted for careless errors.**
LANGSTON HUGHES (1938)
1. According to Langston Hughes, who should share the American Dream?
2. Why does Hughes state several times that “America was never America to me?
ROUSSEAU (1762)
3. Rousseau says, “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Does he seem to be referring literally to slaves or more figuratively to people in general? Explain.
4. What does Rousseau mean by the “Social Contract’?
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (July 4, 1776)
5. Why was the Declaration of Independence created?
6. According to the Declaration of Independence, from what source should the government derive its power? What should be done if there is an abuse of power?
ABRAHAM LINCOLN: EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION (JAN 1, 1863)
7. President Lincoln chose not to endorse universal abolition in his Emancipation Proclamation. How was this a strategic decision as both a military commander and as a national leader?
8. Why did President Lincoln feel that it was politically necessary in a document that abolishes slavery in the rebel states to advise the slaves to remain peaceful and work where they were?
ABRAHAM LINCOLN: GETTSYBURG ADDRESS (NOV 19, 1863)
9. What does Lincoln mean when he refers to the soldiers not dying in vain?
10. President Lincoln redefined the Civil War not just as a war in support of the Union, but for “a new birth of freedom.” What did he mean by that phrase?
ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE (1835)
11. Why was de Tocqueville so fascinated with political and social associations in 1830s America? Give an example of associations that provide services to citizens that the government does not provide (i.e. an organization to which you or your family members belong).
12. According to de Tocqueville, what would happen if the government tried to take over the functions handled by associations?
HENRY DAVID THOREAU (1849)
13. What is civil disobedience?
14. Is it legally and morally correct to participate in civil disobedience if you feel a law is unjust?
W.E.B. DuBois (1903)
15. What is the NAACP? What was the name of the NAACP magazine that Du Bois edited?
16. What does Du Bois mean when he states, “the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line?”
PLESSY v. FERGUSON (1896)
17. What does the legal doctrine “separate but equal” meanaccording to the case Plessy v. Ferguson?
BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION (1954)
18. What ruling was established by the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education?
answer the questions 3 sentences minimum each

American Sentinel Univ Managerial Competence of First Line Nurse Managers Discussion.

Activity 2Professional Roles and OrganizationsThere are many roles a professional nurse may assume. As a member of the profession, the nurse may choose to become active in one or more professional organizations. Enter Sentinel City and interview the City Health Director. The City Health Director has additional information about the various roles that a professional nurse may assume. Select three professional roles that are available to nurses and discuss how each role may impact the patient, family, or healthcare in general. Review the resources available and identify two professional organizations and discuss how belonging would benefit the profession and you as a professional.Resources:Sentinel CityProfessional nursing organizations such as the American Association of Nursing (ANA) or Michigan Nursing Association (MNA)Nurse.org has a list of professional Nursing organizations to choose from tooAdditional Instructions:All submissions should have a title page and reference page.Utilize a minimum of two scholarly resources.Adhere to grammar, spelling and punctuation criteria.Adhere to APA compliance guidelines.Adhere to the chosen Submission Option for Delivery of Competency guidelines.Submission Options:Choose One:Instructions:Paper2 to 3-page paper. Include title and reference pages.Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation4 to 8 slides. Add title and reference slides.Follow Rules of 7.Other media (Prezi, etc.) presentation4 to 8 slides with speaker notes. Add title and reference slides.Follow Rules of 7.Video Presentation5 to 6-minute video presentation.Attach reference page or include in video.Professional appearance and background.Video submissions must include a script in Word format, submitted through Turnitin for an Originality Report.TableTable with appropriate columns and headers.Include title and reference pages.Graphs or other illustrationsGraphs or illustrations with appropriate labels. Include title and reference pages.PosterPoster utilizing any applicable poster template. Include visual graphics/images/other formats for visual appeal. Include appropriate title and references on poster.Note: Title and reference pages/slides do not count towards the count requirements.Professional Values – Professional Roles and OrganizationsDescription: The baccalaureate-graduate nurse will discuss the roles and perspectives of the nursing profession.Course Competency: 2) Describe various roles that professional nurses assume in the health system and society.QSEN Competency: 3) Evidence-Based PracticeBSN Essential VIIIAreaGold MasterySilver ProficientBronze AcceptableAcceptable Mastery not DemonstratedProfessional Roles Identifies three professional rolest r iIdentifies two professional rolesIdentifies one professional rolesDoes not identify professional roles Discussion of three professional roles impact on healthcareFully discussesDiscusses two professional roles and their impact on healthcareDiscusses one professional role and its impact on healthcareDoes not include a discussion of the professional roles impact on healthcarehree professional oles and their mpact on healthcare Professional organizationsIdentifies twoIdentifies one professional organizationIdentifies one professional organization not related to the profession of nursingDoes not identify professional organizationsprofessional organizations Discussion of two professional organizations benefit to profession and selfFully discusses two professional organizations benefit to profession and selfDiscusses one professional organization benefit to profession and selfDiscusses one professional organization but does not mention benefit to profession or selfDoes not include a discussion of the professional organizations benefit to profession and self APA, Grammar, Spelling, and PunctuationNo errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.One to three errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.Four to six errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.Seven or more errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation. ReferencesProvides two or more references.Provides two references.Provides one references.Provides no references.
American Sentinel Univ Managerial Competence of First Line Nurse Managers Discussion

Ransomware: Developments and Impacts

1. Introduction Ransomwares are one of the most prominent and existing threat to our data, file or other digital information that is stored in drives. Ransomware a sub set of malware that work by simply locking the desktop or inhibit user from accessing their data by encrypting their important file by using public key and demand ransom/extortion to decrypt the file by using private key. Ransomware cause a lot of financial damage, CryptoWall3 cause 320 million damage in 2015 only (CTA, 2015), while WannaCry loss estimated to be $4 billion (Cyence, 2017). More than 70% of the business loss access to their data forever whereas more than 25% unable to access the data for 5 days (Intermedia, 2017). Only in 2016 about 2,673 complain related to ransomware are received by FBI totaling a loss of $2.4 million. 1.2 What is Ransomware Ransomware is a malicious program that encrypt user, company or any organization data or files and forced them to pay money in form bitcoin or other medium to decrypt the files, data. Ransomware uses different encryption method to encrypt the file. Once the file is encrypted an alarming message appear on the screen for ransom. 1.3 Types of Ransomware Encrypting Ransomware These Ransomware encrypt victim’s files on their devices and demand ransom by displaying a message window. If the ransom is paid, they send key to decrypt the file. Common examples of these types of ransomware are CrytoLocker, Crypto Wall, WannaCry. Non-Encrypting Ransomware Non-Encrypting ransomware restrict the users into logging by locking their machine and demand ransom from them to unlock the victim’s machine. Examples of these ransomware are WinLocker and Reveton Leakware This type is different from other ransomware because they don’t block access or encrypt users file or data. Rather they collect victim’s sensitive file or data and blackmail them to publish the data online, If the ransom is not paid. 1.4 Ransomware Attack Vectors Malvertisement and Drive by Download  Malicious advertisements are posted into legitimate websites.  Once user click the advertisement link immediate infection take place on user PC. Spam Email Spam mail are old tool to deliver ransomware to victim machine. It contains malicious attachment or link that contain exploit kit. Spam mail contain various psychological levers to trick victim into downloading ransomware. Vulnerability Ransomware exploit vulnerability to infect devices, EternalBlue is one of the famous vulnerabilities found in windows machine that ransomware exploit to connect to remote servers via port 445 which allow to compromise entire network and all the devices connected with it. Due to this vulnerability ransomware infect more than 200,000 machines. 1.5 Ransomware Encryption (Hybrid Approach) Symmetric Encryption Pros Cons Encryption process are fast due to simple mathematical operation. Ideal choice for encrypting large amount of data. Same key which is used to encrypt data can also be used to decrypt the data. If the victim finds the encryption key on his computer disk, he will use the same encryption key for decryption. Asymmetric Encryption Pros Cons Two different keys public and private for encryption and decryption, public key encrypt the data while private key is used to decrypt the data. Ideal choice for encrypting small messages. They are slower due to complex mathematical operation on large bits of data. Ransomware main approach is to encrypt large amount of data as fast as possible (1) Secure the key from the outside world by keeping it private (2) Statement (1) and (2) can be satisfy by applying Pros to the Cons of Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption. Symmetric Pros Replaces Asymmetric Cons (3) Asymmetric Pros Replaces Symmetric Cons (4) By combining (3) and (4) we can achieve hybrid encryption approach. Illustration of Hybrid Approach  System Infected  Generate AES 256 bit key and encrypt files via AES for fast encrypion.  Ransomware contain RSA 2048 public and private key for client (Cpriv, Cpub) and RSA 2048 public key of Server (Spub) encrypt Cpub AES public key encrypt Spub Cpriv encrypt Spriv Spub Advantage of Hybrid Approach  Due to faster encryption, huge amount of data is encrypted.  Once the device is affected there is no need to communicated to Command and Control Server for key exchange process.  Enforce multiple mechanism to protect the key from victim and outside world. 2.CRYPTOLOCKER Cryptolocker is a ransomware that surfaced on internet in Sept 2013 within 4 month it infected approximately 200,000 to 250,000 devices (Dell Secureworks), and earned $27 million in first 100 days (ZDNet). Almost 41% of the British people pay the ransom (University of Kent). Due to fast success its copy cat variants and advance ransomware released every year.  Usually spread via malicious mail attachment.  Target Windows OS.  Searches for file via extension doc, docx, jpeg, pdf etc.  Encrypt files using RSA 2048-bit algorithm.  Decryption of file when ransom is paid. 2.1 CryptoLocker Attack Vector  Cryptolocker can spread via mail that contain malicious attachment (Microsoft Products malicious script are embedded in Macro).  Spread through file sharing severs P2P (Malicious files are kept in system once user download the file they immediately get affected).  Spread through downloads (Fake AV software, trick user their system is compromised and ask them to download their fake AV to remove virus). 2.2 How CryptoLocker Work Step 1  Install Ransomware on PC.  Generate unique code that identify the particular PC.  Deactivate shadow copies, window recovery  Copy itself to %AppData% or %LocalAppData%  Create autorun registry in (CurrentVersionRunCryptoLocker:.exe).  Create additional registry key to even run in safe mode by applying asterisk in beginning (CurrentVersionRun*CryptoLocker:).  Get IP address of particular PC. Step 2  Send message to command and control that a particular device has been affected.  Send private key to command and control server.  Delete private key from the infected system Step 3  Search files with the help of extension such as .pdf, .mdf, .jpeg, .docx, etc.  Search files on network mapped drives. Step 4  Copy the files, folder names, by appending its extension (.encrypted or .cryptolocker).  Apply encryption algorithm on the file change by CryptoLocker.  Delete original files. Step 4 illustration with respect to I/O Step 6  Notify victim by alert message on desktop screen and demand ransom to decrypt files. 2.3 CryptoLocker Real World Incidents Target Computer system files such as .pdf, .doc, .docx, .mdf … Distribution Spread Via Email, P2P, Drive by Download Effect Files remain encrypted until ransom is paid Timeframe 2013 – 2014 Case Study 1 Location Police Department Tewksbury, Massachusetts Security Measures Out dated Antivirus Software Backup 18-month-old backup Attack Vector Malicious Email Measures Taken by Vendor/Company/Organization Isolated encrypted file PCs. run virus protection on remaining device. Buy new domain server and firewall. Pay ransom to decrypt the files. Impact Police System were down for 5 days. A financial loss of $6,878 for new domain server and firewall and $19,604 for the professional services provided by Delphi. Outcome Recover all the encrypted files Aim of Security Breach Availability, Data integrity Case Study 2 Location Small Office, Honolulu Security Measures Personal firewall, up-to-date AV and Window OS. Backup Multiple backup is performed on dedicated file servers regularly. Attack Vector Malicious Email Measures Taken by Vendor/Company/Organization Pay Ransom. Due to asymmetric encryption the decryption process was very slow only 5 GB/hour recover 30,000 files in 10 days. Buy new Servers to speed up the process as it encrypted 400,000 files. Impact Spend huge amount of money in buying in high end Servers. Lost lot of time in decryption of the files and data. Outcome some of the files were not decrypted Aim of Security Breach Availability, Data integrity Case Study 3 Location Small Office, Honolulu Security Measures Personal firewall, up-to-date AV and Window OS. Backup In USB drives, but didn’t do in past few months. Attack Vector Malicious Email. Impact Unable to recover encrypted files. Lost more than $300 in PC cleanup. Lost over month of data. Measures Taken by Vendor/Company/Organization Use email, home PC and coworker to recover files. Clean PC via window restore and deleting CryptoLocker registries. Outcome Lost over month of data. Aim of Security Breach Availability, Data integrity Conclusion Ransomware are advancing and generating more revenue as the year is passing. Organizations such as Health, Insurance, Government and Business sectors are the main target as compared to home users. Antivirus and firewall are not enough to combat ransomware. It is necessary to take other preventive measures not only by updating AV and OS but also keep regular offline backup, cautious when opening email attachment or clicking on link, use safe practices while browsing on internet. References Challenges in cyber security – Ransomware Phenomenon https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/125.pdf Techniques and Solutions for Addressing Ransomware Attacks https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fa83/650f6d51aefe71148c541c67a68851212a13.pdf Hybrid Encryption. Ransomware encryption techniques Retrieved from https://medium.com/@tarcisioma/ransomware-encryption-techniques-696531d07bb9 A study of ransomware http://web.stanford.edu/~csimoiu/doc/ransomware.pdf Reverse Engineering of WannaCry Worm and Anti Exploit Snort Rules https://digital-forensics.sans.org/community/papers/grem/reverse-engineering-wannacry-worm-anti-exploit-snort-rules_5549 Data of Email attachment File Type, Url. Symantec Report 2019 Retrieved from https://www.symantec.com/content/dam/symantec/docs/reports/istr-24-2019-en.pdf A SURVEY ON RANSOMEWARE: EVOLUTION, GROWTH, AND IMPACT https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d296/3936acb60983317fa6cee4d552c859e5b428.pdf Case Studies (1,2). CryptoLocker Ransomware Retrieved from https://www.hawaii.edu/alohaisac/conference/presentations/Aloha_ISAC_CryptoLocker.pdf CryptoLocker: Everything you need to know https://www.varonis.com/blog/cryptolocker/ Case Study (3) Police pay ransom after cyber terror attack Retrieved from http://homenewshere.com/tewksbury_town_crier/news/article_8f8ce2ba-da0d-11e4-a127-578b97102bf0.html CryptoLocker Ransomware Infection https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA13-309A CryptoLocker Ransomware https://www.secureworks.com/research/cryptolocker-ransomware

The Effects Of Bilingualism Education Essay

online dissertation writing Historically, bilingualism had been quite a controversial during 1920s – 1950s. People would think that bilingual meant being a lower-class citizen. Some studies even showed that on oral tasks and performance-based tasks, monolinguals always did better than bilinguals. However, during 1960s, a breakthrough study showed that bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on most of the tasks. Nowadays, people speak different other languages around us, the stereotypes of being bilingual must have changed and so as the attitude toward it. The new studies show more and more benefits of being fluent in more than just one language. In “Beyond the Classroom: Bilingualism, Cognitive Skills, and Health”, Wodniecka and Cepeda explores the effects of bilingualism on cognitive skills and health. They encourage the readers to believe that bilingualism can reduce the severity of ADHD, improve cognitive skills and memory, and may delay dementia during aging. Before we begin to analyze the argument being made here, we must first understand the authors’ backgrounds, the relationship of them to the article, and the audiences of the article. Zofia Wodniecka is currently a postdoctoral fellow at York University in Toronto. She teaches psycholinguistic and behavioral characteristics and explores bilingualism from these perspectives. Nicholas J. Cepeda is an assistant professor and heads the Cognitive Flexibility Lab at York University in Toronto. He teaches educational psychology and studies cognitive adjustability, bilingualism, and ADHD. In this article, the relationship of the authors to the material seems quite distant. Even though, they are both experts on the subject, they seem to want to persuade the audiences by citing other many studies along with a few of their works. The audiences that the authors directly aim at are for language teachers because this article was published in a 2007 issue of Mosaic: A Journal for Language Teachers. It is also possible that other indirect audiences of this article would also be bilingual parents, college students who are majoring in psycholinguistic, people who are interested in learning a new language, school’s owners, or even people who are afraid of dementia when they are getting older. To emphasize to the readers that bilingualism can reduce the severity of ADHD, improve cognitive skills and memory, and may delay dementia during aging, the authors use two different rhetorical techniques, which are the emotional and logical appeals. First of all, being bilingual may reduce the severity of ADHD. After showing us that bilingualism has effects on brain development, Wodniecka and Cepeda use Pathos, they write “we speculate that becoming proficient in a second language might either help children already diagnosed with ADHD develop improved ability to control their actions or reduce the chances of developing ADHD.” This is an emotional appeal to the parents of ADHD children, or the parents who are afraid their children might be developing ADHD. The authors give hope to the parents by showing that becoming a bilingual, the brain will be stimulated twice of a monolingual. Therefore, bilingualism has a chance to reduce the development of ADHD in children. Secondly, bilingualism can improve cognitive skills and memory. The authors support these claims by using the appeal to reason and evidence. For the first example, after introducing us to the history of the studies of bilingualism, the authors write “bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on the majority of tasks, measuring both verbal and non-verbal skills.” This claim is supported by the study of Peal and Lambert (1962) who explained that bilingual children are superior at idea organization and cognitive flexibility, which also supported by another research by Kessler and Quinn (1980; 1987), who found a benefit of bilingual on problem solving and creativity exercises. All these claims and evidences are solid because they show not only one but two researches that support the claim of bilingualism improve cognitive skills. Moreover, another example of Logos that Wodniecka and Cepeda use is in the middle of the article. After showing us that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on most of the tasks, the authors write “bilinguals outperform monolinguals on memory tests.” This is supported by a study from Wodniecka, Craik, and Bialystok (2007) claiming that bilinguals are more successful than their peers at remembering a series of knowledge, or the source from which they learn the material. Also, it is said that older bilinguals show the same levels of memory as younger monolinguals. This means that being bilingual may help reduce age-related memory deterioration. The evidences show that being bilingual can help people to have a better memory. Finally, being a bilingual may affect your brain development. By using another logical appeal, after exploring the benefits of bilingualism on cognitive skills, Wodniecka and Cepeda say “knowing and using multiple languages, on an everyday basis, might delay some aspects of inevitable cognitive decline related to aging.” This is supported by a research by Bialystok, Craik, and Freedman (2007). It suggests that bilingualism has a big benefit to brain development. It protects against the beginning of dementia. The research investigates the entries of patients who are advised to memory clinic with cognitive complaints. The results show that the average age at which the symptoms of mental decay happen in the monolingual group is 71.4-years-old, and in the bilingual group is 75.5-years-old. Bialystok et al. (2007) also points out that some factors such as education, lifestyle, and social engagement can affect biological changes. These changes can increase the reorganization of brain networks, which may increase working memory strength, thereby making the brain to better tolerate the process of dementia accumulated in the brain. As you can see that all the evidences show that being bilingual can affect brain development, it can delay the onset of dementia during aging just as the authors claim. Through the rhetorical appeals, Wodniecka and Cepeda’s article is effective at persuading its readers because of its strong use of logical and emotional appeals to people’s desire to better their children or their education, reduce ADHD severity, and prevent dementia from happening too soon. The weak point is that the authors fail to address Ethos in the article. There is nowhere that shows the relevant of the authors or the experiences of them. After weighing the strengths and weakness though, it still suggests that bilingualism can reduce the severity of ADHD, improve cognitive skills and memory, and may delay dementia during aging. Considering more and more people are bilinguals or have started to be one, it is recommended that schools should apply bilingual education at an early age and carry it on throughout grade levels. Adults who want to start learning another language could also practice outside the classroom also. Work Cited Wodniecka, Zofia, Nicholas J. Cepeda. “Beyond the Classroom: Bilingualism, Cognitive Skills, and Health.” Mosaic: A Journal for Language Teachers 9.3 (2007): 3-8. Print

WEEK 8 – STOCK JOURNAL ASSIGNMENT Stock Journal Assignment This is the second of three stock journal assignments that you will complete during this course. For this assignment, add your work for Wee

WEEK 8 – STOCK JOURNAL ASSIGNMENT Stock Journal Assignment This is the second of three stock journal assignments that you will complete during this course. For this assignment, add your work for Wee. For this assignment, add your work for Week 8 to your previous work from Week 3, following the instructions and using the provided templates below.  In the Weeks 3, 8, and 10 Stock Journal Project Excel Template 1 [XLSX] template you began in Week 3, enter your chosen companies, the share prices, and the number of shares you will be purchasing given your budget of $25K.Note: The above Excel template has been provided for your use for the stock journal assignment. You will notice that there are directions for your work in Weeks 3, 8, and 10. When submitting your assignment for each week, you may use the provided Excel template above, your own Excel template that you create or a Word document that you create as long as it communicates the requested information. Note: There are locked cells in the Excel template. The cells have been locked to prevent the formulas from being disturbed. The cells that you will need to use to complete this assignment are not locked. You may create your own templates, however it is recommended that you use the templates provided. In the Weeks 3, 8, and 10 Stock Journal Writing Assignment Template [DOC] template you began in Week 3, write your rationale/summary. Download both templates. Then, complete, save, and submit both templates at the same time to Blackboard. WEEK 8 – STOCK JOURNAL ASSIGNMENT Stock Journal Assignment This is the second of three stock journal assignments that you will complete during this course. For this assignment, add your work for Wee

Sources and Types of Data Essay

Data on its on can be classified into two distinct categories, namely: primary and secondary data. Primary data consists of any and all information collected by a researcher during a study that has not been gathered in the same way, manner or time period by other researchers, studies etc (Lipow

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