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Womens Status In The Victorian Era Sociology Essay

The Victorian era was possibly one of the periods which saw the most numerous and dramatic changes in society. Coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the nineteenth century in England was also marked by several changes in social structures and in the way gender, class and race were perceived. One of the notable Victorian processes with dramatic consequences on women’s lives was the masculinisation and professionalization of medicine. In this essay, I will discuss some representative ways in which women in general and specific groups in particular were affected by this change. The shifts in the mentality of the Victorians were not necessarily directly produced by the medical profession, but by the social constructs their theories helped develop at that time through legislation. Whilst the regulation of prostitution stigmatised working-class women, yet also provided the conditions necessary for middle-class women to emancipate and take action in the public sphere under the banner of the anti-regulation movement, the new approach to insanity affected working- and middle-class women in different negative ways. In any case, both processes affected women, not men. Hence, the first part of the essay will be dedicated to some of the implications the rise of the medical profession had in relation to the regulation of prostitution, and in the second section – with respect to women’s madness. The Acts were based on the premisses that women but not men were responsible for the spread of venereal disease, and that while men would be degraded if subjected to physical examination, the women who satisfied male sexual urges were already so degraded that further indignities scarcely mattered. Protection for males was supposed to be assured by inspection of females (McHugh, 1980: 17). Therefore, the C.D. Acts ‘reinforced existing patterns of class and gender domination’ (Walkowitz, 1980: 4). In the remaining part of this section I will briefly look at how prostitutes were seen in society and how working-class women were generally affected by the regulation of prostitution. Prostitution was a vague category in which innocent working-class women were also included because the working-class was considered to be inherently flawed. The C.D. Acts did not define ‘prostitution’ and, therefore, special policemen, in particular, and Victorian people, in general, were left to decide for themselves what made a woman a prostitute. The large number of prostitutes, even if data vary according to the sources (Mason, 1994), could be partly explained by ‘repeated ‘conquests’ [of middle-class men, which] were a form of display intended to impress other males’ (Tosh, 2004: 67) and to preserve the purity of their future wives (Mahood, 1990), partly by it being the only profitable alternative for working-class women in search for a source of money. However, the most important factor was represented by the fluid delimitations of the category of ‘prostitution’. Mason discusses the ways in which working-class women were included in it: ‘any woman who had an illegitimate child, in this instance, being counted as a prostitute’ (1994: 74) and Mahood (1990) notes that any woman on the street who could not prove where her money came from could have been considered a prostitute. Furthermore, moral reformers ‘correlated certain forms of working-class behaviour which offended bourgeois norms – rough voices, garish dress, drinking and swearing – with another: sexual promiscuity, although there was no evidence that this lifestyle led to prostitution’ (Mahood, 1990:72). Hence, the regulation of prostitution overcame the limits of the occupation itself. It mainly referred to the urban working-class women (Mason, 1994) who did not comply with ‘middle-class standards of femininity’ (Mahood, 1990: 3) and thus ‘violated their gender role and relinquished their rights to the care and protection usually extended to the ‘weaker sex” (Bartley, 2000: 157). Further, ‘prostitutes’ were considered the root of physical illness and moral, social evil. The ‘prostitutes’ used to spend their time in the unhealthy environment of the streets, Victorian towns being considered the source of physical illness, and therefore ‘described as a ‘pestilence’, a ‘sore’, a cancerous growth, contamining and destroying society’ (Nead, 1988: 122), being the bearers of venereal diseases. Not only were ‘prostitutes’ the sources of illnesses, according to the Victorian ideology, but they were also ‘literally infecting the respectable world; unfettered, it seemed to many middle-class Victorians that prostitution would destroy the family, the home, the state and the empire’ (Nead, 1988: 138) when having relations with respectable middle-class men, even if they were not necessarily their most numerous clients, according to Mason (1994). Seen as public perils by the Victorian society and excluded even by the fellow working-class people because, due to them, the whole social class came to be stigmatised, prostitutes had to acknowledge their deviant social role and subject themselves to degrading medical examinations by male professionals (Walkowitz, 1980). The introduction of the C.D. Acts which stigmatized the working-class women in general because prostitutes came from their ranks, also led the way for Victorian feminists to fight in the public sphere for the rights and the ‘rise’ of the ‘fallen’ women into morality, wherein a woman’s place should be (Walkowitz, 1984; Mahood, 1990). Judith Walkowitz (1980, 1984) casts her attention on the history of the opposition to the regulation of sexuality which was led, amongst other groups, by organisations handled by middle-class women, such as the Ladies’ National Association (LNA) with Josephine Butler as its most renowned member. Their implication in the repeal movement was looked upon as unnatural at that time (Walkowitz, 1980, 1984), the authorities not knowing how to deal with such opposition. However, middle-class women succeeded in surpassing some of the contemporary prejudices about the women’s role as ‘the angel in the house’ and actively engaged in the anti-regulation efforts. Nevertheless, they continued to believe in the morality, purity and domestic virtue which were thought to be intrinsic to Victorian women and which had to be recovered for the ‘fallen’ women, considered by them victims of the male desires. Moreover, through their actions they opposed the male authority which introduced the C.D. Acts and, at the same time, as Walkowitz (1984) notes, it reinforced the idea that working-class men had the duty to protect the feeble ‘fallen’ women. Furthermore, one of the approaches of the feminist repealers reinforced ‘an authority relationship between older middle-class women and young working-class women that was hierarchical and custodial as well as caring and protective’ (Walkowitz, 1984: 45). Hence, even if contradictory in some respects, partly defying and partly reinforcing Victorian ideologies, the repeal movement was an important moment in the history of women’s emancipation, even if the focus when studying it is cast mostly on their actions about prostitution. After having analysed a few relevant ways in which the social statuses of different groups of women were affected by the rise of the medical profession and, thus, by the C.D. Acts – the poor working-class women stigmatised, the prostitutes considered the root of all physical and moral evil and the middle-class women acceding a public role in this context – I shall now cast my attention on the implications of the new conceptual framework of madness on Victorian women of different social classes. According to Bartley, the link between prostitution and madness is very strong, yet unclear in terms of causal relations: ‘[i]n the case of women, ‘feeble-mindedness’ was associated with the crimes of immorality and prostitution. In turn immorality and prostitution were associated with ‘feeble-mindedness’, making it difficult to separate cause and effect’ (2000: 125). The new understandings of lunacy were determined by the rise of the psychiatric medical profession, wherein ‘doctors consolidated their sole authority in the field of lunacy’ (Bartlett, 1999: 48). In the change of perspective they operated, the image of mad people shifted from beasts to humans which could be treated. Moreover, the focus moved from men to women, especially from the middle- and upper-classes, Victorian doctors considering ‘that all the biological phases of a woman’s life resembled ill health’ (Oppenheim, 1991: 190, original emphasis). Therefore, women’s sexuality, i.e. the very nature of women, was seen as the cause of madness and, therefore, had to be controlled. This was the one reason which could be applicable to most women, an advantage for the psychiatrists driven by economic interests, as Bartlett notes: ‘medical men turned their authority to business advantage by opening profit-motivated private madhouses for the care of the insane’ (1999: 48). Both the Act adopted in 1828 and the Lunatics Act of 1845 supported the theories of the psychiatrists and, thus, ‘[m]adness was placed firmly within the scientific discourse, the professionals (mainly medical) took control of the treatment’ (Ussher, 1991: 67). The new standards for madness affected women from all social classes, though not all in the same way: ‘[it] could just as well strike poor women, debilitated by want and hardship, as upper-class ladies, cushioned by luxury and attended in childbirth by the ‘best’ medical men available’ (Marland, 1999: 138). If middle- and upper- class women had access to doctors and could be detained at home, working-class women did not have this opportunity and so were interned in asylums. While middle-class women were considered prone to madness because of their feebleness, working-class women, including prostitutes, were seen as diseased. It appears that ‘madness was a disease of the highly civilized and industrialized’ (Showalter, 1987: 24), where the poor women were prone to madness because of their bad living conditions and middle-class women mainly due to their sexuality. Furthermore, madness was seen as an outcome of the immoral actions of women but also as their natural condition (Showalter, 1987). Hence, baring similarities with the categorisation of prostitutes, mad women were identified as such by male doctors, who had absolute power in this area. Victorians judged as mad the women who gave birth to illegitimate children (Marland, 2004), who did not dress properly or gave too much attention to their physical aspect (Showalter, 1987), but mainly the ones who opposed the patriarchal authority, according to Russell: Women who tried to engage in political activity ran the risk of committal to a psychiatric institution, and women who pressed for greater educational opportunities found that doctors were leading the debate against them – claiming that the risk of insanity was too great (Russell, 1995: 12). Thus, insanity, like prostitution, was conceptualised in a highly patriarchal society ‘as deviance from socially accepted behaviour, a failure to cope with poverty, the temptations of drink, domestic crises, disappointments in love, cruelty, mis-applied religiosity, or, in the case of puerperal insanity, the strains of childbearing’ (Marland, 1999: 143). If the regulation of prostitution had benefic implications for middle-class women, dealing with women’s madness reinforced male domination over women. Being under the control of their husbands at home, mad working-class women encountered the same type of authority in the asylums (Marland, 1999). If revolting against their subjection to men, in the form of ‘talkativeness, violation of conventions of feminine speech, and insistence on self-expression’ (Showalter, 1987: 81), middle-class women became part of the category of the mad. Therefore, whilst working-class women were considered mad if undergoing immoral activities for that time, upper- and middle- class madwomen were actually females who tried to find a way of protesting against the misogynistic patriarchal social order and therefore had to be controlled (Ussher, 1990). Hence, the rise of the medical profession in the psychiatric field contributed to subjecting working- and middle-class women to men, even if this happened in different ways and for simply not complying with the Victorian popular patriarchal social hierarchy. Elaine Showalter asserts that there were also socio-economic implications of the new conceptualisation of madness, which was due to the theories of the recently established male psychiatrists: ‘[i]t was used as reason to keep women out of the professions, to deny them political rights, and to keep them under male control in the family and the state’ (1987: 73). They were not excluded only from the medical profession, but also from ‘any occupation which might challenge the authority of men’ (Ussher. 1990: 69). Yet, this implication was according to the Victorian ideology which ‘ensured that women were confined to the home and to their reproductive [and dangerous] role’ (Ussher, 1990, 69). If women did not comply with this ideology and tried to surpass it, they had to be controlled in some way and the newly risen psychiatric medical profession offered this opportunity. Both the regulation of sexuality and the conceptualisation of madness in the Victorian era represent pressing problems of the society of that time and both encompass far more complex implications than those I have discussed. In this essay I have looked at the different implications the rise of the medical profession had for various social groups of women, with regard to the regulation of prostitution and madness in the Victorian era. As I have emphasised, new medical theories led to changes in the mentality of the Victorians, yet were also determined by previous dogma. I have regarded these aspects of the Victorian society in relation to the different implications for working- and middle-class women and to what would nowadays be called ‘Victorian social policies’. Student No: 0831496 Module: Gender, Class and Empire Word count: 2365 Mark: 65 (Mid Upper 2nd) Date of submission: 28.04.2009

MIS 690 GCU Calibration and External Validation Capstone

MIS 690 GCU Calibration and External Validation Capstone.

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.Review the article, “Validate to Bring Out the Real Value of Visual Analytics,” provided in the study materials, for an in-depth understanding of expert validation, predictive validation, external validation, and cross validation.Conduct a literature review of similar research to compare the model that you completed in Topic 5. Create a draft outline with the following items in your literature review.Complete an external and cross validation.Explain if your validation method is still sufficient and discuss if the model results are consistent with theories in your field.What are the next steps for your model? Be specific.Is there a need for a model revision? If so, describe what shortcomings you encountered. If not, describe why.What future recommendations would you make to your model if you had another opportunity? What would you do differently?You are required to include at least three scholarly peer-reviewed sources.Synthesize the information from the draft outline to complete, in 750-1,000 words, the relevant components of the External Model Verification and Calibration section of the “Capstone Project Thesis Template.”Submit both the draft outline and the updated “Capstone Project Thesis Template.”Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
MIS 690 GCU Calibration and External Validation Capstone

US Education: Goals, Methods, and Equality Issues Essay

essay helper free Table of Contents Introduction The Purpose and Methods of Education How the Ideas of Education Are Implemented The No Child Left Behind Act, School Funding, and Tests Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The purpose and methods of education are constantly being discussed and perceived differently. As I am sure, education should not only give knowledge, but make students worthy citizens, able to think critically, promote equality, and honor the diversity of their society. To achieve that outcome, students should be allowed to speak and reflect freely. Unfortunately, the contemporary American education can hardly fulfill this ideal. As Jonathan Kozol proves, diversity has become a meaningless declaration in American schools. Additionally, the education system based on standardized testing not only fails to give students wide outlook, as Diane Ravitch states but also discriminates poor and minority students. The Purpose and Methods of Education As Nelson Mandela said, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” (Ratcliffe 137). The purpose of education, as well as and the range of methods it should use to achieve that purpose, has always been and still is discussed. Some thinkers claim that education should make an individual morally virtuous in the first place, and achieving knowledge is a secondary aim. Others are convinced that education should provide a person with a comprehensive knowledge about various aspects of the living world, and the more knowledge in different fields a person gets, the batter. According to another opinion, education should prepare young citizens for their future adult life in a competitive environment, and for that reason the school system should provide a mini-model of such an environment, making students learn how to gain a competitive advantage. To my opinion, apart from giving broad knowledge, education should provide individuals with necessary skills for living in a certain society, as well as a wide outlook, and make them understand fundamental principles of this society. In multiracial and multicultural countries, such as the USA, one of the fundamental principles, which education should address, is diversity. Despite the fact that nowadays, in the 21st century, honoring diversity has become an almost a common tradition, recognizing the need for diversity in education is still a controversial issue in the sphere of education. In fact, honoring diversity has become an official, often insincere act, which merely covers the real problems related to the racial equality in education. Jonathan Kozol, an educator, writer, and activist, wrote at length about the inequality in education and the difference between the real and false diversity. In his work “The Uses of Diversity,” he acknowledges that “the subject of diversity is introduced to children in most public schools has come to be a very bland and boring ritual,” an expression, which would be sincerely supported by virtually any school student if you ask them. Kozol criticizes the fact that the concept of diversity is present in school curricula, but in reality there is next to no diversity at schools; this “diversity” looks more like racial segregation. Such a strong word is not an exaggeration. Kozol mentions his own experience when he collected information from community schools. He witnessed that schools mostly lacked diversity in students’ racial backgrounds. Kozol reveals the truth: instead of having diverse students studying together, schools mostly represent either all-black, all-white, or all-Hispanic contingent, with a small percentage of other races (Jacobus 608-609). Apart from that, Kozol criticizes the way, in which the history of civil rights was presented in American education system. He states that it is given in a form of “heroic stories,” which creates in children a false positive sense, making them believe that the aims of those struggles are achieved and secured. Such an approach forces children to think that the reality, which they see in and out of school, is not to be believed (Jacobus 609-610). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As for the methods that should be used in education to achieve its ends, I totally agree with Jonathan Kozol: instead of making children repeat false claims about diversity and civil rights, it is necessary to let them speak freely about the problems that they witness and challenges that they face, even if it would not (and it would not) sound pleasant. If educators allow students to analyze the situation and make conclusions by themselves, it will forge a generation of responsible citizens, who rely on their own critical thinking rather than on school textbooks. Only such a generation can honor diversity in its true meaning. How the Ideas of Education Are Implemented Apart from the faked diversity, there are plenty of other flaws in American educational system. I am utterly convinced that applying the market model to education and making schools and students depending on the interests of business owners is among the most terrible disasters that plague American education. Another problem, a consequence of the latter, is the standardization of knowledge, its presentation is a form of standard portions ready to be consumed. These measures are taken to make students more likely to pass the variety of tests that they are required to pass to get their school more funding. Such an approach have nothing in common with raising educated citizens with a wide outlook and developed critical thinking. In her book “The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education,” Diane Ravitch offers a comprehensive description of these flaws. In this work, Ravitch describes the educational reform, in the implementation of which she participated, and explains what were the initial intentions of the reformers, and why she has become seriously disappointed with the outcomes of the reform. The author states that current education system fails to meet the ideas of education, such as personal empowerment, free choice, and freedom. According to Ravitch, nowadays schools became part of the capitalist system, implementing business models in their curricula. Ravitch describes the way of reasoning, as a result of which charter schools emerged: “Why shouldn’t schools be managed by anyone who could supply good schools, using government funds? Free of direct government control, the schools would be innovative, hire only the best teachers, get rid of bad teachers…” (Ravitch 24). She explains that educators were sure that applying market rules – only the best will survive – to schools seemed a god idea, but the adoption of school choice only worsened the situation, making schools in urban centers, especially charter ones, made public education less democratic and accessible. Instead of introducing free competition and choice, charters started the rivalry for the best students in poor communities. Sometimes they accept all the applicants and then throw the outsiders back into public schools. As a consequence, those students from poor areas, who do not perform well, have no choice but to study in public schools (Ravitch 24-25). In her work, Ravitch severely criticized the No Child Left Behind Act, a 2001 act of US Congress, that supported standard-based educational reform, according to which all the students of the USA had to pass test on a “proficient” level by 2014, and school funding and teachers’ salaries were placed in dependence on their achievement. Ravitch claims that this act establishes unachievable standards and the fact that the act allows to shut down the schools, which failed to meet the “Annual Yearly Progress” requirements, made it even worse (Ravitch 97). The author also explains that the very standards are perceived differently, for the states were offered to work out their own understanding of proficiency. It means that standardized tests cannot be named unbiased indicators. Therefore, the NCLB Act is merely a way for the government to place a severe control on education. Additionally, she mentions, the NCLB act entails the narrowing of a curriculum (and, hence, knowledge) since students need only a narrow list of things (reading, math, and writing) to pass standardized tests. Ravitch claims that the school curriculum should be changed with more focus on liberal arts and sciences. She reflects on the previous times, when the students were provided with a rich curriculum in history and the arts, instead of learning basic rules of math and English. With the adoption of the NCLB, students were also robbed of knowledge in geography, civics, and science. Consequently, the American students are now less likely to become individuals with “well-furnished mind, shaped by reading and thinking (Ravitch 31). The No Child Left Behind Act, School Funding, and Tests Diane Ravitch is not the only one to disapprove of the NCLB Act. The Act is being criticized for a variety of undesirable outcomes. First, it is unclear how low-performing schools are going to be helped by this act, particularly by tutoring. In some cases, students do not use the opportunity to change schools or to apply for a free tutor’s services. The standards of quality for tutors may be vague in some districts and even states. States also often neglect the schools with the lowest level of performance. Next, the growing federal control over K-12 education is frowned upon. NCLB, as it was already mentioned, relies too heavily on standardized tests, which leads to a simplified, narrowed curriculum. Moreover, some states have ignored the requirement to distribute qualified teachers evenly between poor and wealthy schools (Klein par. 14-15). We will write a custom Essay on US Education: Goals, Methods, and Equality Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from that, the law has been underfunded. The initial legislation supported a high increase in education expenditures. Federal spending on Title I education had to reach $25 billion by 2077, but it receives around $14.5 billion in 2015 (Klein par. 16). NCLB had a dramatic effect on classroom practices. Because of the need to prepare students for tests, teachers have to allocate the instruction time in such a way as to cover the information needed for the test and teach students specific skills. Thus, time for test subjects increases, while the rest of information is neglected (Dee and Jacob 179). I suppose that the greatest flaws of NCLB are linking school funding to students’ performance and negative effect on diversity in education. As it will be shown below, these problems are connected. A 2005 study examines the impact of the NCLB Act and touches, among others, the problem of racial equality. As the authors indicate, the interest of legislators, who adopted the school accountability system, is in a large part focused on low-achieving students. For a number of reasons, such as being from a disadvantaged background, minorities are more likely to be low-achievers. If a school is mandatory accountable for the achievements of students, it will make a racial or ethnic gap in education much wider, despite the fact that NCLB is meant to narrow this gap. The authors of the study found out that Hispanic students benefitted from accountability, while Black ones did not. The developers of the educational reform did not take the issue if racial equality into consideration (Hanushek and Raymond 298-300). Lance Fusarelli reflects on positive and negative effects of NCLB. Among positive effects the author mentions the fact that if one minority group in a school is failing to meet the standards, the entire school will be charged, so there will be no way to neglect the performance of that group, as well as the fact that school leaders will be encouraged to monitor the performance more attentively. However, Fusarelli states, these positive effects are closely linked with certain negative outcomes. First, the legislators believe that the primary reason for low student performance is low expectations of educators, on which assumption NCLB is based. In fact, there is a wide range of reasons for low performance: being from a disadvantaged family, having a disability, having poor knowledge of English, etc. It is certain that these problems are more likely to affect minorities. Next, if policy makers use testing to bring the quality of performance up to a higher level, it means that students will be punished for not doing well on tests. Motivation by punishment is by no means a sigh of a free society. Finally, this approach places students into stressful conditions, which, ironically, lowers their chances to perform well (Fusarelli 74-77). James Crawford, Executive Director National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE), has emphasized the discriminative effect of NCLB on English Language Learners (ELLs), i.e. non-native speakers, who study English. As Crowford mentions, NABE had initially supported the pass of NCLB, hoping that the new legislation would establish adequate requirements for English Language Learners and make schools devote more attention to such children. However, it turned out that the kind of attention NCLB drew to them was not beneficial. The law sets such standards in English that non-native speakers are unable to meet them. Moreover, the Act does nothing to remove the obstacles that hinder the achievement of ELLs: lack of resources, a serious shortage of teachers, who are qualified to work with ELLs, non-suitable instruction material, poorly developed instruction programs (Crawford 1-2). In general, the outcomes of NCLB in the field of equality are not flattering. Children of color and children from disadvantaged families still do not do as well in school as white children. Despite the effort of the legislators to improve the school system, a few changes happened to the lives of the poor and minorities (Meier and Wood 10). Not sure if you can write a paper on US Education: Goals, Methods, and Equality Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion As I am convinced, the main goal of education is to make students responsible citizens, who respect equality and diversity. Current American education system fails to achieve this ideal. It does not promote free thinking and discriminates the students from poor and minority backgrounds. The purpose and methods of education are constantly being discussed and perceived differently. As I am sure, education should not only give knowledge, but make students worthy citizens, able to think critically, promote equality, and honor the diversity of their society. To achieve that outcome, students should be allowed to speak and reflect freely. Unfortunately, the contemporary American education can hardly fulfill this ideal. As Jonathan Kozol proves, diversity has become a meaningless declaration in American schools. Additionally, the education system based on standardized testing not only fails to give students wide outlook, as Diane Ravitch states but also discriminates minority students. Works Cited Crawford, James. No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. Center on Education Policy, 2004. Web. Dee, Thomas, and Brian A. Jacob. “The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Students, Teachers, and Schools.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 32.2 (2010): 149-207. Print. Fusarelli, Lance D. “The Potential Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on Equity and Diversity in American Education.” Educational Policy 18.1 (2004): 71-94. Print. Hanushek, Eric A., and Margaret E. Raymond. “Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24.2 (2005): 297-327. Print. Jacobus, Lee A. A World of Ideas: Essential Reading for College Writers. 9th ed. 2013. Boston, MA: Bedford / St. Martin’s. Print. Klein, Alyson. “No Child Left Behind: An Overview.” Education Week 2015. Education Week. Web. Meier, Debora, and George Wood. Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act Is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. Print. Ratcliffe, Susan. Oxford Treasury of Sayings and Quotations. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York City, New York: Basic Books, 2011. Print.

Compare different theories of international trade

International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer), that is, international trade occurs when a firm exports goods and/or services to consumers in another country. In olden days, there used to be extensive trade between Romans and the Indians. The Arabian nomads carried out long distance trading activities with the help of camels. They traded silk and spices in Far East. The first theory of international trade emerged in England in the mid-16th century. Referred to as mercantilism, it advocated that countries should simultaneously encourage exports and discourage imports. Hence, imports were limited by tariffs and quotas, while exports were subsidized. At that time, gold and silver were the currency of trade between countries; a country could earn gold and silver by exporting goods whereas importing goods in an outflow of gold and silver to those countries. The main tenet of mercantilism was that it was in a country’s best interests to maintain a trade surplus so as to accumulate gold and silver and, consequently, increase its national wealth and prestige. The classical economist David Hume pointed out an inconsistency in the mercantilist doctrine in 1752. According to Hume, in the long run no country could sustain a surplus on the balance of trade and so accumulate gold and silver as the mercantilists had envisaged. Although mercantilism is an old and largely discredited doctrine, its echoes remain in modern political debate and in the trade policies if many countries. Mercantilism was that it viewed trade as a zero-sum game. Proposed in 1776, Adam Smith’s theory attacked the mercantilist assumption that trade is a zero-sum game. Smith argued that countries differ in their ability to produce goods efficiently and therefore should specialize in the production of goods for which they have an absolute advantage and then trade these for goods produced by other countries. A country is said to be more productive than another country, if it can produce more output (goods) for a given quantity of input, such as labour or energy inputs. Smith’s theory was the first to explain why unrestricted free trade is beneficial to a country and argued that the invisible hand of the market mechanism, rather than government policy should determine what a country imports and what it exports. Building on Smith’s work are two additional theories. One is the theory of comparative advantage, advanced by the 19th century English economist David Ricardo. According to this theory, a country should produce and export those goods and services for which it is relatively more productive than are other countries and import those goods and services for which other countries are relatively more productive than it is (Mahoney, Trigg, Griffin,

Response 200 words with reference

Response 200 words with reference. I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation.

Seventeen per cent of the residents residing in Mission Viejo and its nine surrounding communities are aged 65 years and older (US Census Bureau, 2020), and these numbers are projected to increase by the year 2050 as the current population ages and life expectancies increase. The area has a number of senior living communities, skilled nursing facilities, and assisted living facilities and the medical centers available to them, Mission Viejo Hospital and Children’s Hospital at Mission, offer acute care with limited services tailored for its senior population. The proposed Golden Age Hospital will provide a health care facility designed to meet the growing need for inpatient and outpatient geriatric health care services, bringing in the required specialists, services, and programs to meet the senior community’s unique health care needs.
Response 200 words with reference

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