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Women in Leadership Essay

Table of Contents Synopsis Women and Leadership Reactions and Observations Conclusion References When Hillary Clinton went head-to-head with Barrack Obama for the right to represent the Democrats in the previous presidential elections, she did something that no other American woman was able to do before. She wanted to be the next president of the United States. It was unprecedented in this country but not in the world. However, in the modern age when it was expected that women should rise up and be treated the same as men, few dared to do so. There were some who succeeded and yet many failed. And yet women can do so much. There are things that they alone can accomplish with great results. With issues like reconciliation and social justice they can contribute greatly. Nevertheless, there are challenges up ahead and the report on PBS, as narrated by Maria Hinojosa, speaks about the reality and the difficulties faced by women leaders who believe that they can indeed make a difference if only the citizens of their nation will give them that chance. Synopsis Senior Correspondent Maria Hinojosa begins by talking about women in politics and the failed bid of Hillary Rodham Clinton to earn the right to be the most powerful leader in the United States and the most influential leader in the free world. She then went on to say that the United States ranks 69th in the world when it comes to women holding national political office (PBS, 2010, p.1). This prompted her to investigate even further and in the course of her investigation she realized that while it is extremely difficult for a woman to get elected she also found out that women leaders may be the solution to many of the problems that plague society that for many decades was never resolved by men in power. There is a certain talent, skill and insight that women bring to politics. In many countries around the world, its citizens are aware of the importance of women in politics. Citizens of Chile and Rwanda knew why there must be women in politics but it seems that in the United States not everyone is convinced that women, politics, and power can be placed in the same sentence. Hinojosa tried to explain this by taking a closer look at the lives of world leaders and why they succeeded and what were the challenges that they had to deal with in order to reach the top. Aside from that she also studied the behavior and aspirations of up and coming leaders of American society, the next generation of women leaders, and for that she went to where young women leaders tend to meet – in a debate contest. At the end Hinojosa had to admit that much work needs to be done in order for women to be at par with men in terms of nationally elected offices but she had to admit that women, power, and politics is a rising tide. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women and Leadership Hinojosa chose to follow Jeanne Shaheen to start her report. The reason for doing so is that Shaheen had the right combination of achievements and attributes that would make her a suitable example to show what Hinojosa had in mind. Shaheen was a former school teacher who at first glance was suited to work as a housewife and not a politician. However, Shaheen was the first woman to be elected as governor of New Hampshire and afterwards decided to run for the U.S. Senate (PBS, 2010, p.1). Hinojosa considers her as a prime example of the possibilities that women bring to U.S. politics. Nevertheless, the correspondent had to concede that compared to the rest of the world America is a few steps behind when it comes to electing women to national office. As a matter of fact, this was not the first time that Shaheen decided to run for the Senate, in 2002 she ran against John Edward Sununu and she lost. Shaheen explains that it is because the events of September 11 were fresh from the minds of the people. They believe that security is the priority issue and as a result they voted for a man rather than a woman because they also believe that a man would be able to handle those issues much better than a woman (PBS, 2010). What exactly can women do in order to prove that they can do a better job than men? It is possible for n can do a better job but there are issues and they are problems that can be considered a perfect fit for them and arguably there are others where they are perceive as lacking in capability. While Clinton made history in the presidential race, another woman took center stage when McCain chose Sarah Palin to run as his vice-president. Immediately the impact of her candidacy was felt and according to Hinojosa her gender was a major factor to consider and that come election time her being a woman affected the way people decided to vote for McCain or not (PBS, 2010). It is clear that in America the people are not yet ready to entrust the highest position in the land to woman no matter how qualified she may be. Shaheen argued that when people decided to choose their leaders it must not be about gender. She added that it must not be about their soft side that she can be treated like a mother to her constituents but because of her abilities and how she speaks regarding the issues that confront the nation (PBS, 2010). But when Hinojosa went to Chile and Rwanda she discovered the opposite. Women leaders outside the United States where chosen not simply because they have the same qualifications as men but they were chosen because the people believe that they can resolve the problems that for many years men in their country were unable to solve. We will write a custom Essay on Women in Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The people of Rwanda and Chile believe that it is the mother instinct present in women candidates that made them effective against issues like health reform, social injustice, and the need to heal the land from strife such as what the Rwandans experienced in the 1994 genocide that killed close to a million people. The success of foreign leaders like Bachelet and Inyumba is not only attributed to their skills. This is what can be understood from the PBS report. Their success is linked to their womanhood. Their being a woman played a crucial role in their candidacy because they came at the right time and the right place. In Chile, Bachelet rose to power after her country suffered from a brutal dictatorship and a failed government and the reason why Chile is considered a poor country. The leaders that came before her were all men and they succeeded in bringing the country even lower while the people suffered. When Bachelet came in she was considered as the best alternative and the citizens were willing to gamble on her. Her being a woman did not come as a liability but it was an asset. Aside from that one can understand from watching the video that the people of Chile felt that they were neglected by past leaders who were preoccupied only with politics and the need to increase their power so when Bachelet took to the campaign trail and showed her soft side then the people responded positively to her and one person even commented that she was seen as a mother to the nation (PBS, 2010). The same thing can be said about the women politicians of Rwanda who were elected to Parliament. The Rwandans had to deal with a terrible experience that they went through as a nation. Fifteen years ago genocide left almost a million people dead in racial attack that occurred in one hundred days (PBS, 2010). One can just imagine the pain and the suffering of the people. This is linked to the fact that they elected women to Parliament, almost half of the lawmakers are women (PBS, 2010) Many believe that women are better at reconciliation, better at maintaining peace and less prone to corruption (PBS, 2010). These are the factors and the circumstances that made women leaders in Chile and Rwanda succeed where their U.S. counterparts failed. Reactions and Observations It is easy to understand why Hinojosa had to go to Chile and to Rwanda and why she had to spend a few days studying and following an all-women high school debate team. She went abroad to show America that if it is possible to elect a woman as president in an economically challenge country then it is possible to elect one in the United States. Not sure if you can write a paper on Women in Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She went there to show Americans that if it is possible to elect a great number of women lawmakers in a war-torn country then it is possible to also do the same in the United States. She also went to the High School debate team to know the struggles that women face. But Hinojosa’s travel and other activities failed to produce a solution to the problem why American women failed to secure elected positions especially the highest office in the land (Zeinert, 2002). She also failed to show that there is a reason why Bachelet and Rwandan women were elected to the Parliament and it has something to do with their history and circumstances (Worth, 2008). If this can be used as a comparison then it can explain why Americans are reluctant to vote for a woman as Senator or as President. First of all American politics is fairly stable compared to that of Chile. Secondly, although there is a need for unity and healing the problem in America never reached a point where 1 million citizens were massacred because of their ethnicity. In other words Americans are happy with the way things are so why would they change it? Aside from that there are other challenges like finances and how to lead an effective campaign (Carroll, 2003). There is also a problem on how American women can explain what difference will they be able to make if they get elected and can they really do a better job than men (Gelb
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Benign occipital epilepsy of childhood -Panayiotopoulos syndrome- in a 3 year old child Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar *, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy Department of Pediatrics, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Amala Nagar, Thrissur-680 555, Kerala, India M N Sunil Kumar V K Parvathy Running title: Panayiotopoulos syndrome in a 3 year old child Manuscript type: Case study * Author for correspondence, Dr. Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar ABSTRACT Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) is a relatively frequent and benign epileptic syndrome seen in children in the age group of 3-6 years and is characterised by predominantly autonomic symptoms and/or simple motor focal seizures followed or not by impairment of consciousness. Although multifocal spikes with high amplitude sharp-slow wave complexes at various locations can be present in the EEG, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) in children with this particular type of epilepsy characteristically shows occipital spikes. This syndrome has known to be a masquerader and can imitate gastroenteritis, encephalitis, syncope, migraine, sleep disorders or metabolic diseases. In the absence of thorough knowledge of types of benign epilepsy syndromes and their various clinical presentations, epilepsy such as PS can be easily missed. The peculiar aspects of this type of epilepsy in children should be known not only by paediatricians but also by general doctors because a correct diagnosis would avoid aggressive interventions and concerns on account of its benign outcome. In this case study, we report a case of PS in a 3 year old child. Keywords: Benign occipital epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, Autonomic symptoms, Emesis, EEG I NTRO DUCTION The International League Against Epilepsy in their expert consensus has given due importance for the various benign childhood seizures which have good prognosis.1 PS is a common idiopathic childhood-specific seizure disorder formally recognized by the league and is included in the category of benign epilepsy syndromes and is recognized worldwide for its autonomic presentations.2,3 This early-onset benign childhood seizures was described by Panayiotopoulos.4 . It has been defined by Panayiotopoulos as consisting of brief, infrequent attacks or prolonged status epilepticus and characterized by ictal deviation of the eyes and/or head and vomiting, occurring in children usually between the ages of 3 and 7 years.5 Seizures are usually followed by postictal headache and are often associated with interictal occipital rhythmic paroxysmal EEG activity that appears only after eye closure.5 The PS has excellent prognosis and parents can be definitely reassured about its benign course 4,6,7,8,9. The risk of developing seizure disorder in later life is negligible 6. Detection of occipital epilepsy at very early stage is needed to successfully treat this condition and allay the fears of the parents and care givers of these children with PS.In this case report, we discuss about the occipital epilepsy in a 3 year old girl child. CASE REPORT A 3-year-old girl, only sibling from a poor socioeconomic family of a non-consanguineous couple, presented in the Out-patient Department of Paediatrics, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, with complaints of becoming limp after sudden episode of vomiting, followed by uprolling of eyes, stiffening of the both upper limbs and lower limbs and a brief period of drowsiness.The child was happily playing in the house about half an hour back.There was no associated fever,trauma,ear discharge ,no common paediatric illnesses like diarrhea,dysuria,cough,running nose,wheezing,throat pain. A detailed history was taken. The child was born of a non-consanguinous parents,fullterm normal vaginal delivery,with a birth weight of 2.215 kg. She was immunized to date and had normal milestones of development.The history revealed that she had similar episodes of vomiting especially getting up from sleep and having deviation of eyes to one side,becoming limp and followed by drowsiness for few minutes in the past from the age of 1 ½ years old. Overall she had 5-6 such episodes and 3 times she had these episodes when she was sleeping.There was no associated fever during these episodes. Two times she had stiffening of all the limbs with deviation of eyes to one side,and followed by drowsiness. There was no focal type of seizures in this child. The parents attributed these to indigestion and gave home remedies as always there was vomiting and tiredness following the episodes.The child then used to play around normally. One month back the child was seen by a local doctor who advised EEG and it was done which was reported as normal and parents were advised follow up. The child on admission was tired, but was conscious. On examination,she was afebrile,signs of meningeal irritation were absent, central nervous system examination was normal,neurocutaneous markers were absent,fundus examination was normal. Other systemic examinations were normal.Laboratory investigations showed hemoglobin (11.7 g/dl) with low indices, total leucocyte count (11,550/cumm), neutrophils (75%), lymphocytes (22%), platelets (210000/µl), ESR (35mm at1 hr),serum calcium(10 mg%),SGPT(28mg/dl),serum electrolytes levels were normal.EEG was done(Figure- 1A and B) and reported as symmetrically distributed normal sleep activities,with activation of rare sharp wave discharges arising from the left occipital region.An awake record could not be obtained. The diagnosis of PS was made based on the clinical history and EEG which showed the predominantly occipital spikes. She was started on carbamazepine with increasing the dose schedule to her required weight. The child did not have any allergic reaction to the drug and did not progress autonomic instability. She and her parents were given excellent emotional and pschycological supportive care, After completion of 5 days of observation for her symptoms and any allergy to the she was discharged on day 6 with improvement in clinical conditions on multivitamins, hematinics and deworming drugs with an advice to follow-up . DISCUSSION PS described by Panayiotopoulos4 is a common autonomic childhood epileptic syndrome with a significant clinical, pathophysiological characteristics and is multifocal.10 PS is now formally recognized as a distinct clinical entity within the spectrum of benign focal epilepsies of childhood.11 PS affects 13% of children aged 3 to 6 years who have had 1 or more afebrile seizures and 6% of such children are in the 1- to 15-year age group.6,7,12. Autonomic epileptic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus are the cardinal manifestations of Panayiotopoulos syndrome.12. The main aspect of PS is that irrespective of their location at onset, there is activation of autonomic disturbances and emesis, to which children are particularly vulnerable. These symptoms and pattern of autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus in PS do not occur in adults and are very specific to childhood. 12 PS is often confused with occipital epilepsy and acute non-epileptic disorders such as encephalitis, syncope, cyclic vomiting or atypical migraine even with characteristic clinical and EEG manifestations. 13 The clinical and EEG features of PS is due to a a maturation-related diffuse cortical hyperexcitability 4,6. This diffuse epileptogenicitywhich may be unequally distributed,is predominating in one area of the brain , and is often posterior. The explanation for the characteristic involvement of emetic and the autonomic systems may be attributed to epileptic discharges which are generated at various cortical locations andthis in turn influence the children’s vulnerable emetic centers and the hypothalamus 4,6. The diagnosis is based entirely on clinical presentation and EEG.12 PS has some of the key clinical features which are often present as single, focal seizures with an unusual constellation of autonomic, mainly emetic, symptoms,associated behavioral changes, and sometimes seizure like clinical manifestations such as unilateral deviation of the eyes and convulsions 3,4,7,8,9,13. The emetic triad in PS (nausea,retching, vomiting) culminates in vomiting in 74% of the seizures; in others, only nausea or retching occurs, and in a few, vomiting may not be present. Other autonomic manifestations include pallor, , mydriasis or miosis, flushing or cyanosis thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory alterations. Frequently incontinence of urine and/or feces, hypersalivation, cephalic sensations, and modifications of intestinal motility are also seen9. Half of the convulsions end with hemiconvulsions or generalized convulsions. Two thirds occur during sleep as was seen in our child for about three times.. Autonomic status epilepticus enveals then.. The seizures usually last for 5–15 min, but half of them are prolonged, sometimes for hours, constituting autonomic status epilepticus. The patient recovers within a few hours. even after the most severe seizures episodes and status.12 An electroencephalogram is the only investigation with abnormal results, usually showing multiple spikes in various brain locations.12Multifocal spikes that predominate in the posterior regions characterize the EEG 6.The EEG variability in our child of 3 years is showing the characteristic occipital spikes from the left occipital region. The EEG done 5 months back was normal in our child. PS is the second most frequent benign syndrome of childhood after rolandic epilepsy,which primarily affects 15% of children at a peak onset at age 7–9 years 1. Another epileptic syndrome categorized with PS and rolandic epilepsy is the Gastaut type childhood occipital epilepsy 2, manifesting with frequent and brief visual seizures. However, this is rare,of uncertain prognosis, and markedly different from PS,despite common interictal EEG manifestations of occipital spikes 6.Occipital spikes in non-epileptic children with defective vision, occipital slow spike-and-wave found in some patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, focal epilepsy due to occipital lesions, seizures originating in the temporal lobe secondary to an occipital abnormality, and complicated or basilar migraine must be considered in the differential diagnosis.5 There are typical and atypical case of PS15,17,18 .Lada et al 15 conducted a retrospective study of 43 patients with PS who were seizure free >2 years. In their analysis girls predominated ,as in our child was a girl.. The first seizure was seen in 5 years of age. 86% had emesis as the symptom with the seizures. Seizures during sleep (84%) were more common than those in wakefulness. EEG showed occipital spikes in more than 50% of patients.. Prognosis was excellent and 80% children have been free of seizures for > or =2 years as is in a typical case of PS.15 DeÄŸerliyurt et al16 did a case series study of patients with PS and postulated that PS is associated with high rates of febrile convulsions, afebrile convulsions/epilepsy, migraine, and breath-holding spells in the patients and families suggested the importance of genetic factors 17.Febrile seizures are to be considered in the differential diagnosis because the recovery of consciousness from seizure is fast and Control of the seizure is paramount. uncomplicated usually.18 Ferrie et al. 17 postulated an atypical evolution of PS in a case report. The management of PS is not complicated. Education and knowledge about PS is the cornerstone of management. Control of the seizure is paramount. Prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic medication may not be needed for most patients. The emphasis is on treatment of possible fever and mainly of the underlying illness.One third (30%) of the seizures are relatively brief and self-limited. They subside spontaneously within 2–10min. The other two thirds (70%) have long-lasting seizures(>10 min) or status epilepticus (>30 min to hours). These should be appropriately and vigorously treated as for status epilepticus19,20. Parents of children with recurrent seizures should be advised to place the child on its side or stomach on a protected surface and administer a preparation of intravenous rectal benzodiazepine (BZD). In an emergency facility, the child’s airway should be kept clear, oxygenation maintained, and intravenous or rectal antiepileptic drug (AED) given to halt the seizure. A BZD is probably the first choice. The great majority with PS do not need AED treatment even if they have lengthy seizures or have more than two recurrences. There is no increased risk of subsequent epilepsy or neurologic deficit. If a child has multiple recurrences (only about 5% exceed 10 seizures) and if the parents too worried prophylaxis can be given.Continuous prophylaxis consists of daily medication with any AED with proven efficacy in partial seizures.Although there is no evidence of superiority among monotherapy with phenobarbitone, carbamazepine(CBZ), sodium valproate or no treatment in PS, most authors prefer CBZ 14.Our child was started on Oxcarbazepine ,a structural derivative of CBZ with no side effects since last 1 month.Autonomic status epilepticus in the acute stage needs thorough evaluation; aggressive treatment may cause iatrogenic complications including cardiorespiratory arrest.12The adverse reactions of the antiepileptic drugs such as severe allergic reactions ,abnormal liverfunction tests and idiosyncratic reaction should be kept in mind and monitored.14 The prognosis of PS is excellent 4,6,7-9. The lengthy seizures and status do not have any adverse prognostic significance, and the risk of developing epilepsy in adult life is probably no more than that of the general population 6. One third of patients (27%) have a single seizure only, and another half (47%) have two to five seizures. Only 5% have >10 seizures, but outcome is again favorable. Remission usually occurs within 1 to 2 years from onset.6. CONCLUSION PS is a common cause of epilepsy in children and a knowledgeable doctor does not miss it. Physician education of PS and recent guidelines on epilepsy management is vital in detecting PS at very early stage, so further lifesaving interventions can be done and prevent delay in the trearment administration. Multiple antiepileptic drugs use is required in only in a small proportion of patients. Seizures in PS, like febrile convulsions, despite their excellent prognosis, are a frightening experience for the in experienced parents, who often think that their child is dead or dying. Parents of young children should have general information by the family doctor regarding PS. Parental education and a supportive group comprising the paediatrician, neurologist, nursing staff and the social worker can help and reassure these distort parents as was done in our child who is doing fine with no recurrence in the last 1 month. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors acknowledge the help of Dr Ajith TA, Professor Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala during the preparation of the manuscript. REFERENCES Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 1989;30:389–99. Engel J Jr. A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia 2001;42:796–803. Berg AT, Panayiotopoulos CP. Diversity in epilepsy and a newly recognized benign childhood syndrome [Editorial]. Neurology 2000;55:1073–4. Panayiotopoulos CP. Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Lancet 2001;358:68–9. Andermann F, Zifkin B.The benign occipital epilepsies of childhood: an overview of the idiopathic syndromes and of the relationship to migraine. Epilepsia. 1998;39:S9-23. Panayiotopoulos CP. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: a common and benign childhood epileptic syndrome. London: John Libbey, 2002. Panayiotopoulos CP. Vomiting as an ictal manifestation of epileptic seizures and syndromes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:1448–51. Caraballo R, Cersosimo R, Medina C, et al. Panayiotopoulos-type benign childhood occipital epilepsy: a prospective study. Neurology2000;55:1096–100. Kivity S, Ephraim T, Weitz R, et al. Childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: clinical variants in 134 patients. Epilepsia 2000;41:1522–33. Guerrini R, Pellacani S.Benign childhood focal epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2012;53::9-18. Koutroumanidis M. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: an important electroclinical example of benign childhood system epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48:1044-53. Covanis A. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: a benign childhood autonomic epilepsy frequently imitating encephalitis, syncope, migraine, sleep disorder, or gastroenteritis. Pediatrics. 2006 ;118:e1237-43. Michael M, Tsatsou K, Ferrie CD. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: an important childhood autonomic epilepsy to be differentiated from occipital epilepsy and acute non-epileptic disorders. Brain Dev. 2010;32:4-9. Ferrie CD, Beaumanoir A, Guerrini R, et al. Early-onset benign occipital seizure susceptibility syndrome. Epilepsia 1997;38:285–93. Lada C, Skiadas K, Theodorou V, Loli N, Covanis A.A study of 43 patients with panayiotopoulos syndrome, a common and benign childhood seizure susceptibility. Epilepsia. 2003;44:81-8. DeÄŸerliyurt A, Teber S, BektaÅŸ O, Senkon G. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: A case series from Turkey. Epilepsy Behav. 2014;36:24-32. Ferrie CD, Koutroumanidis M, Rowlinson S, Sanders S, Panayiotopoulos CP.Atypical evolution of Panayiotopoulos syndrome: a case report. Epileptic Disord. 2002;4:35-42. Knudsen FU. Febrile seizures: treatment and prognosis. Epilepsia.2000;41:2–9. American Academy of Pediatrics. Practice parameter: the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a first simple febrile seizure: Provisional Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Pediatrics 1996;97:769–72. Mitchell WG. Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in children, adolescents, and young adults: etiology, outcome, and treatment. Epilepsia 1996;37:S74–80. Legend to figures Figure (1A and B): EEG of the child showing the occipital spikes (arrow heads). Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Literature Review.

Literature Review
Having the ability to synthesize a vast amount of information into a succinct and logical explanation is a skill that when mastered can help one be successful in graduate school. Within the field of intelligence the literature is vast and robust, so to aid in your understanding of this body of knowledge the assignments in this course require you to write a review of the literature. The purpose of this assignment is to help improve your depth of knowledge the different concepts covered, and to further prepare you to move forward in your scholarship.
For this literature review, you must select to focus on the literature covered during one of the following weeks.
For example you may focus on clandestine operations, lethal targeting (of leaders, terrorists, etc), ethics and surveillance, ethics and cyber monitoring, ethics, or cyber warfare.
Your literature review must be developed using 12-15 or more scholarly sources, which should include the assigned readings covered during that week. Within each week there are a number of recommended readings that would serve as an excellent starting point to kick start your research (you should keep in mind that not all of these are available within the online library as this recommended list is simply a list of accumulated knowledge, not knowledge housed within the online library). Regardless of your topic of choice you should conduct an article search within the online library within EBSCO and JStor database, and also conduct a book search to help you develop your literature review.
The goal of this literature review is to demonstrate the scope of knowledge that is available on these key topic areas. As such a good literature review is a thoughtful synthesis of important information that pertains to the topic at hand. Literature reviews include a summary and critical assessment of the arguments that exist (including whether or not you agree with them) and are arranged thematically. At the end of your literature review, you should discuss where research should go next. Are you persuaded by the arguments/findings of one author or another? Why? How could the research be improved upon (theoretically, methodologically, relevancy-wise, and etc)? Be sure you present any idea that you might have regarding how you would look at the topic area.
Developing a clear and concise literature review can be challenging. NOTE: Literature reviews can be a bit tricky to write. Check out this video to help you further prepare to write this assignment. This will not be the last time that you are asked to write a literature review in your academic career so its important to master this skill. Also check out the following documents: 1) literature review tip sheet and 2) synthesis matrix. Together these documents will give you everything you need to carry out a successful literature review.
How many sources should I review?
This is a common question asked by students. Essentially the key to an excellent research paper is the research that helps back up its arguments. While this might be an unsatisfactory answer for those in need of a clear “magic number” a few additional observations can be made. Students writing a course paper 15-20 pages in length should expect to cite 15-30 peer-reviewed sources within their papers, though in order to get to this point they should expect to read 25-50 peer-reviewed sources. For this assignment your literature review should reference 12-15 or more scholarly sources.
Format: This assignment should be 8-10 pages in length not including title and reference page. Your paper should have 1-inch borders on all four sides, use times new roman-12 point font, be double spaced, and not have an extra space in between paragraphs. (You may need to turn this off in MS word by going to paragraph and clicking “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style). Since this is an INTL course you need to use the Turabian parenthetical citation style with a references page.
The literature review must be submitted as a Word Document Attachment in the Assignments section of the classroom by Sunday, 11:55pm EST.
As you proof read your assignment I encourage you to work with Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. “Editing Your Sentences” In Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Sage. This resource has a nice step by step process for enhancing your writing.

Literature Review

Deception and Separation Comparative Essay

Deception and Separation Comparative Essay.

In this paper, please research the topic of Deception and Separation. Please demonstrate a command of the material under investigation and a subject matter expertise in the topic that you choose to write about. You are expected to demonstrate graduate-level writing, critical thinking, critical assessment, critical writing, and advanced research skills. You are expected to use at least three (3) outside primary source materials.Please be sure to use complete sentences. Please be sure to demonstrate that you read and understood the material for this module by offering detailed explanations, critical assessments, and analyses of the material that is grounded in cited evidence from the readings, peer reviewed journals, and (whenever possible) real-world examples. APA fomat
Deception and Separation Comparative Essay

Capital One Financial Story the Built to Change Model Case Study Essay

help writing Capital One Financial Story the Built to Change Model Case Study Essay.

THE CAPITAL ONE FINANCIAL STORY (EXERCISE 4.1)Read the “The Capital One Financial Story” case study in the Managing Organizational Change textbook. Write an essay that addresses the following:The “built-to-change” model has been promoted as desirable for most, if not all, organizations. Describe the advantages for an organization. Be specific.Describe the disadvantages for an organization. Be specific.From the perspective of an individual employee, contrast the advantages and disadvantages of working for a “built-to-change” organization.From the perspective of an individual employee, describe the potential disadvantages of working for a built-to-change organization.Evaluate whether the “built-to-change” model is right for all organizations today or not.The length and formatting requirements are as follows:Your paper must be 3 pages, excluding the cover and references pages.
Capital One Financial Story the Built to Change Model Case Study Essay

Keiser University Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Discussion

Keiser University Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Discussion.

Response to a post Rules Rules : APA Format / 250 Word countYour post must be highly organized, thorough and accurate.Advance the discussion or extend discussions already taking place.Responses must add new information not previously discussed. Pose new possibilities or opinions not previously voiced. Consider new factual information tied with critical thinking. Interesting and current research on the topic.Do not simply summarize another student’s post and agree/disagree. Consider starting out posts with, “A research article I found said, Did you know, 3 things I found interesting were…”Critical thinking very important for this classExample of how the professor like critical thinking :In a response to a discussion of burns, a student included:” I have seen patients at the urgent care I work at come in with sunburns that have mild blisters. It is extremely important to keep burns in a septic environment as this can cause further complications. (Saladin 2018)I remember when I was about 7 years old my uncle caught his leg on fire trying to shut off a cigarette he was smoking. His muscles and tendons were visible; my mother cleaned his wound about 3 times a day to prevent any infections along with antibiotics and stay hydrated .His third degree burn lacked pain because his nerve ending were damaged. This only occurs with third degree burns, which is why first and second degree burns are a lot more painful. It is important to be evaluated by a physician when burns are caused by chemicals or electricity, large and deep burns, or have burns that appear charred (mayo clinic).”Post :Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also known as “COPD” is the long-term obstruction of air flow and substantial reduction of pulmonary ventilation (Saladin, 2020). There are two major forms of COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema can both cause airway obstruction, dyspnea, and frequent infections that lead to hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and respiratory acidosis.Chronic bronchitis is excess mucous production in the lungs and a chronic cough. Those with chronic bronchitis are more prone to infections due to bacteria thriving in the stagnant pools of mucous (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Emphysema is enlargement of the alveolar walls and the loss of lung elasticity.COPD can be hereditary, long-term effects of smoking, and other causes like pollution and inhaled irritants, which is one of the leading causes in adult mortality (Saladin, 2020).COPD can also lead to other health issues like pulmonary hypertension as well as CHF (congestive heart failure). The lungs are working hard for one to breath, which causes the heart to work even harder. With the heart going into overload it causes fluid build up on the heart, which can lead to excess water weight and swelling. Just imagine if your lungs are working, but now your heart is filled with fluid, this is causing it to be more difficult to breathe. In this case, one would be prescribed a diuretic to rid some of the excess fluid build-up. Also, being mindful that the fluid is not riding the body too quickly, which could affect the kidneys. It is like a domino effect.Some patients with COPD are treated with corticosteroids in aerosol inhalers, and some placed on oxygen for long-term use (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). If a patient is placed on oxygen, they are carefully monitored due to the increasing of carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This is checked by performing an ABG (arterial blood gas) in the wrist. While working as a PCT, RT use to make rounds on my patients who had COPD with alarming levels.Critical Thinking:My uncle has been diagnosed with both COPD and CHF. He did not get diagnosed with CHF until his COPD got worse, of course not taking care of himself properly and still smoking. Now he has been diagnosed with stage 4 COPD, which is very chronic. Just by listening in and talking with his physicians during his hospital stays, it made me more knowledgeable to his condition.
Keiser University Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Discussion

Creating a Marketing and Sales Plan presentation for a company

Creating a Marketing and Sales Plan presentation for a company.

Hi, Course: Sales & Customer Relationship Management.I need a marketing and sales plan presentation for Magic Spoon Cereal. You will find all the instructions in the word document attached. Also, I am attaching grading rubric for this assignment. Please check the grading rubric to gain maximum points. This assignment is due on “Sunday (August 16th)”.I need perfect work to improve my grade. This assignment should improve my grade.Important Note: Please read instructions very clearly. Read instructions line by line to clearly understand the expectations of the assignment. Let me know if you have any questions. Thanks, Abhiram
Creating a Marketing and Sales Plan presentation for a company