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Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary [due Mon]Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary

Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary [due Mon]Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary. I’m trying to learn for my Management class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Part I
Create a 350-word executive summary as a team outlining the reasons why a company of your choice should invest in a mentoring program.
Include the following in the summary:

Provide the needs analysis assessment and outcome for a mentoring program
Determine if the mentoring program will be formal or informal
When will the organization realize the return on the investment
Evaluate any legal considerations of the program
Conduct a SWOT analysis that will summarize the Benefits and Risks of a mentoring program
Determine how the program will be measured

Part II
Create three forms (175 words each):

Mentor and Mentee roles and responsibilities
Mentor first meeting check list and meeting guide
Mentee first meeting check list and meeting guide

Cite all sources according to APA formatting guidelines.
My portion of the assignment is to only do
-When will the organization realize the return on the investment
-Mentee first meeting check list and meeting guide.
Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary [due Mon]Wk 5 Team Assignment: Apply: Executive Summary

The Constitutionality of Marriage Equality. Paper details   The informative essay should briefly trace the evolution of the constitutionality of same-sex marriage as a fundamental right in the United States. The essay should include a review of state ballot initiatives and federal and state laws pertaining to marriage equality. Also, examine relevant state and federal law suits and court decisions as well as the constitutional basis for the rulings. The essay must follow the MLA format with at least five credible sources listed on the citation page and have an introduction, body, and conclusion.The Constitutionality of Marriage Equality

Week 3 Supreme Court Rules Trump Cant Block Release of Financial Records Discussion

Week 3 Supreme Court Rules Trump Cant Block Release of Financial Records Discussion.

WK3 Discussion – News ArticleThis assignment has two partsPart 1- Initial Substantive postPart 2- Substantive responses to two peersPurposeTo grow a better understanding of how legislation news is reported by different media outlets.InstructionsReview either a national or local media source and select a story related to a proposed or current legislation. The selection should be either one that constitutes good and fair reporting or one that constitutes bad and unfair reporting. Write a reflection and include the following:Publication date, author (if applicable) and media source. If you have a link to the article, make sure to provide it so your peers can access the original source.Discussion of main points of the article or news media report.Indicate whether you think the article or media report was good and fair or not. Explain why.Based on the reporting: how do you think the general audience perceived the reporting of the article and news media?As a social worker, why is this article or news media, and the way it is being reported, important?Based on the news media report or article, should there be an intervention from social workers?Identify how Hispanic families and children and other vulnerable populations be affected by the legislation or proposal being reported.After reading your peers argument, respond by taking a stand. Positive feedback!-Initial substantive post of approximately 300-350 words-Your substantive responses of approximately 100-200 words to at least two peersPeer 1Supreme Court says Trump administration can let religious employers deny birth control coverage under ObamacarePublished Date: Wed, Jul 8, 2020Author: Tucker HigginsMedia Source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/08/supreme-court-says… The discussion points of this article are:The Supreme Court voted 7-2 to uphold rules established by the Trump administration to allow employers with sincere moral or religious objections to deny employees access to free contraceptive coverage. The rules broadened a carve-out to the contraceptive coverage mandate included in the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health-care overhaul commonly known as Obamacare. According to government estimates, the religious exemption would lead to possibly as many 125,000 women losing their coverage. In my opinion, I feel Tucker Higgins (author) was good and fair when he wrote this article. His news report provided the reader with facts and perspectives of each Supreme Court Justice of their reasoning for supporting or not supporting contraceptive coverage mandate that was included in the ACA. Because this ruling will basically affect women, I can provide my opinion from a woman’s standpoint. Based on Higgins’ reporting and the context of the ruling from the Supreme Court. I feel that his audience, those who have a stake in this ruling may have found the information to be very insightful and perhaps very valuable to the way they may vote in the general election. As a social worker this report gives us important information on the issues that affect a population (women) that have been oppressed by men with power, money, and especially by Conservative men in politics. NSAW (2017), NASW’s strongly believes in “Achieve Equity for All” by building a culture of inclusiveness. NASW’s broad-based commitment to social justice incorporates diverse groups who historically were or currently are oppressed, underserved, and underrepresented. As social workers, we believe that corrective action is essential to abate inequities associated with discriminatory practices. We assert, as a profession, that any intolerance is unacceptable and diminishes individual self-worth and exacerbates divisiveness. Building a more inclusive society and rooting out the inequities so deeply embedded in U.S. history and institutions will require sustained multifaceted commitment by individuals, organizations, communities, and our nation’s leaders (p 18).Social workers should absolutely intervene in this ruling. This affects women of all ethnicities. Hispanic women and women of color have been treated unjustly by powerful men. Social workers must advocate for ACA. In March 2010, then-President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act, which prevents insurance companies from charging higher premiums solely on the basis of sex. Because of the law, most health plans must now cover preventive services, including well-woman check-ups, contraceptive services, and screening and counseling for domestic or intimate partner violence, at no cost to the consumer.Promoting gender equality and empowering women and girls is a priority for the United States Government.Under the leadership of President Obama, the United States was working to combat discrimination, eliminate violence against women and girls at home and abroad, expand access to women’s health care, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, support women-owned businesses and entrepreneurs, and encourage women’s economic and political leadership (Office of the Press Secretary, 2015).If this administration follows through with this ruling allowing religious employers to deny birth control coverage under Obamacare, which will cause so many Hispanic women to lose contraceptive coverage. This will lead to more unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and more children in an already broken foster care system. The burden of cost will be paid by the hardworking backs of the taxpayer. The government will have to provide medical, food, childcare, and housing to women who do not make a good living wage to provide for their families.Ginsburg raised alarms in her dissent that the ruling could put women’s health at risk. In her statement, she said, “Today, for the first time, the Court casts totally aside countervailing rights and interests in its zeal to secure religious rights to the nth degree,” she wrote. “Destructive of the Women’s Health Amendment, this Court leaves women workers to fend for themselves, to seek contraceptive coverage from sources other than their employer’s insurer, and, absent another available source of funding, to pay for contraceptive services out of their own pockets” (Olson, Blitzer, & Bream, 2020). Referenceshttps://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/08/supreme-court-says…https://www.foxnews.com/politics/scotus-upholds-re…https://www.npr.org/2020/07/08/884104509/supreme-c…https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-off…https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?filet…Peer 2Publication date: June 18, 2020Author: Claire HansenMedia Source: https://www.usnews.com/news/national-news/articles…For my week 3 discussion, I have decided to discuss a national media source relating to the proposed legislation of DACA. This past month of June 2020, the Supreme Court fought with all their power to defend undocumented individuals, allowing them to build their lives in the United States by continuing their education or starting their careers without living in fear of deportation. The supreme court took action and made this possible for DACA recipients by blocking The Trumps Administration’s attempt to end DACA (Hansen, 2020). Over the years, Trump has expressed his priority of terminating the program. Although the House passed legislation to protect DACA recipients, there is still a possibility the Trump Administration will attempt to end the program, which impacts many young immigrant, as they fear this day will come soon.The article utilized for the discussion post was overall good. The reason for this is the manner in which the author explained the present issues many young immigrants are confronting. The article thoroughly explains Trumps reasoning and attempts to end DACA; however, through many failed attempts The Trump Administration was not successful in ending the program. There were many hardships for young immigrants while renewing their status as DACA recipients (Hansen, 2020). The overall outcome of this issue positively impacted many young immigrants and supported them by allowing them to continue dreaming of the future they have long yearned for.Based on the reporting and content of the article, I think the general audience perceived this news as a applicable and valuable information. The second largest population in the United States is the Hispanic population, with a majority of them being young immigrants who were brought to the U.S at a young age (United States Census Bureau, 2020). Many individuals perceived this article as an informative, as it pertained to a great amount of information that was applicable to their life and future here in the U.S.In my perspective as a future social worker, the manner in which this article was reported is important. As stated before, the article reported, demonstrated, and explained important factors of what many young undocumented individuals are currently facing. The article brought to light key points of how DACA was created by the Obama administration in 2012 and the Congressional negotiations to continue supporting DACA recipients. As a future social worker, I strive to work with diverse populations while also concentrating on the Hispanic population and meeting their needs, which is why I believe this article is important, as it may be used to inform young immigrants of DACA and their current legal status in the U.S.Based on the article, there are several ways social workers may provide interventions. For example, changing the language in news media and articles may be appropriate. Terms such as “illegal” or “alien” may be affect individuals. Social workers can educate young individuals by reviewing vocabulary and may be culturally appropriate. Another intervention would be to provide and create referral lists to young Dreamers that may help them when facing hardships and seeking appropriate services. Researching local healthcare, educational, and social services that can impact their well-being can also be beneficial. As stated before, it is evident that Hispanic families and children are affected by the legislation in both a negative and positive manner. Negatively because of their everyday fears of being deported and DACA ending and positively as it has allowed them to continue living the American Dream of continuing their education, attain drivers license, and work in the U.S. ReferencesUnited States Census Bureau. (2020). QuickFacts United States. Retrieved fromhttps://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PS…Hansen, C. (2020). Supreme court blocks Trump administration’s bid to end DACA protections for young immigrants. Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/news/national-news/articles…
Week 3 Supreme Court Rules Trump Cant Block Release of Financial Records Discussion

BBA 4951-18R-3A20-S1, Business Policy and Strategy

help writing BBA 4951-18R-3A20-S1, Business Policy and Strategy. I need help with a Business question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

For this assignment you will complete the final components of your implementation plan.
you will focus on the following points:

internal and external issues,
competition,
future outlook for the organization, and
implementation of tools for measuring business success.

Much of the information you will need to complete this segment can be found in the case study which I have attached. However, you are welcome to conduct further research as needed. For the future of the organization, you may be creative and add your own insight on where you see the company going.
Your project must be a minimum of three full pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. Make certain to include an introductory paragraph.
BBA 4951-18R-3A20-S1, Business Policy and Strategy

Using The Attack Helicopters In The Vietnam War History Essay

Nevertheless, like every single thing that is done by a human being, a helicopter has not just only one negative side. It is true that these machines are using primarily for attacking and fighting; but at the same time helicopters helped to save thousands of humans’ lives. Before we can understand how it is possible and why helicopters are so important in different safe and search mission we need to study some of peculiarities of this type of techniques. As helicopters are attack machines, firstly we need to start from looking through the different reasons they were so valuable for soldiers in a battle. This new smart weapon was created and used widely. These weapons were changed during the war and by now, the way of fighting war is changed forever. Nevertheless, at the same time the way of saving people was improved. Now survives had much more chances to stay alive and receive a help they need so much. The United States of America were the first country that used the new concept of warfare. This new conception is called “air mobility” at the present day. United States were using “air mobility” during the first years of the countries’ involvement in the Vietnam Conflict.. The Vietnam War was exactly the first war during which helicopters was used widely. Some sources call it a real helicopter war. The military forces started using this way of fighting while the war was progressing. United States used H-21 American helicopter to ferry the troops of Army of the Republic of Vietnam into fighting against communists in the year 1962.. at first groups of communists escaped from the troop form the helicopter. Nevertheless, when the important fighting of Ap Bac came, communists recognized soon that if they are standing their ground they can easily handle a helicopter and bring it down. Some of communists’ training manuals describe how to shoot at the H-21 and Huey helicopters in the best way. They are describing the way of shooting ahead of the target and how to increase the chance to hit the one and bring the best damage to it. A lot of troop was moving by air. It was some small groups but also big ones. From time to time for some combat operations, more than even 100 helicopters at one time were involved. Moreover, fixed-wing air support was used for dropping fire rockets and bombs at the enemy’s army. Using of helicopters led army to a radically different type of fighting battles. It means that the United State Army would be able to carry troops quickly into the enemy’s territory instead of exploring wide fronts. A troop can be dropped inside hostile territory and deploy the enemy. After a battle is over a troop can be removed immediately. Anyway, this “air mobility” which United States Army like so much and used widely came at heavy price at the end. Between the years 1962 and 1973 while the Vietnam War lasted, United States of America lost almost 4,869 helicopters (more than a thousand of helicopters were lost during the year 1968; during the next 1968 year another thousand went). More than half of all those loses was caused by the enemy fire ;(for example, enemy’s attacks on airbuses). The second half of loses were due to different type of incidents that happened during operations. It is proved that helicopters are prone to the different kind of mechanical breakdown if a machine is not maintained regularly. This helicopters’ peculiarity became one of the main reasons for all accidents that happened during some operations. Also some heavy jungle canopy of Vietnam made operations with helicopter difficult. Often it was just some certain place for a helicopter to land safely. Summarizing all the information above we can say that United States Army was a pioneer in using of the helicopters in combat. Other countries followed USA very soon. Nevertheless, nobody is able to create great “airborne cavalry” unite like the United States Army did. Anyway we can see that a lot of countries tried the concept of using helicopters for ferrying troops inside and outside of combat region in short time when an army is fighting for example rebel group. Other countries are using the United States helicopters especially for that purpose. Even such countries like Great Britain and former Soviet Union usually preferred to choose moving primarily some elite groups by the helicopters. United States Army airborne cavalry units for example 101-st Airborne and also 82-st airborne conduced to be trained better that any other cavalry unit ever. The Air Cavalry that is immortalized in the film “Apocalypse Now”. During the Vietnam War it was created and widely used for the first time. The most prominent among the attack helicopters used during the war was The Huey AH – 1 B. the United States Army forced a set of “Search and Destroy” missions to carry the battle to enemy. The different kind of helicopters was used to hunt down the positions of the enemy and in light them. The best friend of the U. S. Army (especially the ground forces) now became the AH -1 B helicopter. This helicopter was used widely during different ground operations and missions because it is also useful if the situation becomes untenable and it requires to extract soldiers immediately. The United States Army used the whole squadrons of the attack helicopters when it wanted to preface a large -scaled ground operation. Helicopters can help to “soften” any strong resistance from the ground. Also The United States Marines used a variant of the Huey attack helicopter and the AH -1 G “Cobra” helicopter as a close air support to the Marines on the earth. The “Cobra” helicopter is still being used for now. This type of attack helicopters was an important part of the “Desert Storm” operation in 1991. Also different kind of helicopters were used widely for rescue and search missions during the Vietnam Compiegne. During the Vietnam War numerous attack helicopters showed themselves as a strong and useful weapon. This proved fact set the new stage for the way of fighting during many of future conflicts. Also it had a kind of great influence on the way ground operations were conducted later. The air war raged greatly during the Vietnam War (throughout the year 1966 and into the year 1967). So, military building is still on its way of making progress. Now, after looking through the peculiarities of a helicopter, let us discuss different situations in which this machine is vitally important. As we proved above, one of the most useful features of a helicopter is high flexibility, high portability of the machine. During the Vietnam War a lot of battles and attacks took place inside the impenetrable forest and jangly. It was very difficult to reach the needed place in any other way. Now let us imagine that how much wounded, injured and lost soldiers are left after every such battle. They are still alive and they need a help. The only way to give them that help and save their lives is to send a helicopter that is ably to land almost in any place. Helicopters are able to save soldiers even under the enemy’s fire. Due to the ability of the machine to hover above the land with its engine on helicopters were used to pick soldiers, wounded people, and immediately fly away. Also there are many civil people that are suffering during any war. During the Vietnam War many citizens were lost and injured. They were made to run away of their homes because of battles and fire. Helicopters turned to be very helpful when it was important to find people inside the sick forest. Also helicopters were the only way to save civil people from the place where the fight is going to start soon and there is no time again to evacuate citizens in any other way. It was even possible to evacuate people – children and women – form inside the territory where a battle have already started. Moreover, helicopters are very useful for saving lives of injured people. First of all, they can come quickly and bring a person to a hospital in a very short time. this feature is very important when a live of a person depends on every spare minute. It is even possible to give a person some treatment right inside a helicopter while it is moving. Assuming all the information from the project, we can say that Vietnam War became a turn point in the field of tactics and war fighting. New weapons were created and new tactics let United States become a pioneer in air attacks. Soldiers could feel themselves more secured during different operations and missions. The most valuable achievement is the opportunity of using various types of helicopters in search and safe missions. We don’t know how the Vietnam War would be going without helicopters but what we know for sure that after those war all fighting and conflict get a new stage and it will never be the same. 1.Chant, Christopher. Fighting Helicopters of the 20th Century. England: Tiger Books, 1996. 2.Debay, Yves. Combat Helicopters. France: Histoire

Role-play area increase childrens oral language

My interest for this research stemmed from my passion for drama and my belief that it can enhance children’s learning experience. However, within the research school, teachers planned collaboratively and the use of drama did not suit lessons planned. This led to a developing interest in children’s play within the role-play area and the potential it had in enabling children to acquire language. The potential of the role-play corner is supported by Sylva et al (1980) who believe that the richest conversations within the Foundation classroom occur within the home corner. During my research I found that I strongly agreed with Moyles’ (2005) opinion that play is not employed within the primary classroom despite recommendations that this should be the case due to the range of potential it provides. Before changes were made to the role-play area during the research I felt that children were not using the area to its full potential and the research carried out aimed to resolve this by encouraging teachers to use this area in enhancing children’s learning. Therefore, the research carried out aimed to show the important role the role-play area plays within primary education and enabling children to acquire oral language. The study further aims to bring to light elements within the role-play area that will enhance children’s experience within the role-play area and ensure they are engaging with new vocabulary. The study was based in a large school with 300 children on roll and 30 teaching staff in Oxfordshire. The research was carried out in a mixed Year 1 and 2 class which consisted of 30 children for a period of five weeks. The following chapter aims to explore previous research within the areas of language acquisition and how the role-play area can enhance children’s language acquisition. Literature Review 2.1 Looking at language acquisition Language acquisition occurs as children learn a language and outlines the stages they progress through to achieve speech (Clark 2009). The first stage looks at sounds, words, meanings and construction which moves onto knowing when and where to use language and incorporating it into everyday life (Clark 2009). There are three main theories that look at how children acquire their language skills and at what age this starts to develop. The Behaviourist view states that children develop language skills through imitating their parents and later reinforce these skills (Eyres 2007). Nativists believe that children find language to be instinctual as children often hear incomplete sentences as they grow up and impose structures they have overheard on their own speech (Eyres 2007). Chomsky (cited in Wilson 2008) believes that children have a Language Acquisition Device that refers to an area of the brain which allows for children to learn and use language from a young age. Chomsky agrees with the Nativist theory in that children make use of rules they overhear in adult speech within the first few years of life and therefore their ideas on language structures constantly change and adapt to suit a more mature view of language grammar (Wilson 2008). The third theory about language acquisition is that of Interactionalists. They argue that children learn from the community around them and that babies start to pick up conventions of communication and their learning is developed through encouragement by adults, lending their support and interpreting sounds (Eyres 2007). However, other research suggests that infants are pushed to learn a language in order to share meaning and communicate with those around them and relationships with their carers engages them in a world of a specific language (Whitehead 2007). Brumfit (1984) states that there is a lot of research that was carried out on acquiring language but it is important to note that it is impossible to be able to isolate children’s language experiences from processes of interaction in their early years. Wells (1979) stands out for researching language acquisition and examines how adults support and assist children in their conversations by expanding on their contribution. Although this research is dated, the significance it still holds in this area should be noted as it the theories are commented on and developed by Wilson (2008) who states that Wells’ research suggests that children benefit mostly from one-to-one discussions with adults about topics that concern and interest them and the quantity of language experience children have is crucial to their language development. Vygotsky and Bruner (cited in Wilson 2008) believe that adults and older children play an important role in aiding young children’s language development. They further argue that children need first-hand experience with language through small group or one-to-one interactions with adults and engaging in talk about shared experiences and talking for a variety of purposes (Wilson 2008). Goodwin (2005) believes that speaking and listening opportunities are essential aspects within the Early Years and this is clearly shown throughout the strands of the Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum (DCSF 2008). Sylva et al (1980) argue that the richest conversations within Foundation classrooms occur in the home corner. Moyles (2005) believes that although play has mainly been used as a teaching strategy in the Early Years, recommendations have been made about implementing it into Key Stage One and Two classrooms due to the worth it holds for a wider age range. Some schools and teachers have taken this advice and set up a ‘transitional classroom’ which integrates the Early Years approach with traditional classroom practice (Harris 2003). 2.2 Using the role-play area to develop children’s oral language acquisition Children require first-hand experiences of language when acquiring language through experiences with their peers and adults in different situations (Vygotsky and Bruner cited in Wilson 2008). Goodwin (2005) writes that watching through watching their peers, children can observe different models of language which they can implement on their own. Although this research relates to the opportunity to critically observe drama performances, it lends itself to the idea of children experiencing new language through their peers. During pretend play, children use their real life and imaginary experiences as a basis for their language and learning, while starting at their own level (Moyles 1989). This is further supported by McArthur (1983) who believes experiences within language classrooms should relate to real-life situations that occur beyond the classroom walls. The use of pretend play within the role play area further develops language use as it encourages expressive speech to occur as objects may take on a different role during play and these ideas need to be made clear to all participants of play (Marjanovic-Umek and Lesnik-Musek 2001). Experiences within the role play area further provide meaningful contexts for children by letting them use language in ways they can identify, respond and learn from as they become active and interactive users of language (Clipson-Boyles 1998). Within the role-play area this often occurs through children pretending to be adults and this enables them to experience situations from a new perspective (Clipson-Boyles 1998). When children take on these roles they often imitate adult speech patterns (Tassoni and Husker 2005) and this argument is further developed by Andersen (1990) who states that adult language features can be clearly identified when children start to imitate adults around them. Through this experience children assimilate new vocabulary through portraying different roles (Tassoni and Husker 2005), as well as developing the social skills required to play these roles (Clipson-Boyles 1998). Due to this, teachers need to ensure children are introduced to new situations and Bedrova and Leong (2003) further argue that as children’s repertoire of roles begins to grow they acquire a wide range of vocabulary to suit each role and therefore it is essential that children are encouraged to play different roles. When entering new contexts and situations, new and different demands are made on language use and therefore new language can be used and developed effectively (Byron 1986). Furthermore, it is important that children are introduced to new settings and experiences in order to engage them with high-level play (Bedrova and Leong 2003). However, it is important to note that children often revert to playing family roles, even within a new area, as they are familiar and comfortable with these roles (Bedrova and Leong 2003). When children are introduced to a new theme within the role-play area, they engage with and use new vocabulary which would be appropriate for the theme and situation they are acting out (Bedrova and Leong (2003). Bedrova and Leong (2003) believe that when children use new words within their play it shows that the children understand the meaning of the words they are using and are able to master the vocabulary within the meaningful context of play. While children are practicing their language and discussing the play they will engage in, the teacher should step in to prompt children to use the vocabulary they have learnt (Bedrova and Leong 2003) Teachers may create stimulating and exciting role-play areas that contain a variety of quality resources however, when a role-play area is kept the same for several weeks children’s experiences are unlikely to be move the child forward past free and directed play modes (Moyles 1989). Due to this children should be aware that the time they spend within the role-play area is limited (Clipson-Boyles 1998). When introducing a new and exciting role-play area there should be some opportunity for free-play to occur before teacher direction is implemented to provide children with a direction to explore other dimensions and extend their learning (Moyles 1989). However, Bedrova and Leong (2003) believe that teacher intervention should occur before children access the role-play area in order to raise the level of play occurring within the classroom. Talk is an essential element within play as children use it constantly, either when talking to themselves, others and even toys and playthings (Moyles 1989). Although the use of role-play is beneficial, the quality of learning that occurs is limited by the quality of the resources available to children (Clipson-Boyles 1998). Bodrova and Leong (2003) concur with this statement and believe the use of a variety of props and objects provide children with the best opportunities to practice their language. Moyles (1989) further develops this argument by stating that if play is structured by the materials and resources that have been made available the quality of play occurring will be dependent on the quality, quantity and variety of resources being provided. However, Martin and Dombey (2002) argue that the quality and richness of play language arises from children managing tensions when creating a play world, the storylines and multiple identities they create as they strive to have their voice heard. Therefore, teachers should look at children’s language while they are in role and out of role (Martin and Bombey 2002). The practical element of play within the role-play area aids the development of language acquisition as play provides intense motivation for young children to learn while they play (Chambers 1999) while also allowing children the option of either repeating or varying the language being used (Cook 2000). Therefore the role-play area provides children with a wealth of opportunities to develop language through play (Tassoni and Hicker 2005). However, a crucial element in using the role play area in developing language is the important role the teacher plays in recognising and valuing the play which occurs within the role play area while ensuring children know they are accountable for their learning and their actions within the role play area (Clipson-Boyles 1998). Methodology Chapter The research to answer the question “Does the increased use of the role-play area increase children’s oral language acquisition?” was based in a large school with 300 children on roll and 30 teaching staff in Oxfordshire. The research was carried out in a mixed Year 1 and 2 class which consisted of 30 children for a period of five weeks. In order to explore and answer the question ‘Does the increased use of the role-play area increase children’s oral language acquisition?’ a case study approach was taken. A case study is ideal for allowing one aspect of a problem to be examined and explored in some depth (Bell 2010). It also provides an accurate and detailed account of events, feeling and views given by real people in a real situation (Basit 2010) which is achieved in relation to this question through the use of interviews, observations and questionnaires. Due to the nature of the question, the methods used collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data is represented with numbers and provide the reader with explicit information (Denscombe 2003). In contrast, qualitative data encompasses several research methods as there is a written or oral outcome that is later interpreted (Denscombe 2003). The use of both quantitative and qualitative data reinforced the reliability and validity of the information gathered, as the accuracy of the findings increases through the implementation of different methods of investigation (Denscombe 2003) Due to the case study element of the question, as well as the benefits of collecting both qualitative data and quantitative data, the research methods of unstructured group interviews, participant observation and questionnaires were chosen. The use of a method such as document scrutiny would not have been appropriate for the research as the question was more concerned with oral language skills rather than children’s written skills. Interviews were used during the study as they were easy to adapt and allowed for the interviewer to follow up on ideas and answers which could be further developed and clarified (Bell 2010). The use of unstructured interviews allowed the interviewee to develop their own thoughts as the process was started by introducing a theme or topic from which the researcher developed their ideas (Denscombe 2003). The use of interviews suited the question as it recorded children’s views and feelings in regards to changes implemented within their classroom. These interviews were be carried out informally (Basit 2020) and created a deeper understanding of individuals’ ideas (Denscombe 2003). Group interviews operated at the level of those participating (Denscombe 2003). The main purpose of group interviews was for the participants to interact and respond to what the others were saying and the interviewee took a step back and tended to moderate the discussion (Bell 2010). However, the use of group interviews can be difficult, especially in scheduling when it can take place and controlling the amount of people that may be talking at once (Denscombe 2003). A limitation to group interviews is that quieter people tend to be forgotten as the more confident members take charge of the group and the answers (Denscombe 2003). Another factor that needs to be considered is that people may provide answers with are deemed as acceptable within the group and not disclose their true opinions (Denscombe 2003). Despite this, the use of group interviews allowed for the collection of opinions from children of different abilities and therefore showed how the changes affected children of different abilities. Interviews allowed for valuable insight to be gained into how the changes, which were implemented, affected children’s language acquisition. Due to the positive arguments above, and the opportunity to gain an understanding of children’s feelings and ideas towards the changes, ensured interviews were ideal for carrying out research. However, it was important to realise that the children participating may have answered questions as they felt obliged to answer, rather than how they truly felt. Further to this, on different days, children may be experiencing different emotions and this may have affected their answers during the interview. Participant observation was used during the research as this method relies on the idea that the participants being observed are unaware and act to what happens in the normal way (Denscombe 2003). This type of observation normally occurs when the observer is within the setting on a regular basis to improve their practice (Basit 2010) and was employed due to the researchers regular presence within the classroom this research method was adopted. Participant observation allowed for the researcher to note that children’s natural responses and actions within the role-play area. It further lent itself as children a method which collected unbiased data due to the researcher refraining from interfering with the participants. However, it is important to note that despite the researcher aiming to remain unobtrusive (Denscombe 2003) children may still be aware they are being watched. Questionnaires were used as a method of gathering information from other teachers who employed the role-play area within their classrooms. Questionnaires need to be carefully planned and the way in which the information gathered and interpreted needs to be considered (Basit 2010). The answers given, through the use of questionnaires, can be easily divided into opinions and facts and it is important that the researcher is able to distinguish between both views (Basit 2010). Despite this, questionnaires were used as they can offer insight into what teachers think. This allowed for information from an outside source to be collected and further validated the information collected. The questioners employ the ‘Likert scale’ which asks participants to comment on how much they agree with a statement (Bell 2010) which allows for quantitative results to be collected. However, iti is important to note that answers to questionnaires can not be clarified and the researcher needs to rely on what has been written on paper (Bell 2010). Despite this, the use of a questionnaire allowed for opinions of teachers to be noted and some questionnaires were written on by the participants to further explain and give reasons for their answers. However, when filling out questionnaires the participants may provide answers they believe the researcher wants to collect rather than noting what they truly think. By using three different methods, triangulation of data occurred. This meant that different aspects were examined and the complexity of human behaviour was taken into account (Cohen at al 2000). It also reinforced the validity of the research collected as the same issue was examined from different angles (Basit 2010) through the implementation of different research methods. The methods used in the research were able to complement each other and support the findings produced but also offered some differences as the different methods were suited towards different purposes (Denscombe 2003). Triangulation further allowed for findings to be cross-checked which validated the results collected within the research (Bell 2010). Before the research was undertaken, the ethical aspects were considered and examined closely, appendix 1 (page xy). Cohen et al (2000) state that ‘social scientists have a responsibility not only to their profession in its search for knowledge and truth, but also for the subjects they depend on for their work’. Therefore, it was important the children were aware that they were being observed throughout the case study and actions were taken to consider any ethical implications. Data set Content Quantity/Quality Recording Method Unstructured group interviews The group interviews consist of six participants (one from each ability group within their separate year groups) The interviews lasted 10-20 minutes and occurred before and after changes were implemented. In total, two interviews were held with the children. Tape recorders were used when interviewing six children. Interviews were then transcribed and pplaced within the appendices (appendix 6 and 7). Participant Observation The role-play area was observed for one hour a week for five weeks. The children within the role-play area were not selected and the focus of the observation was the language being used. In total, five observations occurred. Notes made while observing the role-play area once a week. Notes written on post-it notes at all times to note use of new vocabulary used etc and then typed onto the computer and placed in the appendices (appendix 8) Teacher Questionnaires Four teachers filled out a questionnaire which asked for their opinion in how best to aid children’s language acquisition. In total, one questionnaire was filled out. Questionnaire handed out and filled in independently then handed back to researcher. These were then collected and placed into the appendix (appendix 2,3,4 and 5) Results Table 1: Questionnaire Results Question Results 1. Do you think the role-play area helps children learn and become familiar with language? Yes – 100% 2. How effective is the role-play area in allowing children to develop their language? 4 – 66% 5 – 33% 3. Do you set up an area specifically to encourage children to practice and extend their learning and therefore engage in topic-specific vocabulary? Yes – 100% 4. With the role-play area currently set up have you noticed children using topic related vocabulary? Yes – 100% 5. If yes, how frequently is this language used? 3 – 33% 4 – 33% 5 – 33% 6. Are the children able to use the language correctly and in an appropriate context? Yes – 66% When modeled – 33% 7. For future topics, would you think about ensuring the role-play area allows for topic specific vocabulary to be used (especially in terms of science vocabulary). Yes – 100% 8. How might you ensure that this is achieved? Key vocabulary displayed, teacher modeling, Sharing experiences with class, interactive resources Table 2: Interview One Results Question Key responses 1. How do you think the school room helps you learn? Lets children know more about emergency vehicle and traditional stories through questions and for others and answering questions on the wall 2. So what do you do when you were in the school room? Puppets are used to re-tell or create stories, children learnt about emergency vehicles and traditional tales but did not mention how 3. Do you use the questions on the wall to help you? No as the questions are too easy 4. Some of the questions on the wall are about traditional tales but some are about emergency vehicles. Does that confuse you? Yes as children were confused about what each question referred too 5. What kinds of words do you use? Do you use new words, words that you learnt from the stories? Or do you just talk like you normally would? Children used phrases such as ‘The end’, ‘Once upon a time’ and ‘The middle’ One child mentioned using adjectives 6. So what could the teachers have done to help you learn more in the school room? Teachers could have provided the correct answers so children could share and inform each other 7. So what could I change then in the school room? Questions could be trickier, could have provided more resources for the emergency vehicle section Table 3: Interview Two Results Question Key responses 1. What do you do when you’re in the electricity shop? Children make circuits and discussed some of the circuits they made. One child discussed how she drew the circuit using symbols and then made it 2. How do you think the electricity shop has helped you learn? Children know how to make and draw symbols 3. So, in the electricity shop, do you look at the questions? Yes because they helped their learning and know more about electricity. No because they are not important. 4. How helpful was it to have the batteries, wires and light bulbs? Good so children could build circuits and learn independently 5. Did you find having all the electricity stuff helped you with your language? Did you use lots of words about electricity? Not really as they could have drawn them instead. Yes as you need a battery, wire and bulb to make a circuit. 6. Do you think you speak differently in the electricians shop than in the rest of the classroom? More electricity related words are used such as ‘mains electricity’, ‘insulated wire, ‘power stations’, ‘electricity pylons’ and ‘electrocuted’ 7. What helped you to use all the electricity words? Anything special in the electricians’ shop that helped you? The questions helped, the equipment helped and the pictures that were available Table 4: Observation results Observation 1: 17/2/2011 Observation 2 : 3/3/2011 Children did not stay on task and therefore did not use new language Drawings of stories, however, story not told Child commented on light being dimmer and brighter Children talked about the parts they were using to make a circuit Children discuss breaks within a circuit Child predicted brightness of a bulb from a drawing Children use new vocabulary effectively and regularly Observation 3: 10/3/2011 Observation 4: 17/3/2011 Child discusses how some equipment uses mains electricity and the use of a switch Children discuss how crocodile clips work One child discusses how he melds lights with his father Two children discuss solar power and how most electricity comes from a power plant Children further discuss how pylon wires are insulated Children discuss why a light may not be working as the crocodile clip does not clip on the bulb holder Two children discuss how the electricity in the bulb gives off heat The dangers of electricity are mentioned and how one child could be electrocuted as he put a circuit around his neck The purpose of a switch is mentioned. One child links the word circle with circuit in describing electric flow Observation 5: 14/3/2011 Child discusses how the electricity is moving through the circuit Circuit is being made and when the bulb does not light a child mentions that a battery must be broken Child mentions she saw a traffic light being fixed and that the electricity was stopped so the electrician was not electrocuted

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