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Wilmington University Project Support to Business Strategies Worksheet

Wilmington University Project Support to Business Strategies Worksheet.

Read the Running Case found at the end of Chapter 4.complete tasks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 for this case project.Running CaseAdditional running cases are provided on the Companion website, including the Manage Your Health, Inc. case from the seventh edition of this text, now with updated tasks based on this edition. Template files are also available on the Companion website. This running case starts here and continues through Chapter 13. Tasks based on this case are explained in the following Tasks section; throughout the book, these tasks will build on work done in previous chapters and scenarios. Economic inequality is a huge issue. A recent study found that the world’s 80 wealthiest individuals own as much as the entire world’s poorest 3.5 billion people. The richest 1 percent of the world’s population control half of the world’s total wealth.* Many individuals, corporations, charities, and government agencies have projects and programs in place to attempt to tackle this and other important global issues such as sustainability, but there are many opportunities to do more. A grassroots group of college students has decided to work together to do their part in making the world a better place. The students are from many different countries, and several of them met at global conferences, through study abroad experiences, or on various Internet groups. Strategic goals of this group include developing skills for both college students and for needy populations, sharing information on existing products and services that promote economic growth and sustainability, and promoting entrepreneurship. Leaders of this group were reviewing some ideas for projects (all with a significant IT component) that they could do to support their strategic goals:1. Global Treps : Many people are familiar with the television show called Shark Tank where entrepreneurs (sometimes called “treps”) present their business ideas to a group of investors or sharks. Several colleges, high schools, and even elementary schools throughout the world hold unique versions of a shark tank like event. You believe that creating a non-profit organization with one central mobile-friendly website/application to assist groups in organizing these types of events would spark even more entrepreneurs throughout the world. You would plan to hold several shark tank like events during the term of the project and create a site and applications to help continue developing more global treps. This site/application would include the following capabilities: Provide guidelines and templates for running a shark tank type of event. Accept donations from potential investors targeted toward specific schools or organizations wishing to host an event (similar to the popular site where people can fund teacher’s requests). Accept ideas for needed new products or services. Provide the ability for organizations to create their own custom site to solicit local participants and sharks, accept applications, and promote the winners as well as losers. Research ideas for a mechanism where a certain percentage of all donations and profits earned by contestants are donated back to the Global Treps organization. Provide an online version of the events by showing videos of contestants and live reactions of the sharks while also getting live inputs and donations from viewers. 2. Change the Laws Campaign : Launch a global campaign to change laws to reduce further income inequality and promote social responsibility. This project would also involve creating a mobile-friendly website/application that would include information about current and proposed laws, allow discussions of potential ideas to change laws, organize 1. 2. 3. 4. people to contact appropriate lawmakers, etc. 3. Wealthy Unite : Develop a system to enable the richest people in the world to provide their input on how they can make the world a better place. Provide information on what several people are currently doing (i.e., Bill Gates, Warren Buffet, famous celebrities, etc.) to promote philanthropy. Allow others to donate to suggested causes and recommend other ways to reduce economic inequality. 4. Global Smart Shoppers : Develop a mobile app and website that recommends products and services produced by organizations that promote social responsibility. Customize the app so it works in any country in the user’s desired language. Work with large companies that do not currently sell products or services in certain countries to expand to regions in need. Allow small companies to easily add their products and services to the shopping network.Tasks1.Summarize each of the proposed projects using a simple table format suitable for presentation to top management. Include the name of each project, identify how each one supports business strategies, assess the potential financial benefits and other benefits of each project, and provide your initial assessment of the value of each project. Write your results in a one-to two-page memo to top management, including appropriate back-up information and calculations.2.Evaluate the four projects by preparing a weighted scoring model using the template provided on the Companion website for this text. Develop at least four criteria, assign weights to each criterion, assign scores, and then calculate the weighted scores. Print the spreadsheet and bar chart with the results. Also write a one-page paper that describes this weighted scoring model and the results.3.Prepare a business case for the Global Treps project. Assume that the project will take six months to complete, use many volunteer hours, and cost about $130,000 for hardware, software, travel, and labor. Use the business case template provided on the Companion website for this text. Be sure to research information on the television show and events held by colleges and other groups, which have been sparked by the need for more successful entrepreneurs. Also visit to see how that site operates and look into steps for forming a non profit organization.4.Prepare a draft project charter and an assumption log for the Global Treps project. Assume that the project will take six months to complete and have a 5. 6. budget of $130,000. Use the project charter template provided in this text and the sample project charter provided in Table 4-1 as guides. For the assumption log, document at least two assumptions including an assumption ID, date, source, category, description, and status. You will be the project manager, and Dr. K. will be the project sponsor. Other team members will include Bobby, Ashok, Kim, and Alfreda. You plan to hold four shark tank like events plus develop the Global Treps site and application.5. Start a lessons learned register to document knowledge learned on this project. Include la lessons learned ID, date, source, category, description, impact, recommendations, and proposed actions. Be creative in then making two entries.6.Prepare a change request for the Global Treps project, using the template provided on the Companion website for this text. Assume that you have decided not to provide an online version of the show as it would be too much work for the initial project. Be creative when making up information.Link of the book just incase.…
Wilmington University Project Support to Business Strategies Worksheet

The importance of investment appraisal

Investment appraisal helps the investors or the financial institutes to identify the attractiveness of any investment proposal among different available methods, for instance IRR (Internal Rate of Return), NPV (Net Present Value), Payback period etc. Investment Appraisal is a fundamental body of Capital Budgeting which is also applicable in the areas where the return may not be quantifiable. Investment Appraisal is important as because it shows the investors to calculate the outcome of the investment. Furthermore, with the help of Investment Appraisal the investors can easily identify the best or most profitable option among the available alternatives. (Investment Appraisal, [n.d.]). (b) What is the payback period of each project? If AP Ltd imposes a 3 year maximum payback period which of these projects should be accepted? The payback period is the time frame required to recover the invested amount. In the case of the cash flows with an annuity (same amount in each year), then payback period can be easily calculated by dividing the cost by the annual cash flow. Otherwise we subtract the cash flows from the cost until the remainder is zero. For any sort of investment firms prefer short payback period as the investment can be used somewhere else. Generally, firms maintain some maximum allowable payback period against which all investments are compared. It is a popular method as is quick and easy to calculate and importantly it gives a measure of the liquidity of the project. (Timothy R. Mayes, [n.d.]) Payback Period for Project A: Year Cash Flow Cumulative Cash Flow 1 38 38 2 42 80 3 48 128 4 50 178 5 70 248 The payback period for Project A= 2 (115000-80000)/48000= 2 0.73= 2.73 years Payback Period for Project B: As this is a constant stream of cash flow, the payback period for Project B = 115000/43000= 2.67 years Both the projects can be accepted, If AP Ltd imposes a 3 year maximum payback. But between these two projects, B will be preferred over A. (c) What are the problems of the payback period? Though the payback method provides real usefulness by providing information on how long funds will be engaged in the project it suffers from two primary problems: Payback Period does not consider the time value of money: In this calculation, Cash Flows are simply added without discounting. This violates the most basic principle of financial analysis which stipulates that cash flows occurring at different points can be considered only after suitable compounding/ discounting. (V S RAMA RAO, 2008) This measure does not consider a project’s profitability. It is just a measure of a project’s capital recovery. Though it measures a project’s liquidity, it does not indicate the liquidity position of the firm as a whole. (V S RAMA RAO, 2008) The payback period method leads to ignore projects generating substantial cash inflows in later years. (Sarma, Deepak, nd) (d) Determine the NPV for each of these projects? Should they be accepted – explain why? Project A: Year Cash Flow Discount Factor Net Present Value 1 38000 0.896860987 34080.72 2 42000 0.804359629 33783.10 3 48000 0.721398771 34627.14 4 50000 0.646994413 32349.72 5 70000 0.580264048 40618.48 Total 175459.16 So, Profit = Total Inflow- Initial Investment = 175,459.16-115,000.00 = 60459.17 As the NPV of Project A seems a profitable one (Project’s NPV is bigger than the Initial Investment) it can be accepted. Project B: Year Cash Flow Discount Factor Net Present Value 1 43000 0.896860987 38565.02 2 43000 0.804359629 34587.46 3 43000 0.721398771 31020.14 4 43000 0.646994413 27820.75 5 43000 0.580264048 24951.35 Total 156944.74 So, Profit = Total Inflow- Initial Investment = 156944.74- 115000 = 41944.74 As the NPV of Project B seems a profitable one (Project’s NPV is bigger than the Initial Investment), it can be accepted. (e) Describe the logic behind the NPV approach. The net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of the cash flows (the benefit) and the cost of the investment (IO): In other words, this is the projected increase in wealth that the shareholders will receive out of any accepted project. All projects with NPV greater than or equal to zero should be accepted. A project with positive Net Present Value means the IRR is greater than the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). NPV, Net Present Value, allows you to value a company’s assets at their correct current value when the accounts are prepared. The calculation of NPV takes into account the assets original cost, less all accumulated depreciation allowed against that asset in previous tax computations. “The NPV method is based on a logical approach. An NPV of zero signifies that the project’s cash flows are exactly sufficient to repay the invested capital and to provide the required rate of return on that capital.” If NPV > 0, then the project is generating a larger amount of cash that required to service debt and to allow a return to shareholders. So if the firm takes on projects that have positive net present values (NPV) then the wealth of shareholders will increase, enticing them to increase their investment in the firm”. The NPV method of capital budgeting dictates that all independent projects that have positive NPV should accepted. The rationale that is behind that assertion arises from the idea that all such projects add wealth, and that should be the overall goal of the manager in all respects. If strictly using the NPV method to evaluate two mutually exclusive projects, you would want to accept the project that adds the most value (i.e. the project with the higher NPV). “Net present value is defined as a way to improve the effectiveness of project evaluations through the use of discounted cash flow techniques. To find the present value of a project, you must first find the present value of each cash flow discounted at the cost of capital. Then, sum the discounted cash flows. If the NPV is positive, accept the project. If NPV is negative, reject the project. It is important to remember that if two projects are mutually exclusive, the project that has the higher NPV should be selected”. Net present value is defined as a way to improve the effectiveness of project evaluations through the use of discounted cash flow techniques. To find the present value of a project, you must first find the present value of each cash flow discounted at the cost of capital. Then, sum the discounted cash flows. If the NPV is positive, accept the project. If NPV is negative, reject the project. It is important to remember that if two projects are mutually exclusive, the project that has the higher NPV should be selected” (f) Discuss the relationship between NPV and cost of capital. NPV has a direct impact on the capital budgeting decision. These two factors are directly inter-related. NPV < 0 implies IRR < Cost of Capital: At this stage the company reject the investment from the cash flow perspective. Apart from that the company needs to consider other factors as well. NPV = 0 implies IRR = Cost of Capital: Provides the minimum return. Probably reject from the cash flow perspective. Others factors could be important. NPV > 0 implies IRR > Cost of Capital: Screen in for further analysis. Other investments may provide better returns and capital should be rationed, i.e., go to the most profitable projects. Others factors could be important. (g) Calculate the IRR for each project. Should they be accepted? IRR of Project A: NPV at 25% Year Cash Flow Discount Factor NPV 1 38 0.8 30.4 2 42 0.64 26.88 3 48 0.512 24.576 4 50 0.4096 20.48 5 70 0.32768 22.9376 Total 125.2736 Initial Investment 115.0000 Net Present Value at 25% 10.2736 NPV at 30% Year Cash Flow Discount Factor NPV 1 38 0.769230769 29.23077 2 42 0.591715976 24.85207 3 48 0.455166136 21.84797 4 50 0.350127797 17.50639 5 70 0.269329074 18.85304 Total 112.2902 Initial Investment 115 Net Present Value at 30% -2.70976 So, IRR For Project A = 25% {10.2736/(10.2736 2.7097)} x (30%-25%) =25% 3.95% =28.95% As the IRR of Project A is a positive one, it can be accepted, considering the remaining factors constant. IRR of Project B: Net Present Value at 25%: Year CashFlow Discount Factor NPV 1 43 0.8 34.4 2 43 0.64 27.52 3 43 0.512 22.016 4 43 0.4096 17.6128 5 43 0.32768 14.09024 Total 115.639 Initial Investment 115 Net Present Value at 25% 0.63904 Year CashFlow Discount Factor NPV 1 43 0.769230769 33.07692 2 43 0.591715976 25.44379 3 43 0.455166136 19.57214 4 43 0.350127797 15.0555 5 43 0.269329074 11.58115 Total 104.7295 Initial Investment 115 Net Present Value at 30% -10.2705 So, IRR For Project A = 25% {6390/(6390 102705)} x (30%-25%) = 25% 0.29% =25.29% As the IRR of Project B is a positive one, it can be accepted, considering the remaining factors constant. (h) How does a change in the cost of capital affect the project’s IRR? “The internal rate of return (IRR) is considered as the discount rate that nullify the present value of a particular project’s projected cash inflows to the present value of the projects cost (interest rate) or equivalently, the IRR is the rate that forces the NPV to equal zero” The discount rate often used in capital budgeting that makes the net present value of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero. Generally speaking, the higher a project’s internal rate of return, the more desirable it is to undertake the project. As such, IRR can be used to rank several prospective projects a firm is considering. Assuming all other factors are equal among the various projects, the project with the highest IRR would probably be considered the best and undertaken first. The logic behind the IRR method is: The IRR on a project is its measured rate of return. If the internal rate of return exceeds the cost of the funds used to finance the project, a surplus will remain after paying for the capital, and this surplus will accrue to the firm’s stockholders Therefore, taking on a project who’s IRR exceeds its cost of capital increases shareholders’ wealth. On the other hand, if the IRR is less than the cost of capital, then taking on the project will impose a cost on current stockholders. It is this “breakeven” characteristic that makes the IRR useful in evaluating capital projects.” (i) Discuss why the NPV method is often regarded to be superior to the IRR method? The IRR is defined as the discount rate that equates the present values of a project’s expected cash inflows to the present value of the project’s costs” (Page 351). Additionally, “when dealing with independent projects, the NPV and IRR methods will always yield the same accept/reject result. ‘However, in the case of mutually exclusive projects, NPV and IRR can give conflicting results. One shortcoming of the internal rate of return is that it assumes that cash flows received are reinvested at the project’s internal rate of return, which is not usually true A conflict exists if the cost of capital is less than the crossover rate. Two basic conditions can cause NPV profiles to cross, and thus conflicts to arise between NPV and IRR: (1) when project size (or scale) differences exist, meaning that the cost of one project is largest than that of the other, or (2) when timing differences exist, meaning that the timing of cash flows from the two projects differs such that most of the cash flows from one project come in the early years while most of the cash flows from the other project come in the later years (Page 355) The value of early cash flows depends on the return we can earn on those cash flows, that is the rate at which we can reinvest them. “The NPV method implicitly assumes that the rate at which cash flows can be reinvested is the cost of capital, whereas the IRR method assumes that the firm can reinvest at the IRR” (Page 355). Because of the above criteria The NPV method is considered as more reliable method than IRR. The best assumption is that the projects’ cash flows can be reinvested at the cost of capital (Page 355). The IRR is a popular technique primarily because it is a percentage which is easily compared to the WACC. However, it suffers from a couple of flaws: The calculation of the IRR implicitly assumes that the cash flows are reinvested at the IRR. This may not always be realistic. Percentages can be misleading (would you rather earn 100% on a $100 investment, or 10% on a $10,000 investment?) Using both measures gives better results than using either alone. IRR is also useful alone in virtually all time-value-of-money problems.

Causes of Parkinson’s Disease

best assignment help Causes of Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the progressive death of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones, resulting in the reduction of caudate-putamen dopamine concentration in the basal ganglia. Insufficient DA produced from the substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones due to progressive degradation in PD patient’s results in motor neurone cell death. Afflicting just under 1% of the population over 60. Little was known about the pathophysiology of PD, with the classical pathological hallmarks of loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (Dauer, 2003). Though the first clinical description of the disease was written in 1817 – An essay on the Shaking Palsy by James Parkinson. Taking nearly 150 years to make real progress, the first milestone occurred in the 1960’s when striatal dopamine (DA) levels were discovered to be sharply reduced in PD patients (Garcia-Ruiz, 2014) linking PD to DA content of the basal ganglia. DA production occurs with the substantia nigra pars compacta uses the nigrostriatal pathway to transport dopamine via the dopamine transporter (DAT) controlled via a sodium gradient to the striatum. These co-dependant systems require dopamine production for motor movement; when the death of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones occurs dopamine content in the basal ganglia is reduced and thus impairs motor function. Garcia-Ruiz (2014) rationale from his discovery was the two systems are linked as the stratum doesn’t produce dopamine indicating its source elsewhere, thus connecting substantia nigra pars compacta (a known producer of dopamine) in PD and that substantia nigra pars compacta neurone death is responsible for the pathophysiological symptoms of PD. Iravani (2005) states that when some 60% of nigral-striatal neurones have been lost the first motor abnormalities appear; resulting in diagnosis as late as 3 years after initial neurone death. Neurodegeneration of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones symptoms of can is managed. Levodopa (L-DOPA), the precursor to DA synthesis (making it a logical choice for using therapeutically) and DA agonist is able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the LAT-1 (large amino acid transporter) where it is converted to dopamine via DOPA decarboxylase. This increases dopamine content in the brain and reduces symptoms such as motor skill deterioration. Levodopa also occurs in peripheral circulation resulting in peripheral dopamine concentration to increase causing a nauseous side effect, as a result levodopa of always given with carbidopa which inhibits the peripheral metabolism reducing this nausea (Dauer, 2003) also increases the bioavailability of L-DOPA in the CNS. Lee (2009) an expert in PD, described PD it as a commonly diagnosed bradykinesia disorder characterised by severe pars-compacta nigral-cell loss and aggregated a-synuclein accumulation within cortical regions. Thought to be part of dopamine release and transport regulation, a-synuclein induces microtubule-associated protein fibrillation and within overexpression a reduction in neuronal responsiveness. This ties into the prion hypothesis, in which the misfolded protein a-synuclein can trigger aggregation of interconnected groups of neurones, thus resulting in Inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and reduced responsiveness. Though his theory is contradicted by Leonidas (2012) who claims that there is insufficient evidence that consists of the idea that there is an overexpression of a-synuclein protein in PD brains; when mRNA studies show a decrease of SNCA expression in PD nigra. Though Stefanis. L. does acknowledge there could be a rare familial and sporadic link of SNCA expression and PD, as α-synuclein is found within Lewy bodies which are a characteristic of PD. Lewy bodies are aggregates of protein and are a classical sign of neurotoxicity, and closely associated with a-synuclein due to the radiating fibrillation of a-synuclein tying into Lee’s (2009) PD description. Lewy bodies also contain ubiquitin, a-B crystalline and neurofilament protein in an aggregated form. The a-synuclein interacts with DNA causing degradation (Power, 2017) and also Power observed α-synuclein and βIII Tubulin from Lewy bodies and n increased mitochondrial loss with neurones developing Lewy bodies, suggesting a link between Lewy body development and substantia nigral dopaminergic neurone death. Powers theory indirectly contradicts Leonidas’s theory on a-synuclein expression, as a-synuclein is required for Lewy body formation and thus leads to substantia nigral dopaminergic neuronal death Lee’s research does, however, support the Powers theory. Dauer (2003) infers that it is possible that the misfolding of proteins which result in Lewy bodies could offer a level of neuroprotection by interfering with programmed cell death (PCD) and oxidative stress; thus slowing down neurodegeneration. Lewy bodies could interfere with Bax molecule formation (which there are elevated concentrations within PD patient’s) due to the changes in protein morphology, thus counteracting the overexpression of Bax (Dauer, 2003). Though age is a significant risk factor for the development of PD, one toxin, in particular, can cause the disease to develop due to it targeting substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones. Siegel explains that though MTPT (1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) itself isn’t toxic, though the active metabolite form MPP is. Though at the time (1999) the mechanism for MPP toxicity wasn’t understood it was later described by Alexander (2004). MPP toxicity via the inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I resulting in inhibition of the respiratory chain and enhanced oxidative stress within SNc neurones resulting in PCD. MPTP is used in experimental parkinsonism as dosing marmosets via subcutaneous administration of MPTP 1 mg ⁄ kg for 3 consecutive days, which Iravani (2005) found to produce reproducible results. The use of MPTP on marmosets and the development of PD provides sufficient evidence that MPTP is connected to the development of PD, it also allows for research to be done on animals are they can be given the disorder within a 6 month period an allow for research into the causative factor behind PD and the regions of the CNS that are affected. The expansion of understanding PD pathogenicity has grown over the last 25 years according to Schapira, as toxin research, postmortem investigations and gene deficits with familial PD have become general knowledge in consensus about the underlying mechanisms of cell death and neuronal loss. inflammatory change, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and altered protein formation are considered the main lead into understanding PD (Schapira, 2011). This ties into Dauer’s theory on Lewy bodies, Lee’s explantation on a-synuclein as they/were researching the leads mentioned by Schapira. The causative reasons for Parkinson’s disease are thoroughly understood today compared to 1817, however, research is still underway to definitively understand the disorder. There is a clear understanding that (PD) is caused by the progressive death of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurones resulting in a reduced SNc dopamine content resulting in pathophysiological side effects. It is clear however that Lewy bodies are a classical characteristic of PD and are used in the diagnosis of the disorder, their true function is still under research. There is still some grey area of what causes the sudden initial death of theses neurones, though MPTP is linked to PD development via the study of marmosets. The research will continue to enhance a limited knowledge of the disorder and if there will ever be a possible way to regenerate those lost signalling pathways. Stem cell research on the cutting edge of neuronal regeneration as these unspecialised cells will eventually become neurones, replacing the one already loss to cell death. Though ethically there are issues around using stem cells, it is a case of the good out weights the bad. References Abeliovich. A, S. Y.-L. (2000). Mice Lacking α-Synuclein Display Functional Deficits in the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System. Neuron, 25(1), 239-252. Alexander, G. E. (2004). BIology of Parkinson’s disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 3(6), 259-280. Baba, M. N. (1998). Aggregation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies of sporadic Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The American Journal of Pathology, 152(4), 879-884. Bai-Yun Zeng, M. M. (2010). Morphological changes in serotoninergic neurites in the striatum and globus pallidus in levodopa primed MPTP treated common marmosets with dyskinesia. Neurobiology Of Disease, 40, 599-607. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.08.004 Barbeau, A. (1969). L-DOPA Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review of Nine Year’s Experience. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 101(13), 59-68. Chesselet, M.-F. (2008). In vivo alpha-synuclein overexpression in rodents: a useful model of Parkinson’s disease? Experimental Neurology, 209(1), 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.08.006 Haber, D. D. (2001, July 1). Striatal Responses to Partial Dopaminergic Lesion: Evidence for Compensatory Sprouting. Journal Of Neuroscience, 20(13), 5102-5114. Iria G. Dopeso-Reyes, A. J. (2014, December 14). Calbindin content and differential vulnerability of midbrain efferent dopaminergic neurons in macaques. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00146 Lees. A.J, H. J. (2009, June 13). Parkinson’s disease. The Lancet, 373, 2066. Leonidas, S. (2012). α-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(2). doi: Mahmoud M. Iravani, E. S. (2005). A modified MPTP treatment regime produces reproducible partial nigrostriatal lesions in common marmosets. European Journal Of Neuroscience, 21, 841-854. Marina Picillo, G. S. (2017). Association between dopaminergic dysfunction and anxiety in de novo Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. Retrieved from Pedro J. Garcia-Ruiz, K. R.-M. (2014). Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease A review…from the past. Journal Of Neurological Sciences, 338, 30-33. Retrieved from Power, J. B. (2017). Lewy Bodies and the Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death in Parkinson’s Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Brain Pathology, 27(1), 3-12. doi:10.1111/bpa.12344 Przedborski, V. J.-L. (2007). Protocol for the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Nature Protocols, 2, 141-151. doi:doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.342 Schapira, A. J. (2001). Etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 26(6), 1049-1055. doi:10.1002/mds.23732 Siegel G.J, A. B. (Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects). MPTP-Induced Parkinsonian Syndrome (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Retrieved from William Dauer, S. P. (2003). Parkinson’s Disease: Mechanisms and Models. Neuron, 39(6), 889-909. doi: Causes of Parkinson’s Disease

Thinking as a Hobby

Thinking as a Hobby. Paper details Have a analytical thesis statement MLA format Quote “thinking as a hobby” once at least Work cited page What are the three grades of thinking and which one do you feel describes your current critical thinking skills and why? I believe I’m a grade 3 in some aspects and a grade 2 in others but never a grade 1. What is the significance of the three statues? What do they symbolize? Why did Golding include the Einstein episode? Why do you think we were assigned this assignment?Thinking as a Hobby

Michael Porter’s Research Work: Business Models and Concepts Research Paper

Executive summary Michael Porter is still the most important business thinker of our time. He has done a lot of research work on the creation of competitive advantage. The following are some of his works: the five-force model, the diamond model, the four-corner model, the global strategy and the value chain model. The five-force model majorly provides a guide on how to conduct an environmental analysis. The analysis is conducted on factors that would influence an organization’s competitive strength. The diamond model contains analyses of factors and the process through which core competency is created. The principal factors in this process are chance, the government, factor condition, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and organizational strategy and structure. The four-corner model is useful in predicting the competitor’s future strategy by determining the motivation and capabilities. Global strategy is concerned with ways of achieving a competitive advantage in the global market. Lastly, the value chain model guides the companies to attain competitive advantage by suggesting a clear definition of internal processes that is necessary to create and deliver quality products to the customers (Locker, Kaczmarek and Braun 23-156). Introduction This research paper presents analysis of Michael Porter’s works. The main purpose of the research is to identify whether he is the best business thinker of our time. Below are analyses of the five-force model, the diamond model, the four-corner model, the global strategy, and the value chain analysis. The five-force model The industry competitors Under this force, Porter analyzed the behavior of companies within an industry. He concluded that competition is the automatic reaction among rival companies. Competitors have different strategies of presenting products to their target customers. Some companies implement a low-price strategy while others focus more on quality delivery. Competition is intense among rival companies that are equal in size. It could also be intense in an industry that experiences a slower growth rate. In a competitive market, a company can only achieve a competitive advantage over rivals if the strategies adopted are more advanced than those of the competitors. Therefore, this concept has helped organizations succeed by implementing counter strategies that are better than the competitor’s strategy. The application of this concept has created a competitive advantage for various companies. Because it is significant, the concept is still in use up to this date (Porter 10-92). The diamond model This model contains analyses of factors that influence the creation of an organization’s core competency. The principal factors in this process are chance, the government, factor condition, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and organizational strategy and structure. These factors influence the way a business operates. The factor’s aggregate influence creates a competitive advantage or disadvantage for organizations. The main factors comprise land, labor, technology and entrepreneurship. These factors play a critical role in shaping the performance of both the organization and economy. Sustainable utilization and development of these factors would create a competitive advantage for a country. The level of product demand in the home market influences the level of the organizations’ advancement. The organization’s performance level is greatly influenced by the type of structure and strategies implemented. Porter states that there is a correlation between the company’s structure, strategy and goals. Companies that have adopted this concept have experienced a great deal of competitive advantage. The concept is still being applied by various organizations due to its importance (Porter 21-60). The four-corner model This model is another Michael Porter’s work. It is useful in the prediction of a competitor’s strategy. While other models heavily rely on the present plans of a competitor in determining their possible future actions, this model relies on sources of the competitor’s motivation. An accurate identification of the motivation can only be made with knowledge of the competitors’ internal operations. The first corner is motivation. It helps the competitor to predict a possible cause of actions by analyzing the objectives. The second corner is the identification of the competitor’s assumption. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It involves identifying the individual perception of the competitor in terms of strengths and weaknesses. The third corner is the determination of the competitor’s strategy. The fourth corner is the competitor’s capabilities. A company with a stronger financial position is more capable of responding to environmental changes than a financially weaker company. The prediction of the competitor’s future strategy helps a company to formulate a better strategy for competition. The implementation of a better strategy than that of the competitor is a source of competitive advantage. Therefore, the model is still in use because of its importance (Cheverton 153-155). The global strategy The global-strategy model, designed by Michael Porter, explains the process that an organization goes through toward globalization. Globalization is the process that unites countries and organizations by facilitating resource sharing. In a global market, the level of competition is intense due to the presence of many rival companies. In a global market, product prices play a key role in determining the extent of the company’s success. Product prices in the international markets are subject to factors such as the inflation, economic condition and the exchange rate of both local and foreign countries. Global strategy demands a formulation of a brilliant pricing strategy. The global strategy is intended to create a competitive advantage to businesses. The organizations that have implemented the strategy are highly competitive in the global market. The first world countries have attained their level of success due to the implementation of this strategy (Cheverton 231-240). The value chain Achievement of any goal demands a thorough planning and implementation process. The implementation of courses of action requires a strict activity-sequence plan and resources. Therefore, organizations must have well defined internal processes to facilitate goal achievement. A competitive advantage can be created through the constant delivery of quality products and services to the customers. In order to achieve this, firms should clearly define the process involved in their internal operations. A diligent implementation of the processes also plays a critical part in developing a competitive advantage. The development of organization structure and the creation of separate functional departments are the results of adopting the value-chain concept. This concept has been a major force behind the success of many organizations (Bidgoli 525). Conclusion In conclusion, the above-mentioned models and concepts are the result of Michael Porter’s research work. They have been widely adopted by both firms and governments. The models have been the source of core competency for many organizations. New firms that seek to create a competitive advantage are still applying them. Therefore, based on his work, Michael Porter is the most important business thinker of our time (Magretta 13-16). Works Cited Bidgoli, Hossein. The Internet Encyclopedia, Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley