Entrepreneurship William Garden a small business which started about 20 years ago with 40 employees according to the case study became very popular producing variety of Garden benches and chairs and sell to departmental stalls and other garden centres. At the William Garden Furniture, the internal strategic issues and forces that was imparting on the business in my opinion are the owner manager’s lack of managerial capabilities and formal marketing experience, financial problems, communication and advertised functionalities. Williams, (2009) The study of micro environment is describe as Cosmic analysis macro analysis is describe as Pestle analysis. Both Micro and Macro environment cover the general environment of businesses which i more complementary rather than contradictory. The study of these environments would enable one to know the strength, weakness, opportunity and treat of a business. Source:Key differences.com Fig1: Micro (Internal) and Macro (External) environment of a business. When a business organisation is in direct contact with its environment, it is referred to as Micro environment. Micro environment can affect the routine activities of a company and its elements or internal environment include retailers who make a link between the company and the customers. Other elements of the micro environment are wholesalers, distributors and the company itself. The company itself comprises of owners, board of directors, shareholders or investors and employees. Hence micro environment is a collection of all the forces that are close to the firm. These forces are very particular to the mentioned firm only and can influence the day to day activities and performance of the company but only for a short time. On the other hand, Macro environment comprises of the external factors that are not under the control of the company though they have a strong impart on the company’s functioning. Macro environment is the universal environment within the country that controls the working, decision making, strategies and performance of every business groups at the same time. Macro environment is active and as such keeps on altering at all times. The external or macro environment is also known as the PESTLE analysis and PESTLE stands for variables that exit in the environment. These consist of Population and Demographics, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal
Introduction Globally, many industrialized countries have a universal healthcare system, which offers comprehensive healthcare services for all citizens. Japan and Canada are just a few examples of countries that have a universal healthcare system. However, the US is among the most industrialized countries of the world, but unlike its industrialized partners, the country does not have the universal healthcare system. This comparison has created a lot of debate regarding if America should have the universal healthcare system, or not. The debate regarding the Obama healthcare system in America largely bordered along these argumentative lines. This paper is an argumentative paper that explores the adoption of the universal healthcare system in America. This paper also makes comparisons of the American healthcare system with the Canadian healthcare system to have a better conceptualization of the ramifications for adopting the universal healthcare system in America. The Toulmin model structures the argument of this paper by exploring the claim, supporting evidence, and the warrant (the link between the claim and supporting evidence) of the argument. (Claim) Adoption of a Universal Healthcare Plan This paper claims that America should consider healthcare as a human right for not only Americans but the global community as well. Therefore, the government should have state-funded healthcare clinics for treating all conditions and procedures, for all citizens. (Support) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The American Healthcare System is a Profit-making Business There are many concerns regarding the extent that American healthcare institutions have inculcated the culture of profit making in the provision of healthcare services and the admission of patients in healthcare institutions. These practices show the deep-rooted profit-making nature that characterizes the country’s healthcare system. The widespread and deep business interests in the healthcare systems have also infiltrated the American legislature because many lawmakers are beneficiaries of these insurance firms (Moore 1). Indeed, most insurance companies fund political campaigns and personal political activities, thereby influencing the objectivity of politicians when they explore the problems facing the healthcare system. In other words, some politicians try to protect insurance companies whenever they debate issues of healthcare reforms. For example, Moore (1) says Hillary Clinton was among the greatest beneficiary of healthcare contributions while working as a senator in the government. Moore (1) also says that about 16 congressional aides work for insurance companies. Some of them left public service to work in high-paying insurance companies. Billy Tauzin, for example, left public service to work for a healthcare insurance firm for about $2 million in monthly salaries (Moore 1). The influence of insurance companies in the American government also arose in the passage of the Medicaid Plan D (for prescription drugs) (Moore 1). In this plan, the government directed about $800 billion of its expenditure in the Medicaid program to insurance companies (Moore 1). Through this understanding, the insurance companies run a very lucrative business by controlling the country’s healthcare system. Therefore, it is unsurprising that some of these companies and their proponents may be an impediment to the adoption of the universal healthcare system. High Prices of Pharmaceutical Drugs Another problem that plagues the American healthcare sector is the high prices of pharmaceutical drugs. The high prices of prescription drugs make it extremely difficult for ordinary Americans to sustain the treatment of high-cost medications (especially for terminal illnesses). This issue explains the reason some Americans (even with insurance coverage) experience many financial difficulties in meeting their medical costs. While insurance companies have penetrated America’s government, pharmaceutical companies also hold an equally high advantage on politicians, thereby making it easy for them to advance their agendas through the government. Indeed, similar to the healthcare companies, these pharmaceutical companies also fund some politicians and their activities (Moore 1). They are therefore able to compromise some politicians to protect their interests in the market. We will write a custom Essay on The Universal Healthcare System in the America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Healthcare as a Basic Human Right The adoption of the universal healthcare system should be a basic human right. I make this claim because there is a direct relationship between universal healthcare and life expectancy rates. Moore (1) says that UK citizens who enjoy the universal healthcare system are likely to live longer than Americans do. In fact, Moore (1) goes ahead to say that even a baby born in El Salvador may live longer than a child born in America does. The same situation manifests in Cuba and Canada because Canadians live three years more than Americans do (Moore 1). From this understanding, it would be correct to say that denying Americans the right to the universal healthcare plan would be equal to denying them a basic human right – long life. Discrimination The traditional model of the American healthcare system has been reliant on insurance companies for the payment of healthcare services. However, not all Americans may afford a health insurance plan. Consequently, the system excludes millions of Americans from the healthcare system. Armentano (2) claims that about 48 million Americans do not have access to health insurance. The American healthcare system has therefore ignored this group of people in favor of those who have enough money to pay for health insurance. The discriminatory nature of the American healthcare system is arguable, the most persuasive argument for the adoption of the universal healthcare system. America’s discriminatory system does not only discriminate on people because of their financial background but also on their immigrant status and race. Indeed, compared to the Canadian healthcare system, Lasser and Steffie (6) say, “Health disparities based on race, income, and immigrant status are present in both countries, but appear to be more pronounced in the United States” (Lasser and Steffie 6). However, some people question the discriminatory nature of the American healthcare system, especially based on the premise that it excludes about 47 million Americans from health insurance (Armentano 1). To support the dissenting opinion, Armentano (1) says the government categorizes about 20% of the 47 million people in America who do not have healthcare insurance as “aliens” because they do not hold the necessary documents for categorizing them as American citizens. From this understanding, only about 37 million American citizens do not have a health insurance plan. Furthermore, the former secretary of state, Hilary Clinton, recently admitted that about 25% of the 37 million Americans who do not have a health insurance plan choose not to have the coverage, even though they can afford it (Armentano 2). Therefore, about 17 million people choose not to have a health insurance plan (for whatever reason). From this understanding, the number of Americans who do not have a health insurance plan further reduces from about 47 million people to only about 20 million people. However, even with such a reduction, some analysts still believe this figure is still exaggerated (Armentano 4). They say this figure still includes a huge population of Americans who switch jobs and lose their employment insurance (Armentano 4). Immediately, the census bureau captures these people as “uninsured,” thereby adding to the number of uninsured people in America. However, the same people secure a new job within a few months and later get new health insurance. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Universal Healthcare System in the America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Armentano (5) says some Americans also do not subscribe to insurance companies because they enjoy almost free access to healthcare services through Medicaid and Medicare programs. Gallup and Newport (13) further say, “roughly six in ten Americans (61%) have private health insurance and 28% of adults nationwide are covered by Medicare or Medicaid” (Gallup and Newport 13). From the above understanding, the number of uninsured people may fall to about 10,000,000. The Kaiser Foundation projects lower estimates of only about 8,000,000 people who do not have a health insurance plan in America (Armentano 8). Therefore, in a country that has slightly more than 300,000,000 people, some people would say it is unfair to criticize the entire healthcare model when only about 8,000,000 people do not have health insurance. Armentano (9) says this group of people suggests that the government should introduce only minimal policy interventions to ensure the 8,000,000 people have some form of insurance. In their opinion, it is wrong to overhaul the entire healthcare system, while most Americans have an insurance cover (Armentano 9). Nonetheless, since many employers offer health insurance plans in America, the economic uncertainty in the country may expose even employed American citizens that have healthcare insurance to the risk of having no insurance at all. Indeed, for many people who have a health insurance policy from their employers, the loss of their jobs may also mean the loss of health insurance. In my view, there should be a more stable healthcare plan that is immune to economic and financial uncertainties. Heavy Financial Burden Albeit some politicians perceive the provision of private health insurance as America’s solution to healthcare problems, the financial burden of private health insurance has proved to be untenable in the end. The high cost of private health has created many financial problems for many American families. For example, Rayski (1) narrates the story of Donna Smith who hails from a Middle-class family with health insurance. She never thought that her family’s healthcare bills would force them to sell their house and live in a cluttered room, away from the city (despite having health insurance) (Rayski 1). Smith and her husband both suffered from long-term health complications that raised their healthcare bills to unsustainable levels, thereby forcing them to sell their house (Rayski 1). Their story mirrors the experiences of millions of other Americans who have experienced bankruptcy from high medical costs (despite having health insurance). Moore (1) has captured such stories in his latest documentary – SICKO. The above story highlights the flaws of the American healthcare system by providing a very interesting dynamic of the healthcare system. Indeed, instead of focusing on the 47 million Americans who do not have a health insurance plan, it highlights the plight of millions of Americans who have a health insurance plan. The film, as explained by Moore (1) highlights many issues of the American healthcare system, which show that the country’s healthcare system may not be the best in the world as claimed by some politicians. (Warrant) A Comparison with Canada As mentioned in previous sections of this paper, Canada has a universal healthcare system. This healthcare plan provides a large scope of healthcare benefits that include affordable healthcare services, unlimited access to healthcare services, increased efficiency of healthcare services, and reduced medical errors. The Canadian federal government allows its ten provinces and three territories to manage their healthcare systems. Consequently, different Canadian provinces and jurisdictions have a special healthcare system that suits their local needs. Since the wealthy and the poor can access healthcare services in Canada, the Canadian healthcare model is non-discriminatory. Certainly, while the American healthcare program favors those people that may afford insurance, the Canadian healthcare plan covers even those people who cannot afford insurance (universality of healthcare). Furthermore, unlike the American healthcare system, which is a profit-making system, the Canadian healthcare plan is not profit oriented because the government is the main healthcare provider (the government has less motivation to make a profit). From this model, the government is the main player in Canada’s healthcare funding plan. Some people have however expressed their reservations regarding the Canadian healthcare system. For example, Palmisano (1467) says, “Inherent problems include detrimentally long waits for care, rationing, a slowness to adopt new technology and maintain facilities, and a gigantic bureaucracy that interferes with clinical decision-making” Palmisano (1467). Despite these reservations, I believe that through the governmentally funded healthcare model, there is minimal room by private healthcare partners to interfere with the country’s healthcare system (which is possibly America’s healthcare problem). Indeed, unlike the American healthcare plan, there is little room for interested private companies to compromise the healthcare system the way politicians and insurance companies do in America. Through the above misgivings of the American healthcare system, I believe that the Canadian healthcare model is better than the American model. Therefore, the American model may require comprehensive reforms. Solutions The main solution for correcting the weaknesses of the American healthcare system rests in solving the “politicization” of the country’s healthcare plan. This paper shows that there are high “stakes” in the country’s healthcare systems, which act as a hindrance to the adoption of comprehensive healthcare reforms. This hindrance denies Americans the opportunity to make the country’s healthcare plan more affordable and accessible to all citizens. In my view, the government should take control of the entire healthcare plan (by substituting the role of insurance firms) and pay for healthcare services for its citizens, instead of leaving its people at the mercy of insurance companies. The personal insurance covers should be an alternative healthcare plan for those people who wish to have them. Another alternative rests in improving the efficiency of the existing healthcare system. Improving coordination between healthcare systems is one such way of doing so. So far, the government is already investing in such a solution. Indeed, Dickersin (517) says, “In addition to investments federal funding agencies are already making in their own programs, they can and ought to invest in a coordinated way in infrastructure for Cochrane systematic reviews and to encourage cooperative work between knowledge producers to increase efficiencies” (Dickerson 517). Combing through the records of hospitals and insurance companies will also help in improving the efficiency of health departments (Anderson 1080). Comprehensively, all citizens should find refuge in the universal healthcare scheme that does not discriminate, based on the ability to pay premiums. Lastly, there should be a careful balance between providing quality care and affordable care to all citizens. Conclusion After weighing the findings of this paper, it is correct to say that the American healthcare system has many flaws that create the perception of inferiority when compared to other health systems in some developed countries. Therefore, the US may learn valuable lessons that other healthcare systems (like the Canadian healthcare system) provide. Certainly, the Canadian healthcare system provides valuable lessons for the adoption of an efficient and practical solution for solving America’s discriminatory healthcare system. The main lesson that arises from this system is the availability of quality healthcare services, even for low-income citizens. Therefore, unlike America, it is difficult for healthcare costs to cause bankruptcy among Canadians. Albeit the American healthcare system is not entirely dysfunctional, its greatest weakness is the failure of the government to pay for the medical costs. Instead, people pay for the medical costs from their pockets and private health insurance companies make huge profits from this system. The citizens, therefore, suffer from high medical costs. Consequently, while the American healthcare plan may be flexible to include personal preferences (private healthcare schemes), it is still expensive for most citizens. Lastly, even as the above dynamics paint a bleak picture of the American healthcare system, there is hope in the fact that the American government intends to make comprehensive reforms to its healthcare plan. Works Cited Anderson, Christopher. “Measuring What Works in Healthcare.” Science 263.25 (1994): 1080- 1082. Print. Armentano, Dom 2013, Are There Really 47 Million Americans Who Can’t Afford Health Insurance? Web. Dickersin, Kay. “To Reform U.S. Health Care, Start with Systematic Reviews.” Science 329.5991 (2010): 516-517. Print. Gallup, Alec, and F. Newport. The Gallup Poll, London: Rowman
Introduction International Business Machine [IBM] is a public limited company, which operates within the global Information Technology industry. The firm deals with the provision of diverse information technology products and services. Some of the services that the firm offers include outsourcing, integrated technology and business transformation outsourcing, and consulting services. In an effort to maximise profits, IBM has incorporated the concept of internationalisation. This move has enabled the firm to venture in different markets. One of the markets that IBM has ventured into is Australia. The firm has managed to attain an optimal market position in Australia despite the intense competition. However, the lucrative nature of the Australian IT industry is attracting numerous entrants and thus it has become critical for IBM to improve its competitiveness. The objective of this paper is to conduct an internal and external environmental analysis of IBM. In analysing the firm’s external environment, the paper takes into account two models, which include the PEST and porter’s five forces. On the other hand, the SWOT analysis and value chain model are used to evaluate the internal environment. Findings of the analysis reveal that IBM is faced by various threats emanating from the external environment despite it internal strengths. Therefore, to develop its competitive advantage in its Australian market, the paper recommends that IBM should consider improving its competitive strategies. One of the ways through which the firm can achieve this goal is by investing in new market segments and creating increased market awareness. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the macro-external environment Pest analysis In their operation, a wide range of external factors affects businesses. Some of these factors emanate from the political, social, economic, and social environments. Political environment Businesses face a wide range of threats and opportunities emanating from the political environment. However, the degree of threats and opportunities is relatively high for multinational companies such as IBM due to political differences across the different countries of operation (Mouncey 2007). In the face of the present global economic challenges, governments are increasingly considering improving their political environment in an effort to promote businesses in different economic sectors. The political environment in Australia has been relatively stable. A report by the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2010 ranked Australia fourth with regard to political stability during the last decade. The political stability in Australia has significantly improved the country’s rating as an investment destination. Given the political stability in the region, IBM has managed to operate successfully in Australia. The Australian government has also implemented well-developed Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) such as copyright laws and patents, which aim at protecting business innovations and trade secrets. Therefore, Australia has managed to promote international investment successfully. In an effort to promote international trade for companies within its borders, the Australian government entered the Australian-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement. This move has significantly ameliorated trade relations between Australia and New Zealand. We will write a custom Essay on International Business Machine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic environment The occurrence of the 2008/2009 economic recession adversely affected the global ICT industry. Most consumers changed their consumption patterns by shifting their spending to necessities. Consequently, there was a significant decline in consumption of Information Communication Technology products (Williams 2008). Findings of a study conducted by a renowned research firm, IDC, reveal that there is a high probability of the Australian economy experiencing another recession. In the event that Australia slides into another recession, IBM’s revenue might decline given that consumers will definitely cut down their consumption of IT products. Social-cultural environment Currently, the social environment is undergoing a significant transformation. One of the most notable transformations hinges on the fact that consumers, organisations, and individuals are increasingly adopting computer technology in their operations and consumptions (Neeraja 2003). The growth in the Australian population has resulted in an increment in demand for ICT products, such as hardware and software. A study conducted by Nielsen reveals an increment in demand for devices supporting mobility. Most Australian consumers are currently accessing the Internet through personal computers and mobile phones (Perry
Module 3: Health Care Quality Paper. Paper details Quality care is a priority in the health care system. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) the six domains of health care quality as a way to assess quality care: Safe: Avoiding harm to patients from the care that is intended to help them. Effective: Providing services based on scientific knowledge to all who could benefit and refraining from providing services to those not likely to benefit (avoiding underuse and misuse, respectively). Patient-centered: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions. Timely: Reducing waits and sometimes harmful delays for both those who receive and those who give care. Efficient: Avoiding waste, including waste of equipment, supplies, ideas, and energy. Equitable: Providing care that does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and socioeconomic status. Nurses are well-positioned to identify problems and unsafe conditions in the health care setting! -Assignment Directions Respond thoughtfully to the directions below. While each assignment will be highly personalized, the content should demonstrate a strong foundation derived from required course readings/videos and additional resources chosen by the student. Be sure to cite the references you use when developing your responses to the questions. Think about a health care quality problem of which you are aware. This can be a problem you have encountered as a nurse or it can be a potential problem you know about/are interested in. Write a paper, 3-4 pages in length (not including title page and references) addressing the following: a. How does the problem relate to the IOM’s six domains of health care quality. b. Describe how teamwork, collaboration, and a culture of safety may impact or prevent the problem. c. Explain what the concept of “just culture” means to you. Have you experienced a just culture in your place of work, past or present? d. Using the list of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, reflect on your own knowledge, attitudes, and skills (KSAs) as they relate to (1) teamwork and collaboration and (2) safety. Use at least 3 reliable references (e.g. scholarly articles, documents produced by professional organizations). Format your paper using current APA guidelines. Submit your paper via the provided assignment drop box by the due date listed in the course calendar. Sources: https://www.ahrq.gov/talkingquality/measures/six-domains.htmlModule 3: Health Care Quality Paper
San Diego State University Non Profit Website Design Research Paper
San Diego State University Non Profit Website Design Research Paper.
Option #1: NPOThere are three parts to this assignment:If you have not already done so, locate the website for the NPO that you wrote your press release for:Analyze it using the “Designing a Good Home Page—Do’s and Don’ts” page, which can be found (Links to an external site.).What would you recommend to improve their website?Create an internet banner for your NPO. It should include some kind of graphic (maybe their logo), and a brief text. You will note from a popular site such as Facebook.com that the banners appearing on the right side of your screen are eye-catching, short, and to the point.Create a social media blitz announcing your campaign:Choose three social media outlets you would use to post the information.Give examples of what you would post (video/photos/graphics and/or text) on each—i.e., what Twitter text would you send out?Your paper should be 3-4 pages in length (excluding cover page and references) and formatted according to the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.). Be sure to discuss and reference concepts taken from the assigned textbook reading and relevant research. You must include a minimum of three credible, academic, or professional references. Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment.
San Diego State University Non Profit Website Design Research Paper
Importance of Customer Satisfaction
best assignment help Customer Service Introduction According to Hansemark and Albinsson(2004), satisfaction is an overall customer attitude towards a service provider, or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive, regarding the fulfilment of some need, goal or desire. Customer loyalty, on the other hand, according to Anderson and Jacobsen (2000) is actually the result of an organisation creating a benefit for a customer so that they will maintain or increase their purchases from the organisation. True customer loyalty is created when the customer becomes an advocate for the organisation, without incentive. To be successful, organizations must cater to the needs, wants and demands of their customers. That is the reason why many companies have continuously focused on the importance of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Moreover, it has a positive effect on an organisation’s profitability. There is also a close and positive connection between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, customer satisfaction and loyalty are all very important for an organization to be successful. Many researchers have looked into the importance of customer satisfaction. Kotler(2000) defined satisfaction as: a person’s feelings (pleasure or disappointment) resulting from comparing a product performance in relation to his or her expectations. Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) said that satisfaction can be associated with feelings of acceptance, happiness, relief, excitement, and delight. There are many factors that affect customer satisfaction. According to Hokanson (2001), these factors include: friendly employees, courteous employees, knowledgeable employees, helpful employees, accuracy of billing, billing timeliness, competitive pricing, service quality, good value, billing clarity and quick service. In order to achieve customer satisfaction, organisations must be able to fulfil their customers’ needs and wants (La Barbera and Mazursky, 2000). Customers’ needs state the felt deprivation of a customer (Kotler, 2000).Whereas customers’ wants, according to Kotler (2000) refer to the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and Individual personality. However, Bowen and Chen (2001) said that having satisfied customers is not enough, there has to be extremely satisfied customers. This is because customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty. Bansal and Gupta (2001):Building customer loyalty is not a choice any longer with businesses: it’s the only way of building sustainable competitive advantage. Building loyalty with key customers has become a core marketing objective shared by key players in all industries catering to business customers. The strategic imperatives for Building a loyal customer base is as: Focus on key customers Proactively generate high level of Customer satisfaction with every Interaction Anticipate customer needs and respond to them before the competition does Build closer ties with customers Create a value perception Sivadas and Baker-Prewitt (2000) said there is an increasing recognition that the ultimate objective of customer satisfaction measurement should be customer loyalty. Fornell (2002) said high customer satisfaction will result in increased loyalty for the firm and that customers will be less prone to overtures from competition. This view was also shared by Anton (2002) who said that satisfaction is positively associated with repurchase intentions, likelihood of recommending a product or service, loyalty and profitability. Loyal customers would purchase from the firm over an extended period of time. (Evans and Berman, 2003). Guiltinan, Paul and Madden (2001) said that satisfied customers are more likely to be repeat (and even become loyal) customers. Sivadas and Baker-Prewitt (2000) Satisfaction also influences the likelihood of recommending a departmental store as well as repurchase but has no direct impact on loyalty. Thus satisfaction in itself will not translate into loyalty. However, satisfaction will foster loyalty to the extent that it is a prerequisite for maintaining a favourable relative attitude and for recommending and repurchasing from the Store. Once customers recommend a department store it shows loyalty towards that store. Thus the key to generating loyalty is to get customers to recommend a store to others. Also, customers are likely to recommend a department store when they are satisfied with that store and when they have a favourable relative attitude towards that store. Evans and Berman (2003): Companies with satisfied customers have a good opportunity to convert them into loyal customers – who purchases from those firms over an extended period. Conclusion Based on the views and research, it can be concluded that customer satisfaction is very important. Thus, though customer satisfaction does not guarantee repurchase on the part of the customers but still it plays a very important part in ensuring customer loyalty. This point has been echoed by Gerpott et al. (2001) when they said customer satisfaction is a direct determining factor in customer loyalty, which, in turn, is a central determinant of customer retention. Therefore, according to me, organisations should always strive to ensure that their customers are very satisfied. References Anderson, H.
Saint Mary’s University English Poetry Exam
Saint Mary’s University English Poetry Exam.
NOTE: Below, I’m using Randal Jarrell’s poem “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” as the example of how to answer the different sections of Question 1. Remember also that long answers aren’t always necessary! Choose one (1) poem, either “Digging” or “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers,” and in writing about its use of metaphor and/or symbol, do the following:W.H.Auden’s poem “Musee des Beaux Arts” is intertextual because it quotes or refers to other works of art or literature. Identify and describe two (2) of these intertextual elements, and explain how each is used to express the theme of the poem.(4 points)Quote and explain the meaning of two (2) images (i.e. examples of Imagism) in Pound’s “The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter” (2 points)BONUS QUESTION: If you were really angry at someone you might say “I was really angry at Bob.” Or, rather than telling us that fact, you could show us by using an image or metaphor to describe what you looked or acted like when you were really mad at Bob. Make up a sentence using that metaphor or similie. (1 point) In a sentence for each, identify the main metaphors or symbols in the poem and explain what each stands for. Don’t give more than 3 examples.Explain the theme of the poem in not more than two sentences. [Example: Jarrell’s poem “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” uses the ball turret of the airplane as a metaphor for the mother’s womb.] [Example: “The theme of “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” is the brutality of war. In the space of the short poem’s five lines, the gunner, a young man, journeys from birth in his mother’s womb to his battlefield death in the turret.”] c) For each metaphor or symbol, quote the most important line or lines from the poem that use the metaphor or symbol, and then explain how those lines are used to develop the theme. [Example: “In Line2 (“And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze”), the turret functions as a kind of metaphorical anti-womb, the place where the gunner will meet death in battle. The last line of the poem, Line 5 (“When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose”) shows that the gunner, a young man, has not lived out his natural life because the brutal war machine has destroyed him.”] d) Identify any uses of onomatopoeia or alliteration in the poem
Saint Mary’s University English Poetry Exam
Risks and Benefits of Antidepressants
Better Safe Than Sorry Hallucinations, manic episodes, suicidal tendencies, panic attacks, and night terrors: teens live daily in this devastating reality due to inadequate prescription of psyche-altering drugs. The negative long term effects of antidepressants on adolescent lives are irreversible and must not be taken lightly when it comes to the process of prescribing these types of medicines. It is difficult to decide whether the risks of antidepressants outweigh the benefits, or the other way around. These detrimental life altering challenges are avoidable. Decreasing potential risks ensures that the benefits of antidepressants outweigh the risks; developing a personalized basis for prescription of antidepressants specific to teens is imperative due to adverse effects on a developing brain, dependence and addiction, and individualized cases. A precise prescription process of antidepressants for teens is an absolutely necessity for ensuring the utmost safety of today’s developing brains. The stage of human life, adolescence, comes with constant developing brains that are easily impaired. The risks are not side effects that are temporarily tolerable. A conclusive statement, stemming from a review of research by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, describes how all antidepressant medications work “about as well as each other” to improve symptoms of depression and to prevent those symptoms from reoccurring (Mental Health Medications.). Additionally, some individuals respond better to certain antidepressant medications than others, for reasons not yet well understood. Therefore, it is rare for the first antidepressant medication prescribed to function effectively with tolerable side effects. It is common for teens to be tapered on and off of multiple psyche-altering drugs. Not to mention, these teens are still expected to function properly in their everyday lives. SSRI’s, a class of antidepressants, function is to inhibit the activation of serotonin by blocking its reuptake through presynaptic neuron endings (“Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The unknown effects of SSRI’s are a dangerous potential risk that is being taken when the drug enters a developing body. Serotonin is a chemical that sends signals between individual nerve cells. SSRI’s are the first and most commonly prescribed serotonin reuptake inhibitor indicated for acute maintenance treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. There are immediate effects associated with the class of antidepressants, SSRI’s, such as Serotonin syndrome, which is potentially fatal. Serotonin syndrome is caused due to the build up of too much serotonin in the brain. This serious syndrome leads to symptoms of: high body temperature, agitation, increased reflexes, tremor, sweating, dilated pupils, and diarrhea (Food and Drug Administration). Serotonin syndrome is life-threatening, and the risk increases with simultaneous use of other drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin including: triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In April 2005, the European Medicines Agency issued a warning regarding the increased risk of suicidal behaviors in adolescents; the warnings were specific to the antidepressant classes: SSRI’s and SNRIs (Effects of the Committee on Safety of Medicines advice on antidepressant prescription to children and adolescents in the UK. SNRI’s are a class of antidepressant medication similar to SSRI’s. However, SNRI’s affect norepinephrine, as well as serotonin. Often times, if SSRI’s are not effectively treating the patient, the next class of medication prescribed is SNRI’s. Additionally, an immediate side effect, decreased appetite and weight loss, is a sensitive and serious risk. Teens with eating disorders who are treated with SSRI’s are placed in an extremely risky situation due to these effects that progress into dependence. Treatment of a drug that decreases appetite and causes weight loss forces teens with eating disorders to develop a entirely different attachment to this kind of medicine. Furthermore, the counterpart is that when teens with eating disorders are being treated with an SSRI that causes weight gain, the eating disorder also progresses. Consequently, teen patients must be monitored regularly for weight and growth fluctuations, in addition to eating disorder behaviors. Drug dependence and addiction are a trap easily fallen into by way of careless treatment of psyche-altering medication in teens, which often leads to suicidal behaviors, a serious side-effect that must be accounted for during the prescription process of antidepressants. All antidepressants do have a black box warning stating the potential risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors during the medication treatment in children and adolescents. But how often do you read the labels on the back of all your prescriptions? I know I did not. During the treatment process, the pediatric population puts its full trust into their parents and psychiatrists. The highest risk of suicidal thinking and behavior occurs during the first few months of treatment with an antidepressant, and when the dosage is increased or decreased. The Food and Drug Administration’s conclusive statement reads, “The analysis showed a greater risk of suicidality during the first few months of treatment in those receiving antidepressants” (Food and Drug Administration). The recommendation by the Food and Drug Administration is based on a review of twenty-four placebo-controlled trials ranging from 4 to 16 weeks and involving nine antidepressant drugs. In total, 4,100 subjects were included in the pediatric trials of SSRI’s (Asarnow). Alcohol and drug use is overwhelmingly present in the society of teens today. I know I failed to check the warning labels before extensive substance abuse. Consequently, drug dependence and addiction are two detrimental lifelong effects of antidepressants on teen lives. Not to mention the greater likelihood of overdose, a deadly situation caused by a toxic amount of a substance in a teen’s system. Drugs and alcohol are not only a social norm, but a main coping mechanism of many of today’s teens. Walking in blind to a lifelong dependence on psyche-altering drug are a common situation that many teens are unknowingly in. Contrary to the advertisements of pharmaceutical companies, the treatment of antidepressant medications is not temporary. The physical and emotional dependence developed to this type of medicine is lifelong. Tapering off of an antidepressant is not only dangerous, but a circumstance that many teens within treatment are not capable of going through. Drug addiction is serious, despite it stemming from a psychiatry prescription or drug dealer. The harshness of these effects are detrimental to the individual lives of today’s teens, including myself. In 2003 a safety commission in the United Kingdom reviewed results from antidepressant drug trials and concluded that Venlafaxine (Effexor) should not be used for depression treatment in children ages 6 to 17 due to the lack of demonstrated efficacy in treating depressive illness and a risk of harmful outcomes, such as hostility and suicidal ideation (Vitiello