I only need a part of an essay which is about 700 words.Imagine if you were able to sit down to have a cup of coffee with Edwin Hubble. What would you ask? What would you say? This assignment involves doing some research on the 20th century astronomer Edwin Hubble in order to write him a letter. The letter should be at least 2000 words. The purpose of the letter is to ensure that the facts about him and his research (and discoveries) are accurate as you have been asked to write a Wikipedia entry about him. Consequently, the letter must contain personal information about Dr. Hubble (a brief life story), the contributions he made to astronomy/or science in general, their significance and the impact he had on the development of astronomy, and also what question(s) you would ask him. So I need a 700 words paragraph about his contributions
Wilfrid Laurier University Edwin Hubble Contribution to Astronomy Essay
Constructions of Authenticity in Hip-Hop Music
The question I will address in my paper is authenticity and the various ways in which authenticity is constructed in hip hop. This essay will argue that the role of hip hop beef is to question and form authenticity narratives: emcees form and maintain their own authenticity through competition and displaying their technical prowess over each other. I will demonstrate this by first looking at the origins of hip hop and how competition was integral to the formation of hip hop and the authenticity narrative. Then, I will look at the different ways authenticity is perceived in the hip hop community and the role authenticity plays in an emcee’s career. Using the specific examples of Jay Z’ Hot 97 summer jam beef with Nas, I will look at how this feud affected their own authenticity narratives and the possible dangers of beef. Now recognized as an artform and one of the most popular and profitable genres of music, hip hop began in the largely black and latino community of South Bronx in the midst of chaos, murder, building fires, and poverty in the early seventies. The origins of hip hop can be traced back to when the Jamaican born DJ Kool Herc hosted his first party. Using a completely new technique of DJing called the ‘Merry Go Round’, DJ Kool Herc would isolate instrumental breaks from records and repeat the loop using two of the same records to create a continuous flow of breakbeat for people to dance too (Williams, 2011, p. 5-6). The emergence of many new DJs, emcees, and competing groups of breakdancers called B Boys would fuel multitudes of battles that would test each others skill in an attempt to outdo the other. Katz (2010, p. 49) explains that “Competition…has always been at the core of hip-hop…It motivated them, gave them direction, and structured their daily lives. … One central vehicle channeled their competitive spirit: the battle. In battle, reputations were made and unmade, territory gained and lost, equipment tested and bested, techniques introduced and refined”. These battles tested the skills of emcees and DJs alike and pushed hip hop to new levels of sonic innovation through the constant challenging of opponents, the constant threat of being bested, and the desire to win. Everything could either be lost or won in a single battle because your ability to rock a crowd was crucial to your reputation and your worth as a performer. Veteran rap artist Jay Z (2010, p. 20) describes this survival of the fittest mentality in battling in hip-hop as “…the very real competitive energies on the street…that desire to compete — and to win — was the engine of everything we did. And we learned how to compete the hard way”. The essential desire to win and compete is at the basis of every emcees narrative because just like the battles in the early years of hip hop, an entire person’s reputation or authenticity could be questioned in a single battle. The role of authenticity is central to hip hop because it is the social currency upon which emcees are deemed ‘real’ or ‘fake’. Since the idea of who is real and who is not is hard to define, there is no specific criteria for what makes an emcee authentic (Okine, 2012, p. 19-20). However, a common way emcees form their authenticity is to build their image around coming from the struggle. This struggle narrative is a reflection of the harsh realities of being a minority in inner cities where the war on drugs led to police officers targeting young black men and incarcerating them at a rate four times higher than the world average. Minorities were being locked up at a rate far higher than white people with latinos being twice as likely and black people being six times as likely to be incarcerated usually for similar non-violent crimes relating to drug possession and distribution (Hartney, 2006, p. 1-8). In a way, the struggle narrative is the story that hip hop was born to tell because as Jay Z (2010, p. 36) states “…it is the ultimate metaphor for the basic human struggles: the struggle to survive and resist, the struggle to win and make sense of it all”. The struggle narrative is a narrative that is deeply ingrained in hip hop because hip hop originated as a black art form out of inner cities that were declining from government neglect, violence, and drug addiction. Even from the beginning, hip hop has always had a strong aversion to privilege and whiteness because it goes against the origins of hip hop and struggling to win and overcome. Vanilla Ice’s career is a perfect example of how important the idea of coming from the struggle is to an emcees career. When it came out that the supposedly ‘ghetto raised and street smart’ one hit wonder behind “Ice Ice Baby” was actually just a privileged white kid from a Dallas suburb, hip hop audiences turned on Vanilla Ice because hip hop fans expect a certain transparency of an emcees lyrics to match their lived experience and geographic background (Fraley, 2009, p. 43). Vanilla Ice’s deliberate falsification of his background further proves the importance of privilege and authenticity in hip hop: Vanilla Ice knew he would not be accepted by the hip hop community because of his whiteness and privilege, so he faked a rags to riches authenticity narrative to try and gain acceptance. In the thesis Why Do Rappers Lie in 85 Percent of Their Rhymes, Mueller explains that an emcee’s authenticity has to fit the larger narrative of hip-hop in order to appear real as part of the hip hop community and thus authentic within itself (Muller, 2015, p. 4-5). The idea of coming from the struggle is not just an authenticity narrative, it is a connection to the deep racial inequalities black americans face and continue to face as well as a celebration of black art. Therefore, authenticity in hip hop can best be described as commitment and respect to the origins of hip hop tradition and narrative as well as representing oneself in the truest form. The competitive energy and battling culture of early hip hop can be seen as a blueprint to every modern rap feud or ‘beef’. While early emcees and DJs competed to rock crowds and outshow their competition, the emergence of rap beef would shift the focus from winning battles to outwitting their opponent and shattering their rivals authenticity narrative. This idea of tearing down someone else’s sense of self is rooted in the idea that an emcee wins when they totally dominate and humiliate the loser. An emcee proves and elevates their own status through defaming the rival while also backing up his own realness and credibility (Fitzpatrick, 2005, p. 20). An example of this is the famous feud between New York rappers Nas and Jay Z. The culmination of trading subliminal disses over tracks for a few years resulted in Jay Z publically dissing Nas. When he played a portion of his diss track “Takeover” at the Hot 97 Summer Jam concert, he ignited one of the most brutal and publicized beefs in hip hop history. In the song “Takeover”, Jay Z asserts his dominance over both rival emcees by questioning his authenticity narrative and image as a thug: It’s only so long fake thugs can pretend Nigga/ you ain’t live it, you witnessed it from your folks’ pad/ I showed you first Tec on tour with Large Professor …Four albums in ten years, nigga? I can divide That’s one every let’s say two/ Two of them shits was doo. One was naaah, the other was Illmatic/ That’s a one hot album every ten year average…Don’t be the next contestant on that Summer Jam screen Because you know who did you know what with you know who/ Let’s just keep that between me and you… (Jay Z, 2001) Jay Z is effectively trying to humiliate Nas for the audience in order to twist their perception of Nas’s authenticity narrative through calling him a supposed fake thug and further cementing his realness by describing how he was the first one to show Nas a gun on tour. This image of Jay Z as a father figure is made to equate him to child, and the final line alluding to Jay Z having sex with Nas’s baby momma is a cruel and misogynistic way of further trying to humiliate Nas and his authenticity narrative. The first impression “Takeover” leaves is that Jay Z, a superior rapper and commercially successful emcee, is reinforcing and maintaining his authenticity narrative by displaying his technical prowess over Nas, a weakened opponent declining in success after the height of his influential debut album Illmatic. However, Nas, motivated by the desire to compete and win, fires back the diss track “Ether” which aims to refute Jay Z’s claims and re-establish himself as the dominant emcee: In ’88, you was gettin’ chased through your building/ Callin’ my crib and I ain’t even give you my numbers/ All I did was give you a style for you to run with/ Smilin’ in my face, glad to break bread with the god/ Wearin’ Jaz chains, no Tecs, no cash, no cars/ No jail bars, Jigga, no pies, no cakes/ Just Hawaiian shirts hanging with Little Chase/ You a fan, a fake, a pussy, a stan (Nas, 2001) Nas uses the imagery of Jay Z running scared through his building calling for help as a way of hijacking his authenticity narrative as a thug presented on “Takeover”. Not only does he turn around the narrative, but he also presents Jay Z as an offspring of his own style alluding that Jay Z idolizes his style and worshiped him like a ‘God’. Nas is establishing his own authenticity narrative by reinforcing his own influence on hip hop culture and displaying his dominance over him. In the long term, the beef between the two would not harm either of the emcees careers. However, Nas’s diss track “Ether” was considered so brutal that it became a verb in the hip hop community to describe utter domination in a rap battle and helped him re-establish himself from his image as a failing emcee (Hodge, 2019). The desire to win would help to push both emcees to their creative heights because the desire to win is at the basis of every emcees narrative. However, sometimes rap beefs can have tragic consequences. The rap beef between the east coast emcee Biggie Smalls and west coast emcee Tupac Shakur resulted in the tragic death of both emcees. The collective sense of guilt the media and audience felt was rooted in the hand audiences and mass media played by hyping up the rivalry (Sweet, 2005, p. 6). Diss songs would be circulated like wildfire on radio stations while false rumors spread around the hip hop community creating more tension that ended in their murders in what felt like a waste of life and potential for both emcees. The death of both emcees serves as a cautionary tale of the limits of rap beefs for the hip hop community and a lesson that short lived feuds are not worth taking life away from the hip hop community. This essay explores the argument that the role of hip hop beef is to question and form an authenticity narrative: emcees form and maintain their own authenticity through competition and displaying their technical prowess over each other. The origins of hip hop and the DJ and B Boy battle culture in the South Bronx shows how integral competition was to hip hop’s origins: the desire to compete and battle is at the core of an emcees narrative. A case study of Vanilla Ice’s career as a phony ‘ghetto raised’ rapper shows how hip hop’s origins as an art form born out of struggle and oppression create a deeply embedded aversion to privilege and whiteness in a listeners perception of authenticity. This importance of coming from the struggle highlights how authenticity in hip hop is most closely aligned with the respect for hip hop’s origins and traditions as well as the ability to represent oneself to the truest form. Just as competition would help sharpen the skills of emcees through pressure and the desire to win, the same would hold true in the case of rap beefs. The rap beef between Jay Z and Nas highlights how emcees break each others authenticity narratives down to prove their dominance over the other, and how rap beef can actually boost an emcees status and image because the desire to win pushes them to perform their best in order to win and validate their authenticity over an opponent. On the other hand, beef between east coast and west coast rivals Biggie Smalls and Tupac Shakur serves as a cautionary tale of how rap beef can quickly become out of control when fans and media overhype the rivalry with tragic consequences. Rap beef serves an important role in hip hop: it is not only a way for emcees to question and form each other’s authenticity, but it also serves as a reminder that hip hop remains true to its origins of competition and that rap beef will continue to push emcees to be the top performer. References Williams, J (2011) “Historicizing the Breakbeat: Hip-Hop’s Origins and Authenticity.” Lied Und Populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture, vol. 56, 2011, 133–167. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23339034. Fitzpatrick, J (2005). What’s Beef: Discourse Practices of Battling in Hip Hop Language. Katz, M. (2012). Groove music. New York: Oxford University Press. Jay-Z (2010). Decoded. New York: Spiegel
Incorporate a Theoretical Framework
python assignment help Incorporate a Theoretical Framework.
AssignmentTo demonstrate the value of a new study or how a new study will contribute to practice or theory, previous research findings discussed within the literature review will need to be related with an existing theoretical framework. In this assignment, you will work on the identification of a theoretical framework utilized within previous literature as related to a possible research topic of interest.Complete the following for this assignment:From the three previously presented potential research topics, identify one research topic of most interest.Using the three peer-reviewed research articles analyzed in assignment 2, as well as additional peer-reviewed research articles, identify a theory most informative to the topic of interest.Discuss how the identified theory relates to the selected topic of interest.
Incorporate a Theoretical Framework
Critical Incident Reflection: Group Task
Critical Incident Reflection: Group Task. This critical incident reflection is related to a recent group assignment I had to do with a friend who suffered from a serious medical condition of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For confidential purposes, this person will be referred to as J throughout this reflection. One of the primary symptoms of J’s condition was that obsessive thoughts distracted him from his work and, hence, his normal work process was much slower than usual. This also made it difficult and stressful for him to meet initial deadlines set within the group. To make matters worse, his symptoms deteriorated during the course of the assignment. Even though we were assured by J that he would get the job done, we let our prejudice get in the way and were unable to rely on him. Further complicating the situation was the fact that this person was our friend. This led to a dilemma of involving the module leader, and having him removed from the group to avoid risking the chance of submitting the assignment on time, which in turn could affect our grade, or keeping him in the group. As it would have been too difficult to rectify the situation with the nearing deadline, we chose to take the risk and gave him the benefit of doubt. However, as J was not trusted to perform his task properly, we decided amongst ourselves, without his knowledge, to take on more than the required workload in case he was unable to do his part. At the time of the incident, I and the other team members were unsure if we would be able to finish the assignment on time, and were upset about the situation which was out of our hand. While we tried to cooperate with J, there was clearly a lack of empathy and positive outlook within the team as we didn’t fully understand his condition and found it hard to remain optimistic. The focus was on getting the task done instead of confronting the situation thereby causing me to struggle with the EI self-management competency of achievement orientation from the very beginning (ESCI-U Self-Assessment, 2017). Due to this frustration and the consequential demanding workload, there was conflict and tension within the team. Group meetings were mostly unproductive as I and other members were unwilling to face the problem and left things as they were. This affected our work and led us to lose interest in the assignment. Nevertheless, to deal with the situation, I and the other team members adopted some aspects of the EI competency of teamwork by sharing responsibility of the extra workload, and demonstrated a certain amount of emotional control and empathy by dealing with the stress of doing this assignment (Boyatzis, 2009; Goleman, 2000 Goleman, 2000). We also made sure to control our impulsive feelings and emotions towards J so as not to pressure him too much as it would have hindered his ability to get the task done at all (Goleman, 2000). Instead of responding to the situation in an adverse way, I espoused some form of self-control by keeping my emotions under control to calmly handle the work burden and get the job done despite the negative emotions (ESCI-U Self-Assessment, 2017; Hay Group, 2010). In the end, the overall team’s emotional self-control enabled us to complete the task despite the negative emotions and, surprisingly, J was able to finish his work well ahead of the actual deadline, and even performed better than expected. With counselling, therapy and medication, J overcame his condition and lived up to his assurance of providing high quality work. Though slightly delayed, his condition did not prove to be as unfavourable to the group task as initially thought. My sincere regret in this situation was that while he was absolutely honest with us, this honestly wasn’t returned to him from our side, and while we were supportive of his distress, I wasn’t entirely empathetic towards him, and instead deeply underestimated him (ESCI-U Self-Assessment, 2017). Reflecting on my newfound experience from this incident, I would tend to consider more deeply about the most effective ways of working with team members that have serious medical disorders, and of being more socially aware about managing others’ emotions by being more mindful of their feelings and concerns during their time of need (Goleman, 2000). Considering this incident from my own point of view and from J’s point of view has led me to arrive at a very different conclusion about working in challenging situations with team members struggling with OCD. From my own and my team members’ point of view, I could see the dilemmas that we faced, which included the possibility of performing poorly on our assignment, the stress of taking on the extra workload and missing the deadline, and the resulting tension this situation caused amongst us, which we were unwilling to have an open discussion about. From J’s point of view, I now understand how overwhelming the distress of his medical condition, the anxiety of doing his part of the assignment, and our lack of empathy towards his situation must have made him feel. Furthermore, it could have had negative consequences by demotivating him and affecting the quality of his work. Equipped with these new insights, I researched extensively on a range of literature regarding J’s condition, and developing emotional and social competencies that would have allowed me to deal with the issue much more appropriately. I now realize that to undertake a task or group assignment, it is not enough to simply possess a strong intellectual ability to bring out a successful outcome (Hay Group, 2010; Boyatzis and Sala, 2004). It is extremely important to have the EI ability to understand our own feelings and situations and those of people around us, and have the capacity to manage these emotions effectively (Goleman, 2000). Had we provided a more hands-on support and guidance to J, our final group report could have been pulled together better and saved us the unnecessary pressure. If I had to go back and do it again, I would try to develop my EI particularly by adopting certain social awareness, relationship-management and self-management competencies that would enable me to take on challenging roles in a team, and effectively manage my emotions during a stressful group task. Applying the empathy competency during the incident would have allowed me to be more aware of J’s feelings, needs and concerns and help him mange his emotions. Understanding J’s feelings and concerns at this time would have helped me better comprehend what he was going through, and how he intended to move forward instead of wasting time planning a response to a potentially negative outcome due to his condition, which never occurred (ESCI-U Self-Assessment, 2017; Hay Group, 2010; Boyatzis and Sala, 2004). Additionally, a better application of some conflict management and teamwork competencies would have led to a more active participation in the team by all members. Remaining positive, putting the problem in perspective by confronting it would have better enabled me and my team members to remain focused and calm instead of being stressed (Boyatzis and Sala, 2004). As opposed to working separately on our own parts to avoid conflict, we should have team-worked more cooperatively and encouraged each other to bring the issues out in the open by having an honest and considerate conversation about the situation to promote an understanding climate (Hay Group, 2010). This would have reduced the negative feelings that were arising between the team members as a result of taking on the extra workload for backup purposes. Moreover, it would have been more beneficial for us to have positive expectations of J rather than giving up hope, which would have probably motivated us to perform to the best of our ability on the task, and put together a much-improved final draft of the group report. Although not expressed outwardly during the situation, my lack of emotional self-awareness competency may have may have led me to get irritated with J at times, which in turn made me unwilling to provide the necessary support (ESCI-U Self-Assessment, 2017; Boyatzis, 2009). By using the positive outlook competency, I could have seen the good in J and had faith in him to do his task properly. This would have also allowed me to view the situation as an opportunity to do things differently to secure a better outcome (Boyatzis, 2009). In summary, this critical incident changed my thinking about the best ways to work on a challenging group task with people that have mental health issues. To achieve a positive outcome in such a situation requires a strong sense of receptiveness and openness to successfully carry out the task. As a non-sufferer, I need to fully comprehend how mental health disorders affect people. It is never a good idea to undervalue a team member with a mental health condition without fully considering the impact of what they may be going through. References Hay Group (2010) The Emotional Intelligence Workbook. Boyatzis, R.E. (2009) ‘Competencies as a behavioral approach to emotional intelligence’, Journal of Management Development, 28(9), pp. 749-770. Boyatzis, R.E. (2012) ‘Emotional and social intelligence competencies: Cross cultural implications’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(1), pp. 4-18. doi: 10.1108/13527601211195592. Boyatzis, R.E. and Sala, F. (2004) Assessing EI Competencies 1 assessing emotional intelligence Competencies. Available at: http://www.eiconsortium.org/pdf/Assessing_Emotional_Intelligence_Competencies.pdf (Accessed: 17 February 2017). Goleman, D. (2000) ‘Leadership that gets results’, Harvard Business Review, 78(2). Critical Incident Reflection: Group Task
Group Therapy Form of Psychoanalysis & Clients Talk About Their Problems Essay
Group Therapy Form of Psychoanalysis & Clients Talk About Their Problems Essay.
Professional Practice Paper Students should select a topic of interest, conduct a literature search and submit a paper on their area of focus. The paper should focus on the same topic area that will be highlighted in the professional interview. The paper should be 4-5 pages include a minimum of five references, of which at least three sources should be from peer reviewed journals.The paper should be written in APA style, properly referenced and checked for spelling and grammatical errors. The reference page should also be presented in APA format.References should be from the last ten years, unless you are looking at a topic in which you must also cite historical articles.
Group Therapy Form of Psychoanalysis & Clients Talk About Their Problems Essay