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Wildlife Conservation in India argumentative essay help online Article Writing coursework help

WesternGhatsWILDLIFE Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, plants and microorganisms. The term wild life generally gives the impression of large and ferocious animals living in the jungle or waters such as lions and tigers, crocodiles and rhinoceros. Wild life refers to any living organism in its natural habitat. It includes all plants, animals and microorganisms other than animals domesticated and cultivated plants.

The majestic lion, the grateful yet fearsome tiger, unproductive leopard, powerful elephant, the nimble deer, attractive antelope, the picturesque peafowl, the gorgeous pelican, the beautiful parakeets, wood-pecker and the elegant flamingo are some of these of which any country might be proud. There are 312 species of mammals, 1175 species of birds, 399 species of reptiles, 60000 species of insects and 181 species of amphibians and 46610 species of plants.

Over the past 2000 years about 106 species of animals and about 140 species of birds have become extinct because of climate and geographic changes and also by over hunting by man for food, medicine, fur and many other reasons. According to ecologist more than 600 species of animals and birds are expected to be extinct if not protected by wildlife management. Wildlife in India The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms. [1] Apart from a handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry and sheep, India has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country.

It is home to tigers, lions,Leopards,pythons, wolves, foxes, bears, crocodiles, rhinoceroses,camels, wild dogs, monkeys, snakes, antelope species, deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mighty Asian elephant. The region’s rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 14 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country. India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma. 2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. [3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world’s biodiversity. [4] Peninsular India’s subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. [9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. 8] As a result, among Indian species, only 12. 6% of mammals and 4. 5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45. 8% of reptiles and 55. 8% of amphibians. [5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome’s toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2. 9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. [10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. India is a home to rich and diverse wildlife tours because of her wide range of climate, soil, weather and other such factors.

Owing to such diversity, equal number of rare as well as threatened animals and plants are found that need to be protected. This leads to the need of much greater wildlife conservation efforts in India. As per the survey India is a home to about 60-70% of the total biodiversity found across the world and about 33% of plant species are endemic. There are 172, or 2. 9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species in India. Under this comes the Asiatic Lion, the Indian white-rumped vultures and the Bengal Tiger. This further enforces the need of right wildlife conservation efforts in India.

Importance of Wildlife Conservation Wildlife is one of the most gracious gifts of nature to this land, which is as rich in its variety and colours as its number. Due to the growing impact of deforestation, continuous efforts are being made by some anxious animal lovers to protect the endangered species of wildlife as well as those that are on the verge of extinction and thus save the world from running out its green heritage. Wildlife is important for four main reasons: Beauty: By their unique way of existence, wild creatures exaggerate the natural beauty of the earth.

Economic value: The financial value of wild species is important to the economies of several nations, as it provides many valuable substances like wood and other plant products, fibers, meat and other foods, and skins and furs. Scientific value: By studying wildlife, scientists have gained valuable knowledge about various life processes and discovered important medical products Survival value: Wildlife helps in maintaining the balanced living systems of earth, which consequently ensures survival of life.

Wildlife Conservation Efforts in India Last few decades have seen emergence of human encroachment to an extent that has never been seen. This is one of the greatest threat to India’s wildlife. In order to overcome the result of human encroachment many national parks as well as protected areas have been established so far and the first came in 1935. Also in 1972, to protect the tiger and wildlife in India, the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard were enacted. Wildlife Sanctuaries in India 3. 29 million sq. m of area comes under the wildlife conservations efforts in India and it is becoming a very popular holiday destinations both for Indian as well as International tourists. At present there are more than 500 wildlife sanctuaries in India and seventeen Biosphere Reserves. Popular Wildlife Sanctuaries in India •Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh •Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh •Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat •Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh •Kaziranga National Park in Assam •Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala •Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal Biosphere Reserves Government of India has initiated an effort to conserve wildlife, both flora and fauna including human communities living under Biosphere Reserves. Biosphere Reserves are actually the areas defined by the Government of India for protecting the above said in their natural habitat. There are seventeen Biosphere Reserves in India at present •Achanakmar-Amarkantak •Agasthyamalai •Dibru Saikhowa •Dihang Dibang •Great Nicobar •Gulf of Mannar •Kachchh •Kangchenjunga •Manas PROJECTS UNDERWAY FOR CONSERVATION !!!! Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks:

Wildlife Sanctuaries are places where the killing and capturing of any animal is prohibited except under order of the authorities concerned. National parks are set up for preserving flora, fauna, landscapes and historic objects of an area. At present, protected area network comprises 398 sanctuaries and 69 national parks covering four per cent of the total geographic area of the country. It is proposed to be increased to 4. 6 per cent (1% National Parks and 3. 6% sanctuaries) by setting up more sanctuaries and parks. A list of some well known wildlife sancturies and national parks of is given in the table.

List of some well known Wildlife Sancturies and National Parks in India SI. No. Name of Sanctuary National ParkPlace/ StateArea (Sq. KmsWildlife . ) Conserved 1. Kaziranga Wildlife SanctuarySibasaaAssam430Rhinocerus, elephant, wild buffalo, bison, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, sambhar, pelican, stork, eagle. 2. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger ReserveKamrup Assam540Tiger, panther, wild dog, bear, rhinoceros, gaur, golden angur etc. 3. Jaldapara Wildlife SanctuaryJalpaiguri West Bengal65Rhinoceros, gaur, elephant, tiger, leopard, deer, birds adrepriles. 4.

Kolameru Bird SanctuaryTadepallegudum Andhra Pradesh—A breeding place for pelican and other visiting marine birds. 5. Chilika LakeChilika, Orissa100Waterfowl, duck, cranes, ospreys, golden plover, sandiper, stone curlews, flamingoes, etc. 6. Vendant Hangal Bird SanctuaryMadras Tamilnadu0. 30Flamingoes, pelicans black buck, chitals, vvildboars. 7. Point Calimer Wildlife SanctuaryThanjavur Tamirnadu0. 30Panther, tiger, sambhar, chitals. 8. Mundanthurai SanctuaryTirunelveli Tamilnadu520Elephants, gaurs, sambhar,leopards,ack Nilgirilangur, grey hornbill,egret 9. Periyar Wildlife SanctuaryPeriyar,

Kerala777-Elephant, gaurs, sambhar, leopards, black nilgirillangur, grey hornbill, egret. 10. Bharatpur Bird SanctuaryBharatpur Rajasthan29Cormorants, Spoonbils, whiteibis, Indian darters, egrets, open billed stork, geese, duck, Siberian cranes, deer, black duck, pythopri. blue bull wild boar 11. Palamau National ParkDattongunj West Bengal345Tiger, panther, sloth bear, elephant, chital, gaur, nilgar, chinkara, leopard, deer, birds adrepriles. chowsingha. 12. Hazaribagh National ParkHazaribagh, Bihar184Wild board, sambhar, Nilgai, tiger, leopard. Hyena, gaur etc. 13.

Similipal National parkSimilipal, Orissa2750tiger, tiger, elephant, deer, chital, peafowl, talking myma, sambhar, panther, gaur, hyena and both bear. 14Guindy National ParkMadras Tamil nadu—Albinos or black duck, chitals. 15Kanha National ParkBanjar Valley Madhya Pradesh940Tiger, chital, panther, sambhar, black duck etc. 16Tanoba National ParkChandrapur166Tiger, sambhar, sloth bear, barking deer, blue bull, chinkara, bison, pea fows etc. 17. Corbett National ParkNainital, U. P. 525Tiger, panther, sloth bear, hyaena, elephant, blue deer, barking deer, Indian antelope, procupine, pecker barbet, crocodile, python etc. bull swamp bulbul, wood

Writing Question

Word count at least 750
Research and write a short analysis of one important moment in the commodification and globalization of one commodity (in most cases, early 20th century or prior). Just a few examples could include bananas, cement, diamonds, palm oil, rubber, tobacco… (but not wheat, corn, cotton, or petroleum; if chocolate or coffee, must be 19th century or earlier). Specifically, your case study should
pick a commodity, and then pick a single phase or moment in the process of it becoming a commodity, and analyze how that change came about. Remember, commodification is the process of creating all the right conditions so that a particular thing can be produced, for profit, on a large scale, for large markets (often for a global market). Remember also that commodification is an ongoing process—nothing is ever fully commodified, merely commodified to a greater or lesser extent.
contextualize this moment of commodification within the broader history of the commodity, but focus most energy on one time and place: what change occurred, and why is it a particularly important moment?
use the concepts from the readings and class as an integral part of the analysis, employing quotes from the readings (and sources) where appropriate. For a definition and discussion of commodification, refer to the lectures especially in Weeks 2-3 (SEE attached file). Be sure to demonstrate your understanding of our assigned readings from Weeks 2-3 (Nature’s Metropolis and The Travels of a T-Shirt (page from 207-211, 92-104, ix-xx, 3-73) in your analysis.
This case study will be graded according to the following criteria:
How well it describes and analyzes the chosen moment of commodification,
How well this analysis integrates the readings and the larger context of the course,
How well it meets academic writing
An excellent case study will use the concepts from the readings and class as an integral part of the analysis, employing quotes from the readings (and sources) where appropriate. It will be written to academic style: be sure to edit and proofread. The sources used will be appropriate to the topic, properly cited, and of academic quality. It may use popular sources (newspapers, magazines, online sites, etc.), but it must also make meaningful use of at least 2 scholarly, non-class sources (scholarly = academic = peer-reviewed journal articles or books; see below), and it must cite them properly.
Commodity Case Study Rubric
CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis
50 pts-
The case study offers insight into how this moment of commodification fits into larger patterns of globalization and development
45 pts-
The when and where of the moment of commodification is clearly defined and analyzed
40 pts-
Within the commodity’s history, a single moment of commodification is specified and discussed
35 pts-
The case study discusses the historical development of a particular commodity
28 pts-
It is unclear what is being analyzed
0 pts-
No case study submitted
50 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContext
25 pts-
The case study offers insight into how this moment of commodification fits into larger patterns of globalization and development
22.5 pts-
The most relevant concepts from the readings and class lectures are used to explain the process of commodification being examined
20 pts-
Some specific concepts from the readings or class lectures are mentioned
17.5 pts-
The analysis is poorly contextualized in reference to class
15 pts-
No reference to class context is made
0 pts-
No case study submitted
25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting
25 pts-
Writing is fluid and to the point, making the arguments clearly and forcefully. The sources cited are comprehensive, evidencing a thorough research effort
22.5 pts-
The case study is well-organized, with a clear structure. Sources are well-chosen, contributing to the argument
20 pts-
Writing is readable but has errors, poorly organized. Meets basic requirements for sources
17.5 pts-
Writing and argument are not clear, does not meet basic requirements for sources
15 pts-
Errors overwhelm meaning
0 pts-
No case study submitted
25 pts
Total Points: 100