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Why is Testosterone Regarded as the Male Hormone?

Why is Testosterone Regarded as the Male Hormone?. Testosterone is considered a male hormone despite females also producing testosterone. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to determine why it is regarded as a male hormone. It will define the biological processes in the brain and the stimulations of testosterone that may explain why. It will then evaluate the consequences of the higher testosterone levels in males on an evolutionary psychology and biological arguments. Because of the pressure of appearing masculine, the essay will give some thought why men may go to extreme length in building a more masculine figure and what the advantages of more testosterone and disadvantages are. To conclude the essay, it will be evaluated on all the key aspects. During pregnancy, the human brain starts developing as a female brain (Carruth et al. 2002; Vawter et al. 2004, cited in Ellis 2011), but within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the sex chromosome plays a crucial role to determine the embryo’s gender – sex hormones are steroids that are required to develop the gender from a chemical reaction of cholesterols to produce hormones, such as testosterone in males and estogens in females – both genders share the same sex hormone which is developed round about six weeks of a pregnancy in the embryo’s gonads, this is when the gonads are either developed into testes or ovaries depending on the sex chromosome (Bear, Connors and Paradiso, 2001). ). If Y is presented in the sex chromosome then the embryo will develop testes; if Y is absent it will then develop ovaries (MacLusky and Naftolin, 1981; Wilson, George, and Griffin, 1981). These early changes allows an understanding why testosterone is thought as a male hormone, as the testes are responsible for producing testosterone and sperm, hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland (i.e located in the brain), and these hormones play a role in the stimulation of testosterone and sperm maturation; female’s also have these hormones, but they cause a secretion of estrogens in the ovaries (Bear, Connors and Paradiso, 2001). Furthermore, Y chromosome plays a crucial role in development, it allows testosterone to cross the blood-brain barrier to convert the would-be feminine brain into a musicalised one (Morris et al. 2004; Vawter et al. 2004; Wu et al. 2009, cited in Ellis 2011), thus, allowing males to produce roughly ten times as much testosterone than females (Badcock, 2000). A consequence of higher testosterone levels in men, challenges a man in keeping up a masculine appearance. Evolutionary psychology argue that human males are no different from animals in terms of hierarchy’s dominance (BussWhy is Testosterone Regarded as the Male Hormone?
Overview For Jamal, learning about abnormal psychology has been fascinating. Despite what he’s read on the internet, Jamal now realizes that abnormal behavior isn’t simply weird, nor does it necessarily indicate that a person has a mental illness. Given his own lived experiences with depression, Jamal now acknowledges the fact that he, too, has suffered from varying degrees of mental illness throughout his life. In fact, for many years, Jamal has felt as though he should seek mental health support to learn how to better manage his depression. Several of Jamal’s family members and friends have been diagnosed and treated by mental health professionals for various psychological issues in the past, which has inspired a question: How does someone know that the time has come to seek the therapeutic support of a mental health professional? Jamal’s research led him to discover the Four D’s, a diagnostic paradigm that practitioners often use to conceptualize psychological disorders, which consists of the following factors: distress, dysfunction, danger, and deviance. In his review of the literature, Jamal noted that the linkages between these constructs aren’t always linear or mutual (e.g., a psychological problem may be considered dysfunctional, but not necessarily distressful; a psychological problem may be considered distressful, but not necessarily deviant). As Jamal considered the importance of diagnostic accuracy in the treatment of psychological disorders, he thought about his own mental health and wondered, “My depression may cause feelings of despair, but to what extent does it actually impair my ability to function?” Disorder/Behavior List Anxiety: A psychological response to a stimulus that is perceived as threatening Example: Avoiding interaction at a party due to discomfort in social situations Depression: A persistent feeling of sadness and despair that can result in a loss of interest in various life activities Example: Excessive crying Dissociation: A psychological detachment and separation from self and environment Examples: Daydreaming, highway hypnosis Mania: A period of intense energy expenditure that may involve delusions and engagement in high-risk behavior Examples: Excessive spending, reckless driving Obsessive thoughts/compulsive behaviors: Persistent and undesirable thoughts or urges and ritualistic behaviors often driven by preoccupation with a negative outcome Example: Frequent hand washing that is motivated by a fear of being contaminated by germs Panic: An intense period of fear combined with physiological symptoms (e.g., rapid speech, sweating, nausea) Example: Stomach gets upset and hands shake while speaking in front of a group (public speaking) Phobia: A fear of a specific, often nonthreatening stimulus Examples: Seeks an escape route when in a crowded area (Agoraphobia: fear of crowded spaces) Psychosis: A psychological state in which one experiences hallucinations, delusions, and/or a persistent and unchangeable belief in something that is obviously false Example: Acting suspiciously due to suspecting that food is being poisoned Prompt The following resources support your work on this activity: Reading: Conceptualizing Psychiatric Disorders Using “Four D’s” of Diagnoses Module Five Milestone Template: You may use this template to complete the Module Five Milestone assignment. Psychology Research Guide: This resource was created to help you find psychology related content. Purdue OWL: This resource is provided to assist you with referencing resources according to APA standards. For this milestone, you will use the Four D’s diagnostic indicators to analyze one behavior that might impair a person’s adaptive daily functioning. You will determine if that behavior could potentially represent a clinical disorder. Use your template to address the rubric criteria listed below with a minimum of 3 to 5 sentences per bullet. Support your answers with a credible source when necessary. From the list in the Overview, select one behavior that might impair a person’s adaptive daily functioning, then address the following: Distress: Describe the extent to which the selected behavior causes distress as characterized by mental or emotional imbalance. Dysfunction: Describe the extent to which the selected behavior causes dysfunction by interfering with adaptive daily functioning. Danger: Describe the extent to which the selected behavior presents as a danger to self or others. Deviance: Describe the extent to which the selected behavior deviates from normality. Guidelines for Submission Submit your completed Module Five Milestone Template. Sources should be cited according to APA style. https://ispub.com/IJPSY/1/1/5049#:~:text=The “Four D’s” consisting of,a DSM IV-TR disorder
the improve phase.

Overview: For this last milestone, due in Module Seven, you will submit a draft of the Improve phase of the DMAIC process for your selected final project case study, which should focus on the recommendations you will propose to resolve the conflicts in the organization, while also probing those recommendations for unwanted consequences. Prompt: First, review your previous two milestone submissions as well as your discussion posts. Also, refer to the Define, Measure, and Analyze Supplementary Documents you studied as well as to the details contained in the final case study you selected. Be sure to reference the work you completed in the Module Six small group discussion as well, wherein you identified and analyzed each of Tuckman’s five stages of group development as it pertains to your final project case study. Next, draft a paper that proposes the solutions you believe will resolve the organizational conflict in the case study, leading to an improved future state, as your Improve recommendations. Remember to include specific potential unwanted consequences that may arise from your Improve recommendations. The following critical elements should be addressed: IV. Improve: The goal of this section is to demonstrate that the solutions you propose should resolve the organizational conflict in the case study, leading to an improved future state.  What corrective actions could you recommend be implemented to address the root causes of the conflict that you previously determined?  What types of quantifiable metrics can you propose to measure progress in implementing the recommended corrective actions?  What are three potential areas of resistance to your recommended corrective actions, and what ameliorative suggestions can you offer to reduce such resistance?  How effective are the various leadership styles on employee engagement and employee empowerment in the case study?  How has your experience with the team-building process from Tuckman’s theory of group formation dynamics informed your Improve recommendations? Further, what are your thoughts on the value of implementing Tuckman’s five areas of group formation dynamics in preventing some of the issues with the dysfunctional team in the case study?  What are some effective leadership styles and team-building processes that organizational leadership could use to promote increased employee engagement and foster collaboration? Be sure to reference your text, the DMAIC Supplementary Documents, and any other course resources to support your answers. You may also conduct some independent research for additional sources to include in your references. Instructor feedback on this milestone should be used to inform your final project submission, the executive summary presentation with speaker notes. Guidelines for Submission: Milestone Three should be 2 to 3 pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and citations in APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page.
the improve phase

Table of Contents Introduction Body Conclusion References Introduction Copyright is an exclusive right that is granted to an inventor of original work for a restricted period. The owner or the author bears the right to publish, produce, sell, license, and distribute a copyright protected work (Cheeseman, 2013). The Copyright Act was passed in 1976 to allow approval and protection of people’s works that are presented in books, newspapers, motion pictures, drawings, TV productions, journals, and articles among other forms of writings against infringement. Original owners of works bear various rights that are stipulated by specific federal laws. At the outset, owners have the sole right to reproduce or alter their works through duplication and/or transcription. Furthermore, owners have authority to trade their patents protected works. The music industry is one of the most affected areas by patent infringement across the world (Hannah, 2014). Copyright infringement is an unauthorized access and use of works that are legally guarded. This article elaborates on various infringements of business law cases that have been or are currently occurring in the United States of America. The article is based on the springboard article ‘Northwestern files suit against the author for patent infringement’ together with other articles that are related to the topic. Body A copyright infringement occurs when a person copies a substantial part of a plaintiff’s copyright work without permission. The public domain should gain access to copyrights over a specified period. After a patent protection period, people can have access to the material without any permission from the previous holder. Cheeseman (2013) contends that the usage of a fairness doctrine allows some limited use of a patent by another person, other than a copyright holder, without permission. Various exceptions of the federal law, which pertains to education or censorship, allow the public to use people’s works without infringing the breaking law. Despite the enactment of laws that govern copyright protection, Cheeseman (2013) reveals that people are still involved in various lawsuits due to availability, accessibility, and use of unpermitted works. Infringement is a serious crime than can lead to penalties, forfeiture, and/or jail terms. The existence of patent laws protects the works of authors and innovators against fraudulent behavior of other individuals who, out of ignorance or inability to produce original work, counterfeit the work of other people. The latest amendment of the Copyright Act led to the establishment of the Congress Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The purpose of the DMCA was to prevent illegitimate use of online content without the consent of owners (Cheeseman, 2013). According to Cheeseman (2013), the law also prohibits the distribution of technologies that are designed for circumventing purposes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various elements must be considered to conclude that a patent infringement act has been committed. First, the validity of a copyright must be bestowed upon a patent holder. Second, an infringer must be in a position to access the work illegally. Lastly, duplication of the original work must be beyond the exceptions that are stipulated by the law (Alistair, 2014). The Northwestern University filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against its former employee on 25 July 2014. Barrette, a writer who worked for the University, was commissioned to compile a book based on the killing of Bobby Franks. However, she resigned from the job in December 2013 and retained the unfinished manuscript and other related files that she refused to return to the university (Rodriguez, 2014). Although the work was an agreement between Barrette and the university, she illegitimately copied some of the information to her flash disk. This act was against the agreement between the two parties. The complainant also found that she had enabled restrictions on some of the files to confine the firm’s authority to access the documents. According to the allegations, the writer unlawfully duplicated the proposal document that was to be used for completion of the book. Above all, she was not a faculty member as the lawsuit alleges (Rodriguez, 2014). Another case where copyright infringement is noted is in a legal battle that occurred between two research companies of Linden Research Inc.’s Second Life Virtual Anima Suppliers. Second Life is an online virtual company that deals with breeding, riding, and purchase of different animals. The two companies that were involved in a lawsuit battle in November 2010 were Ozimals Inc. and Amaretto Ranch Breedable LLC. Ozimals who was responsible for creating virtual rabbits for Second Life claimed that Amaretto infringed a copyright law by copying its software some months after it launched its products. As per the allegations, the only change that had made was the alteration of the process of turning rabbits that were produced in horses (Justin, 2011). A lawyer who was representing Ozimals Company wrote to the Linden Research Inc. demanding them to close Amaretto’s virtual stores since they had allegedly imitated patent software. However, Linden Research Inc. declined to honor the order. After a month, Amaretto Company filed a lawsuit against Ozimals for counterfeit claims (Justin, 2011). Interestingly, the claim that was presented by a co-founder of Amaretto Company, Jason Jasdzewski, who alleged that he had designed the system from the scratch. Ozimals founder, Candace Sargent, responded to the case by stating that she was not going to care if Amaretto’s store continued to run Second Life as long as the goods were given away free of charge, instead of selling to earn good returns. We will write a custom Research Paper on Copyright Infringement in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another incidence of patent infringement is revealed in a case between Mattel Inc. and MGA Entertainment Inc. Mattel Inc. sued MGA Entertainment Inc. for infringement over the possession of the Bratz franchise. Mattel Inc. claimed that one of its former employees and a Barbie line designer, Carter Bryant, began creating the Bratz line while he was still in an employment contract with the company. Therefore, he violated his ‘invention agreement’ by taking the drawings of the dolls to MGA Entertainment Inc. (Ethan, 2012). MGA Entertainment Company denied the allegations and countersued Mattel Inc. for unfair business practices by using spies to steal its trade tactics. After a trial period of three months, a jury from California declined the ownership of the Bratz franchise to Mattel and approved MGA Entertainment Inc.’s counterclaim. The company was to be compensated with 88.5 million dollars for damages. After the verdict, Annette, Hurst, and MGA Entertainment Inc.’s attorney stated that no employer was in a position to bind ideas of its workforce to pose risks to employees when they shifted to work for other companies (Ethan, 2012). Lawsuit for copyright infringement is also noted where the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP) filed a complaint against Google Inc.’s attempt to create a digital library and sell books online. Photographers claimed that Google infringed on its copyrights (Lucy, 2014). They further claim that if their work posted on the Google’s digital library, then they will be denied reparations for the losses. The lawsuit also seeks over 150,000 million dollars for statutory damage for each instance in which Google has infringed on the plaintiff’s copyrights. Gabriel Stricker, Google’s spokesperson reiterated that Google Inc.’s books complied with both the United States and the international patent laws since no images in the online store’s books were available for viewing. Elsewhere, many users unknowingly violate patent laws when they use Pinterest. Pinterest is a virtual scrapbook that allows users to post images on their profiles. It also allows them to compile ideas that they find on different websites into a collective online album (Poletti, 2012). Pinterest is in the process of identifying how users can avoid copyrighting others’ works. At the end of the day, Pinterest will not experience the legal problems that have arisen from similar cases such as the case of Napster, the music-sharing website. However, Pinterest has not yet concluded on the rationality of the usage of the photos that are posted on its website. Although there is no litigation on this issue, Kirsten Kowalski, a Pinterest user and practicing attorney claimed that the first person who will file a suit against the use of the photos would have found the basis of the law (Poletti, 2012). In another instance, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit against Lime Wire and the founder Mark Gorton. Lime Wire was a free plan that enabled peer-to-peer file exchange until Judge Kimba Wood ordered permanent closure of Lime Wire on allegations that the company was involved in massive patent infringement in 2010 (Ethan, 2011). Not sure if you can write a paper on Copyright Infringement in the USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The RIAA claimed that Lime Wire had abused the copyright protection law by allowing users to share and download music on the internet freely. In the next four months, Mark Gorton and Lime Wire came to a covenant, where a record label of 105 million dollars was realized (Ethan, 2011). In this agreement, Joseph Baio, the lawyer of Mr. Gorton, said that this agreement had no confirmation of infringing the law. In the recent past, the RIAA sued Jammie Thomas-Rasset for patent infringement of over twenty songs. After four years, Ms. Thomas-Rasset was found guilty of patent infringement for sharing the songs a certain file-sharing platform and was ordered pay 1.5 million dollars as a fine. Her attorney, Kiwi Camara, planned to appeal against the ruling on grounds that the fines that were allowed under the federal copyright laws were unjustifiable. Ms. Thomas-Rasset disputed the claims that were against her (Hannah, 2014). Conclusion The incidences that have been aforementioned reveal the various acts of copyright infringement and penalties that are extended to the offenders who infringe patent laws. The law protects the originality of work, extending various charges on infringers. For instance, an infringer is liable to pay an owner the cost of the original work in various forms as per the Copyright Act. However, infringement of patent laws has remained an impasse amongst authors and innovators. Advancement of technology has significantly changed the copyright protection landscape due to the establishment of complex software that expose patented material to the public irrespective of the protection by patent laws. However, infringement can lead to a jail term. Therefore, the public must be aware of all the federal laws that govern copyright issues, especially those that deal with infringement. References Cheeseman, H. (2013). Business Law: Legal Environment, Business Ethics, and International Issues (8th Ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall. Ethan, S. (2011, April 05). Corporate News: Holly wood Studios Sue Start-Up Zediva. Wall Street Journal. Justin, S. (2011, July 30). You Can Lead a Virtual Horse to Water, But You Might Get Sued Along the Way: Disputes Over Online Animals End UP In Real – World Court, Fretting Over ‘Star’. Wall Street Journal. Ethan, S. (2012, March 12). Puzo Family Goes To the Mattresses. Wall Street Journal. Poletti, T. (2012, March 14). Is Pinterest the Next Napster? Wall Street Journal. Lucy, C. (2014, July 08). Kim Dotcom Extradition Decision Delayed; Megaupload Founder Will Stay in New Zealand Until Next Year. Wall Street Journal. Rodriguez, M. (2014, July 25). Northwestern files suit against author for copyright infringement. McClatchy. Alistair, B. (2014, September 26). Corporate News: Google Official Responds to Criticism. Wall Street Journal. Hannah, K. (2014, October 28). Disharmony in the Music World Over Which Day to Release Tunes — Labels’ Friday Push Hits Wrong Note With Retailers; ‘Thank God It’s Tuesday?’ Wall Street Journal.

Apply critical thinking to make and defend business decisions

Apply critical thinking to make and defend business decisions. I’m working on a Business exercise and need support.

Write a 3-page paper on the following topic:
Provide a statement explaining your own personal code of ethics. Include at least 4 codes in your answer with enough explanation and examples. Refer to concepts learned in class or in the textbook and link them to your justification.
In addition, discuss whether personal code of ethics could clash with organizational ethics. Some people believe, that personal ethics and organization’s ethics are two different and unrelated concepts. Others, believe that personal ethics should be applied to organization’s ethics. Is it possible that our personal beliefs and ethics are applicable to our work? Discuss.

Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.

Apply critical thinking to make and defend business decisions

Pre-Marriage Counseling Activity

best essay writers Pre-Marriage Counseling Activity.

Objective 2: Apply the discipline of marriage enhancement counseling to your pastoral ministry. “Falling in love with your spouse wasn’t hard. In fact, it was a completely spontaneous experience. You didn’t have to do anything. That’s why it’s called ‘falling’ in love – because it’s happening to you. Sustaining love is not a passive or spontaneous experience. It’ll never just happen to you. You can’t ‘find’ lasting love. You have to “make” it day in and day out. That’s why we have the expression ‘the labor of love’. It takes time, effort, energy, and most importantly, it takes wisdom” (Fertel. 2008). The pastor plays a key role in the lives of those he/she serves in the area of marriage enhancement and counseling. It is imperative that you have a basic understanding of Christian principles related to marriage and the family. You will have many opportunities to provide marriage enhancement through pastoral counseling and your ministry. The following learning activity is designed to provide insight in the area of marriage enhancement counseling. Learning Activity #4: Counseling Exercise Interview two (2) pastors relating to marriage enhancement counseling and the ministry. Take careful notes during the interview, and ensure that the same issues are covered in each one. Based on the results of the interviews, write 4-6 paragraphs as to the insights you gained from the interviews. Also create a chart that compares and contrasts the responses from each interview. Post the paper and chart to your facilitator in the drop box entitled Counseling Exercise. Responses are not expected to be formatted in the APA style unless otherwise noted from your facilitator; however, citations should be presented in APA format. Objective 3: Apply the discipline of grief counseling to your pastoral ministry. “How individuals and families cope with dying, death, grief, loss, and bereavement is as unique as a fingerprint. The response to the death of a family member, relative, or close friend places one in the category of “bereaved.” Those who are bereaved experience grief, a person’s response or reaction to loss, which encompasses physical, psychological, social, and spiritual components. How one copes with other life events and adapts to one’s present and future is also part of the grieving process” (Encyclopedia on Death and Dying, 2008). The pastor has a unique position in relation to grief counseling. The people you serve are looking to you for answers, comfort, and support. People deal with grief in different ways, we live in a culture that is used to having immediate gratification, the grief process does not work that way, and the pastor needs to be prepared and equipped in the area of grief counseling. The following learning activity is designed to provide insight in the area of grief counseling. Learning Activity #5: Grief Counseling Discussion Continuing your research and reading, focus on the topic for grief counseling. Create a resource guide of at least ten references that you found useful for grief recovery skills, counseling techniques, etc. Provide a very short description of what content the reference provides, and ensure that the reference is represented in APA format. Also answer the following questions. What new learning did you discover relating to grief counseling?How will an understanding of grief counseling benefit you as a pastor or in general ministry?How can these new concepts be applied to ministry practice? Post your resource guide and response in the discussion forum entitled Grief Counseling Discussion.
Pre-Marriage Counseling Activity

Tourism – A complex industry made up of number of different businesses

Defining tourism industry is not a sample matter, it is very complex industry made up of number of different businesses. The common thing these businesses share that they provide products and services to tourists. The most accepted definition is provided by the World Tourism Organisation. According to WTO, “tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to end staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”. Tourism has become one of the major economic activities in the 21st century. The development in aviation industry has made tourism industry very competitive. As airlines industry expands and the world economy experienced substantial growth in tourism industry. After World War II only wealthy people were able to enjoy travelling and tourism but late 20th century and early 21st century it became affordable to masses. The economic significance of tourism industry is quite evident in 21st century. According to WTTC Press Releases (2010) “World Tourism Industry contributes over 10% of the world GDP and growing every year. This industry can benefit an economy in number of ways e.g. by providing employment, increase in government taxes and creates more diversified economy. Four industries are dominated in 21st century, financial, telecommunications, Information technology and tourism. The desire of travel is a human need and people keep travelling for number of reasons. The travelling activities will never stop therefore tourism activities will increase in the future more and more, especially with the development of transportations system and modern technology. In past few decades tourism industry growth was tremendous and numbers of tourists in the UK have risen every year since World War II, apart from 1992 gulf war, September 11 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and July 7, 2005 London bombing. The growth in tourism industry has been the result of number of factors, e.g. Economic factor (longer paid holiday, affluence), Social factors (education and advertisement create desire to travel) and finally Development in tourism industry have made easy for tourist to travel new holiday destinations and attractions, cheaper holiday packages, faster and reliable transport. What is Terrorism? Terrorism has been defined as the intentional use of force or threat to use violence against civilian, business and government, in order to achieve their aims. During past three decades over 25000 terrorists’ incidents has happened around the world, which have resulted over 100000 causalities or injuries. The basic objectives of terrorists have remained unchanged over the years but development in technology has allowed terrorists to use more sophisticated and devastating tactics to create fear in people’s mind. The biggest increase in terrorism activities in past decade has raised many questions about the economic impacts on many countries around the world. In addition to the technological and natural hazards, people also face threats of terrorism posed by terrorists groups. Terrorist can be foreigner or domestic and their threats to people and nation from isolated acts of terrorism. The terrorists groups used different methods of attacks to create fear in people, like assassinations, kidnappings, car bombs, airline hijacking, building explosions, computer base attacks (cyber attacks), mailing of dangerous materials, use of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. The main targets of terrorists are civilian, government departments, holiday destinations, international airports, historic and largest cities and businesses. According to Enders W. and Todd S. (2002), “terrorism is the premeditated use or threat of use of force by individuals or groups to obtain social or political objective through the intimidation of large audience, beyond that of the immediate victim”. By using fear against civilian, terrorists create fear in general public through intimidation and hope to weaken the government’s legitimacy by strengthening their own importance. Beside civilian death and destruction, terrorism can have very serious impacts on economy and tourism in the worse and immediately affected industry by terrorism. UK Tourism Sector and Economy as a Whole: The tourism industry in one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in the United Kingdom, and an important economic sector for UK economy. It is the UK fifth largest industry which provide directly employment over 1.4 million people in UK. In last year domestic and international tourists spend over 90 billion in UK economy. According to Deloitte report 2007 tourism industry contributed direct and indirect in UK economy were worth 8.2% of GDP and also provided 2.65 millions jobs to workforce. The UK tourism industry employs more people than engineering and manufacturing industries, but both industries receive significant polices attention from Government. Growth in tourism sector could have significant impacts on UK workforce. In UK the combination of culture, history, world famous attractions and natural beauty is an attractive option for local and international tourists. There are number of upcoming opportunities like London Olympics 2012, Rugby League World Cup 2013, Glasgow Commonwealth Games 2014 and Rugby Union World Cup 2015 for the UK tourism that should be exploited and on the other side depreciation of sterling means increase in spending power of international tourists, which also make UK more attractive destination to visit. It also encourage local tourist to spend holidays in UK because foreign destinations become more expensive than UK’s. Recent reports shows that number of UK tourists going abroad has fallen significantly in past few years and they are planning holiday domestically. This is confirmed by BCC (2009) report, local business in Essex notes that, “there are definite signs that exchange rates are giving the UK tourism industry a boost with less people travelling abroad and more international tourists come UK”. The future growth of UK tourism is predicted by BBC. According to BBC (2010) report; in 2018 domestic and overseas visitors will put £115 billions a year in UK economy. The direct contribution in the UK economy will be £52 billion in term of GDP which represent 4% of UK economy. Tourism also provides 1.36 million jobs in 2009 to UK workforce which is 10% of total work force. UK is the world’s sixth largest international tourism destination in term of number of tourists. After September 11, 2001 and July 7, 2005 incidents tourism industry was badly affected. According to the LCCI (2005) report, it has been estimated that the fall in tourism could cost UK tourism industry over £300 millions. Liberal Democrat MP Sarah Teather and Brent East told GMT (2005), that the impact of London terrorist bombing on tourism industry is 60 percent worse than it was initially feared. They said that the terrorism cost UK tourism industry over £500 million. Why Terrorism target Tourism Industry: The words tourism and terrorism exist at either end of a continuum of quality of life. The word tourism means living happily, enjoyment, and relaxation, while terrorism means feeling of death, destruction, fears and panics every where. According to Beirman D. (2003), “tourists are primary concerned with travelling to the destination satisfying their desires with minimum complications, threats to their safety and wellbeing “, while on the other hand Gilham (2001) said, “physical threat or serious disturbances to one’s plans are suffer to reduce the prospects of a tourist destination or tourist firm”. In past decade terrorism has very severe impacts on the travel and tourism industry than any other industry. The main reason of this may be because the basic objectives of the terrorist groups are to spread fear, as a result the basic safety and security of people threatened. According to Maslow A. (1943) the hierarchy of needs, he said that human nature never satisfied, when they have met their basic needs for safety and security. When they are able to satisfy their basic needs, then they attempt to satisfy their self actualisation needs such as better life, travel and tourism. According to Essner J. (2003), the psychological impacts are enough to have severe impacts on tourism. The fear of terrorism is irrational, because in terrorist attack chances of being killed are very little and security environment has demonstrated its negative impacts on tourism in many top destinations around the world. In this competitive age, the business environment is changing dramatically. Terrorism is the biggest threat to tourism industry because travel is susceptible to the incidents of terrorism. When people travel they always avoid hazards, so for tourists safety is the major concern. During the past decade especially after September 11 2001, there are number of events which have had significant negative impacts on UK tourism. The correlation between terrorism and tourism is undeniable in the era due to industry strength and tourist places are the ideal target for terrorist to create large amount of economic and social disruption in the country. In UK terrorism can be seen in substantial part, as a result of this backlash to the tourism industry. There are number of definitions of terrorism, in the world of Alexander, Yonah, (1979) “terrorism is a threat or use of enforcement and inclemency to achieve a political goal by means of intimidation fear, and coercion”. In the present world context, the European Union (2001) define the terrorism relevant to international business in the following words. “Terrorist offences are certain criminal offences set out in a list comprised largely of serious offences against persons and property which, given their nature or context, may seriously damage a country or an international organisation where committed with the aim of: seriously intimidating a population; or unduly compelling a Government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act; or seriously destabilizing or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organization”. September 11 Terrorist Attacks and Tourism Industry: Terrorism has deep history science the cold war but this issue become most salient after terrorist attacks in September 11 2001. This incident affected the UK and international tourism industry in various ways. On one hand the world tourism industry was affected financially, the other hand it suffers due to legal and security issues. The international tourism industry between countries was most seriously affected due to security and safety concerns and legal issue. Especially UK, US and other developed countries were compulsion to protect their territory and people at any cost. Tourism industry in UK and USA found themselves floundering financially in the months after the terrorist attack on world Trade Centre, while rest of the world tourism industry also lost millions of dollars. According to U.S department of state (2002) report more than 3000 people of different nationalities were killed in the terrorist attacks only in the United States in September 11, 2001. The attacks were the conspicuous example of terrorism on global level. According to the overview of European commission (2001) this was the one of the major event in the past decades which diversifies the viewpoint and outlook of people around the world. Terrorism affects both the long term and short term perspectives of the all economic sectors around the world. Czinkota (2002) cited that terrorism influenced long term karma of entire industries, for example tourism, retailing and manufacturing industries. According to U.S Department of state (2001), “terrorist select businesses (e.g. tourism places) for attack compare to other targets”. The most kind of attack is bomb blast, although armed attacks and kidnapping are also some kinds of terrorist attacks. According to Council of Foreign Relations (2002) reported “the majority of victims in terrorist attack are civilians”. The relatively large number of tourists may not prepare to face these kinds of terrorist attacks. However the scenario has changed as it was at the time of terrorist attack in 9/11. Kunreuther, Michel and Porter (2003) said that during the days of terrorist attacks in 9/11 a common feeling came into mind of people that it could be me. But with the passage of time, this may give way to may be it will not ‘me’ next time. This kind of behaviour is more common now a day in south Asia. But it is a common thinking that it is extremely easy for terrorist that to attack any where in the world. Even in low cost and low tech attacks, terrorists achieve to disrupt the tourism industry. After the September 11 terrorist attacks many international tourist destinations have badly affected legally because countries have introduced new laws for foreigner tourists e.g. strict visas requirements, security check and criminal record check etc. UK government also introduced strict immigration law for every one who wishes to come UK for visit, in the effort to prevent further terrorist attacks. The new terrorist laws restricted the tourists for freely travel across the UK borders and require by security department to keep proper track of their activities. The anti terrorist laws have made very complicated for tourism industry to conduct its business activities freely across the UK borders; as a result many people and firms engaged with tourism have financially struggled. Another major issue that affect the UK tourism industry is security and UK government have to invest huge amount of money to improve both internal and external security. The security is most important because terrorist target hot tourists spots and transportation network to achieve their targets. There is not a vast existing literature which shows the relationship between terrorism and tourism management theories, and the lack of presence of research literature is absolutely visible on the relationship between terrorism and tourism management, which elaborates constructive techniques for tourism industry in the presence of phenomena of terrorism. Terrorism has capacity to create atmosphere of fear and can be intimidate industry in number of ways. This threat of terrorism attacks poses a continuous atmosphere of risk for the tourism around the world. This risk itself creates extension for treatment of risk in management theories. The majority of management literature theories adopt term ‘uncertainty’ as a factor of unpredictable environment which may influence the tourism industry in certain ways. The environment effected by terrorism also has a factor of unpredictability in it. This study is another attempt to research and investigates impacts of terrorism on the tourism industry in UK and we will also discuss different approaches for reducing and handling the terrorism threats. Context and relevance of the Study: The topic, impacts of terrorism on tourism industry has been widely explored, this study is based on past decade to find out the impacts of terrorism on UK tourism industry and suggest the appropriate framework that helps tourism industry to minimise the impacts of terrorism. Given this significance, the aim of this research is an attempt to find the impacts of terrorism on UK tourism industry in the present context for the period after September 11 2001. Research Aim: The aim of this research is to analyse and explore the effects of terrorism on tourism industry in the United Kingdom after September 11 2001. The second part of my research is to critically analyse and recommend the most appropriate framework for tourism industry to deal with the terrorist threats or scrutinize the different ways to avoid and minimise the impact of terrorism on tourism industry. Research Objectives: The research objectives will include the elements, which have relation to both terrorism and tourism. The objectives of this research will show the correlation between terrorism and tourism and the tourism industry is highly impacted by terrorism activities. This research has the following individual objectives: To critically analyse the general impact of terrorism on United Kingdom tourism industry. To recommend the most appropriate framework that helps the tourism industry to minimize the impact of terrorism. Hypothesis: The hypothesis of this study is as follows; Tourism industry is likely, to be negatively impacted by terrorism events. Research Questions: The above research objectives can be broken down into following leading questions; What are the effects of terrorism on UK tourism industry? What measures and framework exist to minimize the impacts or consequences of terrorism on UK tourism Industry? After having answered all above questions, conclusion and recommendations will be formulated to minimize the impacts for tourism industry. The conclusion and recommendations are put in the context of relevant political, economic and legal manners. Scope and Limitations of the research: This is an academic research that would shed some light on the matter of terrorism and tourism which have been discussed in different prospective in past. The significance of this study is found out the impacts after September 11 2001 and July 7 2005 terrorist attacks on UK tourism industry. Terrorism and tourism relationship is an ongoing issue and it relevance may change in different period because of the change of political structure of the countries. This study is relevant to the people involve in tourism and related industry and of much interest to get insight of the tourism industry. The finding of this study will be limited from the following aspects. The study includes the impacts on UK tourism industry only. Hence, its findings may not be applicable to other countries tourism industries because of the frequencies and number of terrorist attacks. Another limitation is use of secondary data, this data is an important component of my research but there are some limitations that the secondary data may have and the problems that could arise if these limitations are ignored. The verification of existing data is difficult. Secondary data can be general and vague and sometimes it may cause difficulties in decision making. It is possible that data could be out dated and the sample used to generate the secondary data maybe small. The secondary data may not be accurate and sources of data need must always be checked. The sample used to collect data may be very small or very big, which means it may not show the true picture of the population. The secondary data sometimes does not help to design methods of formulating research question or answering that question. The data publisher company may not be reputable. While keeping in mind those limitations of secondary data, I will use data for my research from reputable academic websites and published literature. Research Structure and Design: This research consists of six chapters. It begins with chapter 1, which reveals the need, aim and objectives for this research to be attained. Chapter 2 of my research will discuss the methodology, which enables me to fulfil the requirements of this research. Chapter 3 is an extensive and deep interpretation of literature review about terrorism and tourism. This chapter also looks at the other literature on the tourism and terrorism topic, and also discusses the difference between previous researches and this research. Chapter 4 of this research will explore the impacts of terrorism on UK tourism industry. Chapter 5 of this research is about managing the effects of terrorism and discuss the framework to minimise the impacts of terrorism. Finally chapter 6 of this research is the conclusion and recommendation chapter which will answer all the key questions, aim and objectives of this research seek. Abbreviation and terminology: Uncertainty: specifically mean the unpredictable environment; it is unpredictable when next terrorist attack will occur. Risk: mean threat; internal and external threat in tourism industry which may affect the productivity of organisation.

Campbellsville University Scalability Concepts Discussion

Campbellsville University Scalability Concepts Discussion.

This is a required assignment worth 20 points (20points/1000-points). Assignment must be submitted by the due date. No late assignments are allowed. Please discuss the following topicsDefine scalability.List five to ten potential relationships that align with the Pareto principle, such as how 80 percent of sales come from 20 percent of customers.Compare and contrast vertical and horizontal scaling.Explain the importance of the database read/write ratio.List and describe five ways you think the cloud will change the future of TV.List and describe five potential uses for intelligent fabric.List and describe five ways the cloud will influence the mobile application market, or vice versa.Discuss the importance of HTML 5.Each topic in 50 words max. APA format and references please
Campbellsville University Scalability Concepts Discussion

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