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Why Is Recession Bad For The Economy

A business cycle is the recurring and fluctuating levels of economic activity that an economy experiences over a long period of time. There are five stages in a business cycle. The five stages are growth (expansion), peak, recession (contraction), trough and recovery. A recession is a point in the business cycle where there is a general slowdown in the economic activity over a period of time. A recession can be confirmed if the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth is negative for a period of two or more consecutive quarters. The GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. The GDP (Y) consists of Consumption (C), Investment (I), Government Purchases (G) and Net Exports. The GDP can be represented with the following formula. Y = C I G NX A fall in any of the following components could lead to a recession. The major cause of recession is the fall in the aggregate demand for goods and services. Although the decrease in the aggregate supply of goods of services causes recession, it is known as stagflation as inflation, recession and high unemployment takes place at the same time. The aggregate demand curve in this graph is represented by the four components of the GDP. A decrease in any of the four components of the GDP will cause the aggregate demand curve to shift from AD1 to AD2 causing a recession if conditions persists for two quarters. The aggregate demand curve is downward slopping because of three main reasons which are the wealth effect, interest rate effect and the exchange rate effect. The wealth effect states that the decrease in price level makes consumers feel more wealthy thus encouraging them to spend more at lower price levels. The interest rate effect on the other hand states that interests rates are lower when price levels are low and therefore it encourages consumers to spend on investment goods. Lastly, the exchange-rate effect relates the falling of price level with the fall in interest rates. This causes the exchange rate to depreciate and it in turn stimulates the net exports of the country. The aggregate supply curve in this graph will shift if there is a rise in labor, capital, natural resources, technology, or expected price level. The rise in the aggregate supply will cause to curve to shift from AS to AS1. This causes not only the real national income to fall causing recession but also causing unemployment and inflation rate to increase. The aggregate-supply curve slopes upwards in the short-run while it is vertical in the long run. The aggregate-supply curve in the short run slopes upwards because of three main theories which are the misperceptions theory, sticky-wage theory and the sticky-price theory. The misperceptions theory explains how the increase in overall price level temporarily can mislead the suppliers into increasing their outputs when the price level increases to gain more profit. Meanwhile, the sticky-wage theory states that the wages paid to the employees are slow to adjust to the fall in price levels. This causes firms to reduce their production level as it is less profitable to produce goods or services at lower price levels. Lastly, The sticky-price theory relates the unexpected fall in price levels with the higher-than-desired prices of goods sold by firms. Firms has to reduce the quantity of goods and services they produce to prevent a surplus in the market. In the long run, the aggregate supply curve is vertical as price levels those not affect the five variables mentioned above. Following the recession which hit the US in 2007, many countries were pulled along as trades and stock markets fell. Malaysia, Cambodia and UK were among the many countries who suffered recession as a result of the recession in US. The main reason which contributed to the recession that hit the US was because of the collapse of the housing bubble. Before the collapsing of the housing bubble, in 1997 to 2006, the prices of houses continued to rise. This attracted people all around the world to start investing in housing properties. People started to take up loans to purchase housing properties. The prices of houses raised by 124% within that period of time. However, when the interest rates of loans increased, the prices of housing properties began to drop. It also became difficult for people to pay off their debts. This created a huge amount of uncovered debt. Thus, causing a recession as the US suffered negative growth in GDP for more than two consecutive quarters. The above shows the rising of the GDP from 1995 to 2005 before its took a dive down in 2006. The above diagram shows the sharp fall in housing prices from year 2006 to 2009. Lastly, this diagram shows the fall of US GDP after year 2006 due to the fall in housing prices and the unsolved debts. Causes of recession There can be many causes of recession. The primary cause of recession usually involves inflation and the aggregate demand. As we all know, inflation refers to the overall increase in general price of goods and services over a period of time. Hence, the higher the rate of inflation, the percentage of goods and services that can be purchased with the same amount of money is lesser. Thus, in an inflationary environment, people will definitely tend to spend less or even reduce their overall spending in order to save much more money. However, as this is happening, the Gross domestic product (GDP) declines. Therefore, output of goods and services will decrease, and unemployment will increase. When this happens continuously for two quarters of the year, recession happens. The second primary cause of recession is actually the actions taken to control money supply in the economy. As we are aware, the Federal Reserve controls the money supply in the economy. However, assuming that the Federal Reserve loses balance in the money supply and for example injects huge amount of money into the economy, the economy will definitely spiral out of control. In fact what will happen is that interest rates will go down, but inflation actually continued to rise. Thus this will relate back to our first cause of recession-inflation. Other causes of recession:- Recession also happens when stocks are over-valued. When the stock market goes up, more and more people want to buy that particular share in the market. However, they fail to realize that the price of stock may not be what the company is actually worth and that it actually depends on the overall economy of the country. . Thus, the price of the shares has to go down eventually. The manifestation of this situation is investors will lose money meaning less wealth for the consumers (investors). Other than that, this also means that the funding for new businesses will be lessened. Overall, stock market crash causes a recession. Other than that, recession is also caused by hike in oil price. If the price of oil (crude oil or even petroleum) were to increase, other prices would increase as well. It doesn’t really matter which sector is affected, eventually, all the sectors will be affected. For example, when oil prices soar high, the cost of a box of pizza increases as well. Although we can’t see a direct linkage, price of the pizza actually went up probably due to the transportation cost (which involves oil) of the raw materials/food. In the long run, if these prices were to continue rising, it will actually lessen the consumer demand. Hence, business and operators will slowdown and lessen their output, and then recession is witnessed all over again. In addition to that, another cause of recession is overspending and high taxation. Since high taxation has been implemented, it takes a huge amount of the society’s wealth away. Thus, their spending power has decreased tremendously and hence, recession is yet again experienced. Too high interest rates too can cause recession. Assuming the fed implies higher or excessively high interest rate, the spending of consumers will do down but savings will increase. Hence, the GDP will do down, economy will slow down, hence, recession will happen. If we do a proper research we are able to relate some macroeconomic model studied. Attached is a graph for further explanation:- Based on the graph above, we can see how the aggregate demand (overall demand) decreases as prices soar high due to inflation. Thus, the AD curve will move to the left signifying a decrease. When it moves left, the price reduces. However, even the output (Y) decreases. Thus, production level decreases as well as output level. Hence, unemployment increases. Recession will happen. Based on the graph above, we can see the money supply is controlled by the Fed Government. When the Fed decides to increase the money supple and inject more money supply, the curve shifts right. When that happens, value of money becomes low, and price levels soar high up. What will happen is that consumers will spend less and save more since everything is expensive, however they do not realize their actions are pushing the GDP downwards and the aggregate demand is bound to shift left like the above graph and the whole cycle is repeated all over again. Thus we can conclude that recession also happens because of lack of control of the money supply by the Fed. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRIES THAT FACED RECESSION The first country that we can see faced recession is the United States of America. The USA experienced it from the fourth quarter of 2007 to the second quarter of 2009.During this difficult time, household spending fell more than 2 % in 2009. On the other hand, GDP shrank at a 6.8 percent pace from October to December 2008, exceeding the prior estimate of 5.4 percent. The worst quarter of the current economic slump was the final three months of 2008, in the immediate aftermath of the collapse of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. Indeed the total output and production of the country had lessened. Profits and capital inflow had decreased as well (refer graph below) Reasons for such situations were:- High price of crude oil – The high price of crude oil pushed upwards by the Middle Eastern countries. Increasing energy prices bring no good at all but instead only brought to higher cost of production, lower profits and reduced consumption. Continuing decline in the value of money- The Federal Reserve had over supplied money. However there were steps taken by the US government to overcome this situation. Some of these steps were as follows: – President of the USA, Barrack Obama introduced a stimulus package. This stimulus package that costs 787.2 billion USD is expected to grow the US GDP between 1.8 % – 4.8 % by the fourth quarter of 2009. Besides that, that stimulus package is also expected to create 2.3 million new jobs for the previously unemployed. 71 billion USD on the other hand went for investment – from energy conservation, transportation improvement, infrastructure improvement, and scientific research. With investment of these sorts, the GDP of the country will slowly yet surely boost up, while opening up job opportunities to many people by stages. The second country that also experienced recession is Spain. Spain had experienced recession in last year, 2009. The National Statistic Institute said that the GDP of the country actually fell as much as 3.7 % in 2009. As a result, the level of import and exports too dropped drastically. Other than that, consumer spending fell by 3 %. Therefore, unemployment increased as well. However, what were the main causes of the recession in Spain? It was mainly regarded to the collapse of Spain’s building industry. According to sources, the overhung of properties unsold on the market or in fact still being built has reached 1,623,000. Thus, we can see how Spain owes pretty much a lot of money to these building that are unsold. Hence, due to this issue, sectors such as the construction sectors will even shrink -not forgetting other sectors too in a regular recession hit country. However, how did Spain get though this? The national Bank of Spain made efforts to urge all banks by putting aside extra reserves. The president also introduced their own version of a stimulus package which included Tax cuts for small businesses, aid to encourage car purchases and a plan to reduce a huge stock of unsold new homes and buildings. and EU 27 GDP.png Based on the graph above, we can see that the GDP of Spain went down tremendously in right after 2009. Among other countries that were affected by recession were Russia, Germany and Japan. Impact of recession 1) Why recession is bad? A recession happens when businesses stop the expanding, employment rate falls successively and unemployment rate rises, GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth slows, and housing price decrease. These sources affect to an economy: Individual, Social, Economic, and political aspect. 2) Explain the effects of recession to an economy Enormous credit card debt – Individual aspect Mostly, recession and inflation is accompanied together – which also means that even as your income is under pressure, the expenses may still rise slightly. If the payments are made regularly by using credits cards, then there is high chance of losing track of your income as compared to how high your expenses have escalated; and finally one day, you will find yourself unable to pay off your credit card debts. If this happens, it could be very difficult for you with a lowered credit rating to get approval for new loans, leaving you no choice but to resort to loans where the interest rates could be higher compared to others – which could make the scenario even worse. Fewer customer and lower income – Individual As economies are a choke holding by the recession, you might find the decreasing number of customers walking through the doors of your business. To control the rising expenses, your existing customer may also seem to spend their money less or not at all. Income loss and down slope in your profit could be detrimental to your small business which could ruin everything unless you create new ways to improve your sales as well as your profit. Putting your mortgages at risk – Individual It is very dangerous if your small business has a retail location that has a mortgage loan on to it. The reason is that lenders have been consistently increasing their interest rates by using bid to replenish their losses due to other borrowers who has not paid their monthly installments. If your current mortgage period is reaching the deadlines, there is a low possibility you finding a new lender willing to give you a new mortgage at low interest rated. This could put you in an edge where you have no choice but to decide on which loans to settle off first. It is hard to maintain the company – Individual As graph of fuel prices increase exponentially, followed by inclined food, electricity and gas prices, it is not easy to sustain a business, especially if you run your business from a physical location. As you can not eat less or fill less fuel in your car, this elevates your monthly outcome, plus a dramatic drop in your income, could close down your small business. Saving problems – individual The world is arbitrary, and economy is really one of it. If there is an economic crisis and your small business are run by loans you have taken out from the bank, you would definitely need your saving that was back up before to tide you, otherwise you will be in a serious financial disaster. Unemployment – social The effect of recession on unemployment depends on how long recession lasts and how deeply it has taken root. A recession means that three successive quarters of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) being in the negative. Thus, there is no growth in the economy during that period. The harder country has a serious recession, the more increasing the unemployment rate. Nowadays, changing the effects of a recession on unemployment happens. It takes time for customers to feel safe enough in order to begin spending money again. When this takes place, companies gradually enlarge their workforce then make more jobs. Government is also trying to decrease the unemployment rate by making more jobs and giving to workers about new skills in order to qualify for new jobs and information of jobs and decreasing the interest rate. Influence on individual Because economic growth falls dramatically in a recession, the stock market decreases and normally enters a bear market causes a flight to safety, where investors buy treasury bonds, which causes interest rates to fall. According to this reason, employers reduce new hiring and start lain off workers so you can lose your own job if you are in an industry that has layoffs. Unless you are laid off, then you will possibly be suggested to work longer hours to make up the new employees who are not hired. And you have already felt the impact on your value of your home, home equity. This declines your wealth. In addition to, you will continue to feel the influence on your retirement savings as stock prices decrease. Social impact of recession -People eat healthier food, cooking at home more and avoiding expensive fatty food. -People want to study more. Particularly, people who feel it will be useful to extend their education and increase of libraries in lending. -Prices for necessities tend to level out and then fall, so people buy and sell more second hand goods. -Many people lose their houses and livelihoods -People can indulge in gambling easily during the recession. Bookmakers recognize their main customers tend to be made up largely of those low incomes or already in financial trouble. -Minority parties expected to do well during a recession have benefits from disillusionment with the conventional order. Economic impact of recession Recession speeds up the process of business evolution, forcing companies to decrease cost and adopt new practices. Recession in the wealth market opens up opportunities for first time buyers because prices fall in common and the buy-to-let sector agreements, making more possessions. Businesses and individuals are more likely to think as greater efficiency. For instance, they may change to renewable sources of energy or insulate their properties. This will produce work for other companies in this part. Recession has decreased at a record rate as consumers control in their spending in the manufacturing aspect. Building firms have been terribly hit by decaying economic situations, especially house constructors. The most suffer part is service sector such as leisure, financial service and retail which is takes 75 % of the total economy. Cost-cutting in the public sector is also highly likely. Political effects of recession Government encourages exports by focusing on this company section because it will bring about necessary foreign currencies. Next one is that they provide accessible credit for firm. Company should be encouraged by the government to compensate for unemployment. The more businesses mean more jobs available for the people. Government also set aside large amount for social welfare. According to this policy, positive view will be developed in the process, thus people enable to get back on their feet and new start. To cut expenditures in other areas such military, executive, other branches, and legislative can be useful to overcome a recession by government. They can stimulate to increase tourism in the domestic country not foreign traveling. More tourists mean more money injected to the economy. The main political effect to overcome recession by government is to inspire the injection of money back to the country. 3) Relate to examples of countries that faced recession The economic recession affects to slow export growth, decrease GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and increase the unemployment rate. Unemployment in Europe, August 2008 GDP of EU (27 countries) Explain: Every GDP went down before year, 2007. For instance, GDP of Germany declined 19.4 % than before year 2007. For example, Ireland seems to have recession as you can see the GDP is decreasing continuously from the end of the 2007 and still in negative growth. Next Greece is another country facing recession not a U- shaped recession like the others. Only Germany, Italy, France, and the UK are maintaining the positive GDP growth until now. The clearest winner is Germany with an impressive 3.7 % Growth rate although negative percentage occurred at around 2009. Most of countries comparatively have similar changes in employment levels, with Germany is slightly better than the rest with having very little negative change, except Ireland and Spain. Ireland and Spain considerably plunge into their employment. Both of the countries are starting to get minus percentages from roughly middle of 2008, but Ireland has slightly more serious than Spain in the graph. Ireland was also the worst performer on GDP with Spain, there does not seem to have been a very close link between the size of the recession and the impact on employment. The last charts compare between the changing of employment and that of in the GDP in each country. In Germany, Italy, the UK, and France fall in GDP has been a little greater that the decrease in employment. – Ireland and Greece Employment and growth have followed each other logically closely in Greece and Italy. – Spain However, employment has fallen faster than GDP in Spain. This means that this disparity could reflect on the quality of the data which is one or the other of the Spanish series is not telling the whole truth. Its meaning is we cannot know everything. Though this shows that the statistics are worth having a close look at and that such discrepancies need to be explained to understand how countries are faring in hard time. The good effects of recession: Increased money supply (government spending) by the government. During a recession, inflation normally occurs and the economy slows down. When this happens, the government implements the monetary policy to stimulate the economy and to maintain the output of goods and services. Therefore, the Fed increases the money supply, lowers the interest rate and increases the quantity of goods and services demanded for any given price level, shifting the aggregate-demand curve to the right. The government would be able to identify what is wrong with the economic policies that are currently implemented and make the necessary changes. Other examples of government spending are bailouts, housing subsidies and other stimulus packages.
Entrepreneur:- An entrepreneur is a person who is the owner of a new enterprise, venture or idea and is accountable for the inherent risks and the outcome. To put it in simple words an entrepreneur is someone who seeks the opportunity, organizes resources needed for working out on that opportunity and exploits it. Computers, Television, Mobile phones, washing machines, ATMs, Credit Cards, Courier Service, and Ready to eat Foods are all examples of entrepreneurial ideas that got changed into products or services. Some of the definitions of entrepreneur have been given below: Joseph. A .Scum peter defines an entrepreneur as a person who innovates, raises money, assembles inputs, chooses managers and sets the organization going with his ability to identify opportunities which others are not able to identify and is able to make use of them. Peter Drucker defines an entrepreneur as one who always searches for a change responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur innovates. Innovation is a specific instrument of success available to entrepreneur Characteristics of an Entrepreneur: Mental Ability – Entrepreneur must have creative thinking and is able to analyze problems and situations. He should be able to foresee changes. Business Secrecy – He should hide and protect his business secrets from his competitors. Clear Objectives – The objectives has to be clear in his mind regarding the nature of business and goods to be produced. Human Relations – The relationship between the entrepreneur, customers and employees e.t.c. has to be good. It is important to maintain personal relations, tactfulness, stability in emotions and consideration with customers, employees, etc. Communication Ability – Good communication skill is the asset for any entrepreneur as it eases the understanding between anyone working or dealing within or outside the company. Source: Desai, V (2001). Dynamics of entrepreneurial development
Writer’s Choice Essay. 1. What experiences have you had with on-the-job training? What can make it function as effectively as possible? (Melissa) 2. Why do you suppose the five categories of classroom learning are so popular in HRD? Identify two types of training programs that you might not want to con-duct using a classroom format. (Erin) 3. Compare the five categories of classroom learning presented in this chapter to Neil Fleming’s preferences for taking in information; that is, the VARK questionnaire presented in Chapter 3 (VARK stands for visual, aural, read/write, and kin-esthetic preferences). How do the five categories of classroom learning seem to match up with the four preferences for taking in information (i.e., do you think that learners who have a high preference for visual would also prefer a particular classroom learning approach)? What implications does this have for conducting effective workplace learning interventions? (Melissa) 4. State and justify your opinion regarding the effectiveness of the lecture method. What can be done to ensure that a lecture is effective? (Erin) 5. Using a training topic (or module) of your choice, what audiovisual media would be most appropriate in presenting this method to a group of learners? Why did you pick the media or methods that you did? (Melissa) 6. In what circumstances would learning be promoted through use of case studies, games, or simulations? (Erin) 7. What experiences have you had with role playing? Under what conditions might a role play be effective? Ineffective? (Melissa) 8. What sorts of skills and knowledge do you think computer-based methods (such as computer-aided instruction) are well suited for? Poorly suited for? (Erin) 9. According to the text, what is blended learning? What do you think of this as an approach to train new professional employees? (Melissa) 10. You have seen in this chapter how technological changes have had a dramatic impact on workplace learning implementation. Discuss and answer the question: “What are some ways that workplace learning can be implemented now that could not be done before the advent of modern technologies?” What do you think are the most promising new developments in the delivery of workplace learning? Why? (Erin) 11. Why is it important for instructors and learners to establish a rapport with each other before a training session? What are several ways of doing this? (Both)Writer’s Choice Essay

The Uks Balance Of Payments Analysis Economics Essay

Introduction Balance of payments refers to a statistical record of a country’s transactions with the rest of the world over a certain period of time and presented in the form of double-entry bookkeeping. A single country’s international transactions consist with three main balance of payments accounts, the current account; the capital account and the official reserve account. The UK’s balance of payments is a statistical statement designed to provide a systematic record of the economic transactions with other countries, described as a system of consolidated accounts in which the accounting entity is the UK economy and the entries refer to economic transactions between residents in the UK and residents of the rest world (The Pink Book, 2010). This paper presents the analysis of UK’s balance of payments for the 10 year period; a comprehensive interpretation includes an examination from the current account balance and capital or financial account balance. Predict the trends of balance of payments in the UK, investigate the economic factors which might account for the changes and link in the balances. Evaluate the current accounts balance over time with examples, and also find solutions for current account deficits. Current account balance over time The current account is the most common and easy to understand the balance of payments, which includes all imports and exports of goods and services, other net income from abroad and current transfers to and from abroad, the data of current account provides the main material for economic analysis. If the debits exceed the credits, then a country is running a trade deficit, by contrast, credits exceed the debits, then it means trade surplus. The current account is divided into four categories: merchandise trade, services, factor income and unilateral transfers (Machiraju, 2009). Trade balance is sensitive to exchanges rates; changes in exchange rate influence the relative prices and change resources or consumption expenditures between the production nd consumption of tradable and non-tradable. What are the factors caused swings of current account balance? One prominent school believes that the swings result from economic policy misalignments (Obstfeld and Rogoff 2005). Other approaches argue that the swings are caused by events such as differentials in productivity growth (Backus, Henriksen, Lambert and Telmer 2005). According to Selen and Sarisoy (2005), the swings in current account balances are correlated with real depreciations in all developed and developing countries and transitional, the effect on exchange rate shocks as a factor or cause even stronger in the developed countries. Exchange rate fluctuations are the one factor of swings in current account balance. When a country’s currency depreciates in exchange rate will effect on trading partners, this country’s exports would rise and become more competitive, the trading prices are cheaper for major partner importers, and by contrast, imports tend to fall, due to the high price, should be improve the trade balance. For instance, Mexico had experienced deficits in trade balance in 1994, over U.S. $4.5 billion per quarter throughout the whole year, due to the peso depreciation. One year later, Mexico started to improve the trade balance, about $7 billion surplus in 1995. The trade balance may deteriorate after depreciation in short term, however it will tend to improve over time. J curve effect shows that depreciation could worsen current account in short period, inelastic may cause negative swings. Positive swing or negative swing depends on price elasticity. Another important factor impact on current account balance swings is the concept of economic growth and consumer spending (Michael R. Pakko, 2000); consumers could help economic grow, because consumers will have higher spending on imports, also higher import prices. If consumers choose cheaper local substitutes instead foreign imports, it takes time for local producers to replace import products. UK GDP was fast growing during late 1980s, which increased in domestic residents’ consumption and inflation rate; these factors caused the current account deficit. In 1992, the recession of economic improved the current account to surplus. Since financial crisis overwhelmed whole world in 2008, the recession was temporarily rise the deficit in the UK due to domestic residents reduced spending and have huge impact on current account balances. UK current account deficits The current account deficit represents a country has been spending and earnings. Analysis the trends are important for economists to understand the domestic economic behaviour, they can evaluate the causes of deficits and find possible solutions. The UK have been suffering current account deficit since 1984. During the period 1980 to 1983, the current account was surplus. In 1989, deficit reached to £24.2 billion equivalent to 4.6 per cent of Gross Domestic Product. The current account deficit decrease to £0.8 billion in year 1997. 2006 was the most difficult time for the UK, deficits sharply rise to £39.1 billion, and it was the highest record. The current account deficit showed the improvement in 2008, which reduced to £14.4 billion. 2 years later, the deficit was twice higher than 2008, due to financial crisis. However, the current account deficit declined in year 2011 and equal to 1.9 per cent of Gross Domestic Product. UK current account balance Source: pinkbook, 2012. £billion Current account balance as a percentage of GDP The graph presents the current account as a percentage of GDP, from year 1991 to 2011. In 1991, the deficit was equlevant to 1.7 per cent of GDP, the current account deficit declined to 0.2 percent in year 1998, then dramaticlly fell to 2.7 percent in the following year. After 2000, the rate was fluctuate and sharply recovered in year 2008. It was equal to 1.9 percent in 2011. Reasons for a current account deficit Domestic consumers have high demanding on experditure, which will increase in imports and break the balance of current account. Exchange rates may overvalued and the price of domestic products become less attractive than imports products, consumers would spend money on cheaper oversea goods instead domestic goods, exporters become uncompetitive. If an economy focus on consumer spending rather than exports and with low savings rate will have high current account deficit or negative swings overtime, such as America. During the economic ression, overseas demand has fallen, and domestic market remains robust. Solutions of current account deficit import controls increase triffs on various oversea goods, foreign products prices will higher then local producers’s products, then the demand on foreign imports could decline and consumers would change consuptions to domestic products. Rise triffs lead to reduce the current account deficit and also protect home businesses. Multinational companies could add taxes in their goods, and remain the same selling price, total profits will be less to keep products competitative. However, this is not long term solution, protectionism decrease the exports. Deflation If the UK governemnt raises interest rates and taxes, domestic residents will reduce the shopping on overseas goods. Deflationary policies can lead to producers cut the costs and increase exports. But this solution could decline the economic growth and increase the rate of unemployment, the government unlikely to take the high risk on unemployment. Supply Side Policies Supply side economics is the branch of economics that how to achieve the productive capacity in the economy. These policies which can improve the current account position, and take competitve advantage on exports. Supply side policies which help the government raise the productivity and shift Aggregate Supply to the right direction. There are advantages to apply supply side plicies, it will help to make the economy efficent and reduce cost to push inflation. Supply side policies can lower the rate of unemployment. Improve the trade and balance of payments which can make manufacturers increase productivity and exports.

database implementation, computer science homework help

assignment writer database implementation, computer science homework help.

Part III – Data Modeling and ERDContinue to review the following Business Case Study:Green, G. C. (2005). Greta’s Gym: A Teaching Case for Term-Long Database Projects. Journal Of Information Systems Education, 16(4), 387-390.Link to article. Systems Development Life CycleIn this assignment, you will move on to the implementation phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle, and draft data models and an Entity Relationship Diagram based on the case study and your results from your Data Gathering report completed in Module 02.DeliverablesAfter reviewing the case study, create a data model and entity relationship diagram document, which includes your ERD diagram.Items to be included with your submissionYour submission should contain a Microsoft Word document of at least 3-4 pages, (this does not include the cover page, table of contents, and references), you must include ALL items below for your project overview, with headers or page breaks separating each item. Your submission should include the following:Microsoft Word document that is at least 3-4 pages longTitle Page containing the project title, your name, and date of the assignment. Resource: Quick Guide on FormattingTable of Contents: For questions on how to create a table of contents in Microsoft Word, please refer to Rasmussen Library resources or review the Microsoft Tutorial. Contains an entity relationship diagram (ERD), explanation of the entities, attributes, and data types.Updated SQL code (must be saved in *.txt or *.sql format).References Page – Include references and links to your research sources. Use APA documentation style consistently to cite any sources in your research. Resources: Quick Guide on References…; Sample SQL code that will be used to begin creating your database and tables in *.txt or *.sql format.Data Modeling and ERD DocumentYour assignment should include:Use advanced formatting features such as flowcharts or graphics; produce professional documentation that includes a copy of your ERD. This can be embedded in your Word document as an image or attached to your submission as a JPG or PDF attachment. Use Microsoft Visio or another Data Modeling tool to create an ERD that documents the data required to support Greta’s Gym competitive team processes, as documented in the case. Make sure you include highlighted data from your Data Gathering Document that you created in Module 2.Your ERD must be clearly labeled, and should not contain any M:M relationships or multi-valued attributes.Follow all standards and practices as we discussed during the lectures.Updated sample SQL code based on your ERD that will be used to begin creating your database and tables. Demonstrate your ability to make sophisticated use of information including the case study document, text materials, and other resources. You will utilize file transfer protocols (FTP) to both download and upload files to a website, database, or repository to begin building your database in the next module. Updated sample code must be saved in *.txt or *.sql format.
database implementation, computer science homework help

Businesses Doing Pandemic Planning to Ensure Survival in Pandemics Research Paper

Businesses Doing Pandemic Planning to Ensure Survival in Pandemics Research Paper.

For this activity, address the following:State your Research Topic, Objective/Purpose, and Research Question(s).Who would be the population for your study? What would constitute an appropriate sample?What methods would be appropriate for collecting data?Why are these methods appropriate/effective?What is an alternative method of data collection for this question/these questions?Why is this also appropriate?Which method do you think is better? Why?Return at least once later in the module week to review two or more of your classmates’ variables. Provide feedback to a classmate that has not received any. Once all classmates have received feedback, you may provide additional comments to others.
Businesses Doing Pandemic Planning to Ensure Survival in Pandemics Research Paper

PSY 605 Ashford University Adolescent Development Research Paper

PSY 605 Ashford University Adolescent Development Research Paper.

Selecting an Age Group/Developmental Stage for the Final Paper
This week, you will begin preliminary work on your final assignment in the course, Integrating the Field of Developmental Psychology: A Review of the Literature, which is due in Week Six. To begin, select an age group/developmental stage from the list below:Infancy and toddlerhood (0-3 years)Childhood (3-12 years)Adolescence (13-18 years)Young Adulthood (18-40 years)Middle-Late Adulthood (40+ years) In your paper, clearly identify the age group and developmental stage selected. Describe the important physical, emotional, cognitive, and social features of that age group. Analyze that developmental stage from the point of view of at least three developmental theorists (For example, but not limited to the viewpoints of; Piaget, Freud, Erickson, etc.). Summarize the theory you find most useful to explain that developmental stage.In the creation of the paper, support your selections and conclusions with reasoned arguments. A minimum of three peer-reviewed articles are required for this paper.The paperMust be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.).Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least three peer-reviewed sources. These may include the required articles for the assignment.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
PSY 605 Ashford University Adolescent Development Research Paper