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Authors note For my portfolio the two minor assignments that I decided to put in were my argumentative paragraph on the play Macbeth, and my personal language and literature essay. The major piece of work that I have put in the portfolio is my Macbeth essay. The reason I chose these pieces was because they were the three that I feel were the most interesting, two that I had the best success on, and one that I struggled on. The piece of work that I did the best on was my Macbeth essay. I chieved the goal that I had set for myself to get, which was a 70% on the essay.

I feel that the reason I was able to achieve my goal was because I was able to explain my points well and I did not wait to the last minute to complete the essay. The reason I decided to put my personal language and literature essay in was because it was my first grade 11 university essay and it was also my worst. By doing this essay I realized that I cannot leave all my work to the last minute because I will be unable to get the piece edited, my mark showed this. The last piece of work that is in my portfolio is my argumentative paragraph on the play Macbeth.

I decided to put this piece of work into my portfolio because I feel I did alright on the assignment, but I had the ability to do better. Throughout my grade 11 English course I have learned a great deal about what I need to improve on more and what I have already improved on throughout the semester. The writing skill I need to improve on most is my spelling and grammar. On all of my essays I have gotten the same comment, which usually goes something long the lines of “need more editing” or “need more proofing”.

Based on this I believe that to achieve a higher mark in my grade 12 English class next year I must do this better. Another part that I need to improve on is staying in the present tense. This was another comment on all of my essays, whether it was by my teacher, or a student editing my essay. I have trouble staying in the proper tense in my essays because I have difficulty remembering this. I also seem to write in the past tense because it makes the most sense. I feel this is the major reason.

It is hard to get it through my head that I need to write about something that already happened in the present tense. This is hard for me to do because when we talk to one another if we are talking about something that has already happened we say it in the past tense. Although I have parts I have to improve on I also have positives to look at as well. There were a few parts of some of my essays that were well done. These parts were the organization and the topic and concluding sentences.

I feel the reason I was ble to do well on these parts is because I took my time on the topic and concluding sentences, also I feel that I was able to set up a good solid outline that helped guide me through the organization part of things. These were the two major factors why I did get the mark I wanted on my Macbeth essay as well as the argumentative paragraph. I also feel these are the two most important parts of the essay, and with a little more work on my spelling and grammar I will and higher mark that I will be proud of. be able to achieve a much better

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Child Stuttering

PART 1

Steps of Assessment

The assessment of childhood stuttering often depends on the theoretical standpoint of the clinician. Some therapists believe that stuttering is a learned behavior and will usually assess it by using this standpoint (Berquez &Kelman, 2018). There are main features that are linked to the occurrence of stuttering and these include repetitions, prolongation as well as blocks. Other features are facial grimacing and body movement as well as speaking on inhalation. Children usually reveal different responses to the occurrence of stuttering and these include fear of loss of self-control as well as the fear of the listener reaction.

Individuals differ for the severity of symptoms and it is important for the physician to observe this. The assessment usually begins with the referral of the child suffering from the problem and this may be from the parent or the teacher of the child (Berquez & Kelman, 2018). After this, the initial appointment is set up, this involves the process of investigation, and this allows the therapist to adjust to the style of the child involved.

The next step will involve informal observations of factors such as posture, social skills, the way the person speaks and the extent of stuttering. The physician will then be given a case history of the child and this will enable the physician to see things from the point of view of the complainant (Berquez & Kelman, 2018). Different aspects of personal information also need to be derived and these include development milestones, history of speech complainant, current management of speech problems and familial history of stuttering. These factors will assist the therapist to reach a final decision.

Understanding the Natural History of Childhood Stuttering

It is important to understand that in many circumstances, the speech of children will often improve without any interventions but in a majority of situations, intervention is necessary. The outcomes of stuttering children may often depend on the child as well as parent and family factors. Children who have language impairment and distortion errors are less likely to improve. Therefore therapists need to consider the concerns that are expressed by children as well as their parents in regards to interventions.

Risk Factors Related to Childhood Stuttering

It is necessary to understand that there are various risk factors associated with the occurrence of childhood stuttering. Male children are more likely to have problems such as stuttering. Children with hearing problems also have probable cause for stuttering. Parent factors also have a major role to play in childhood stuttering and children who have a family history of speech and language problems have a high probability to acquire stuttering. In some situations, children who lack parental support may also be vulnerable to stuttering tendencies. Such factors may have a major role to play in hampering speech and language development.

Five-Step Plan for Treatment

The treatment of stuttering in children will follow a five-step module.

1. Providing a relaxed home environment for the child, therefore, providing opportunities for the child to speak freely (Nippold, 2018). The parents should set time aside to talk to the child and connect emotionally.

2. Restraining from negative reactions when the child stutters and the parents and teachers should learn to react normally when the child stutters as this will give the child confidence.

3. The parents should speak to the child in a slowed and relaxed manner and this can help reduce the feelings of pressure on the child.

4. Listening attentively to the child when he or she speaks and do not try to complete the child’s sentences (Nippold, 2018).The child needs to be assured that they can communicate successfully even when stuttering occurs.

5. Talking openly and honestly to the child concerning stuttering when he or she brings up the subject. It will assure the child of parental support, which is important if healing is to occur.

Proposal for Supplemental Therapy Ideas

1. The child can be enrolled in stuttering therapy and this can help the child to learn ways of minimizing stuttering when speaking such as speaking slower, regulating breathing as well as slow progression from single-syllable responses to longer words (Nippold, 2018).Therapies will also help to address the anxiety that such a person may feel in different situations.

2. Drug therapy can also be effective and this involves the use of medication to deal with the problem of stuttering in the child (Nippold, 2018). However, this has not completely proven effective in dealing with child stuttering.

3. The clinician can also advise the parents to institute the use of electronic devices in dealing with the condition (Walsh et al, 2018). These devices include hearing aids, which may help to improve the fluency of the child and therefore controlling the condition of stuttering in the child.

PART II

Video Explanation

Script

Me: Does anyone have a problem understanding what child stuttering is?

Peter: I understand what it is but I am not quite sure what brain activity occurs during stuttering?

James: Research evidence reveals that there are different rates of hemodynamic activation patterns during speech production of fluent and stuttering children

Ann: Does that mean that there is a relationship between brain activity and child stuttering?

Me: That is very much possible

Ann: What are some common signs of stuttering?

James: It includes an abnormally high frequency of stoppages in the speech which take the form of repetitions of sounds and syllables as well as prolongation of sounds

Peter: These symptoms usually have a negative effect on the behavior and social outcomes of the child

James: What actions can be done to help deal with stuttering?

Ann: Therapy is the best treatment for stuttering and this can include speech training for the patient.

PART III

Final Course Reflection

One major aspect that stands out in this particular case is the use of therapy in the treatment and control of childhood stuttering. Therapy has an important role in teaching the child concerning speech control and assisting the child to master their pronunciation. It has been proven that therapy helps to reduce the frequency of stuttering and decreasing the tension and the struggle of stuttering moments (Carr & Zebrowski, 2017). It has also been proven that through speech therapy the child also learns better communication skills that include eye contact and phrasing. After a thorough evaluation of the child, the speech therapist will devise the most suitable therapy plan for the child aiming at achieving speech objectives.

References

Berquez, A., & Kelman, E. (2018). Methods in stuttering therapy for desensitizing parents of children who stutter. American journal of speech-language pathology, 27(3S), 1124-1138.

Carr, M., & Zebrowski, P. (2017). Child and parent perspective of effective and ineffective therapeutic alliance during treatment for stuttering.

Nippold, M. A. (2018). Stuttering in preschool children: Direct versus indirect treatment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(1), 4-12.

Walsh, B., Usler, E., Bostian, A., Mohan, R., Gerwin, K. L., Brown, B., … & Smith, A. (2018, September). What are predictors for persistence in childhood stuttering?. In Seminars in speech and language (Vol. 39, No. 04, pp. 299-312). Thieme Medical Publishers.

Weidner, M. E., St. Louis, K. O., & Glover, H. L. (2018). Changing Nonstuttering Preschool Children’s Stuttering Attitudes. American journal of speech-language pathology, 27(4), 1445-1457.