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Whether you realize it or not, you’ve been a consumer all your life. The types and costs of your purchases have changed over time

Whether you realize it or not, you’ve been a consumer all your life. The types and costs of your purchases have changed over time. Can you help me understand this Sociology question?

The Consumer Decision-Making Process
Whether you realize it or not, you’ve been a consumer all your life. The types and costs of your purchases have changed over time, but you’ve learned from watching others and experiencing the sensation of choosing an item and making the purchase. What you may not realize is that you’ve likely followed a consumer-purchase process.
For this assignment, you will do a three-part deep dive into the consumer decision-making process.
Part One. Complete the following:

Identify and discuss the process, taking care to explain each step. Walk your reader through each step of the consumer purchase process, defining each step.
Choose a major purchase that you plan to make in the future (e.g., a vacation, a car, a smartphone, a computer, a Hermes handbag, a horse, etc.).
Apply each step to your purchase (e.g., identify why you find yourself making this purchase, perform an information search, evaluate alternatives using a table, make a choice and justify it, and so forth.).

You are not expected to actually make the purchase, so you may predict the outcome, as opposed to actually describing it.
Part Two. In this section, you will identify and analyze the factors that have influenced your actions and decisions throughout the process. These include:

Personal factors that affect your perspective (e.g., faith, age, lifestyle, location)
Pricing and personal accounting
The type of purchase—functional versus hedonistic
Family influence
Ethical considerations
Image
Ease and place of purchase

Part Three. For this final section, synthesize your findings and analysis from Parts One and Two. Consider the following questions: What factors are strongest and least likely to change your purchase decisions? What factors are more variable? How can marketers use these insights to attract new customers and deepen relations with existing ones?
Your paper should meet the following requirements:

Be 10-12 pages in length.

Whether you realize it or not, you’ve been a consumer all your life. The types and costs of your purchases have changed over time

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp An interdepartmental work process in a hospital is a structured set of coordinated activities among various departments in a hospital that transform inputs into outputs. Processes are the strategic resources of a hospital which if managed to deliver outputs provide a competitive advantage. Processes seldom operate in isolation and need to be considered in relation to other work processes that influence them. In some situations, processes require observance to a specific sequence of steps. Well defined processes assist an organization in defining accountabilities, internal controls and work standards for compliance and consistent performance. All work processes are interdependent, that means the last step of one process, starts another. For example receiving results of an investigation test makes the last step of the investigation process but it leads to the first step in the admission or discharge process. Every smaller process usually feeds into another process which is often a part of larger processes. The patient flows through a series of processes during his journey in the hospital. A process has the following characteristics: A starting point and an end point. This is the scope A defined group of users who will probably be a group of patients with similar characteristics or needs. This is sometimes called the slice A purpose or aim for the outcome Rules governing the standard or quality of inputs throughout the process It is usually linked to other processes It can be simple and short, or complex and long The reason many organizations fail to adequately address and document their processes, as it is believed that everyone within the organization completely comprehends these processes. In a complex organization as hospitals employees have a broad or high level understanding of certain process flows, and a few know definite details of a couple of processes. But seldom do all employees have a reliable understanding of any one process and how it drives the affected parts of the organization. Work process evolve over time, with changing organizational needs i.e. employee turnover, expansion, introduction of new technology etc. It would be foolish if a doctor treats a patient without understanding the patient’s medical history. The hospitals are businesses with ever evolving work processes yet these operate without continuously assessing applicability of work processes or without understanding why and how certain work processes evolved. Different Work processes in a Hospital? In an organisation as complex as hospitals a number of work processes are operating at any point of time. These work processes operate at different levels as intradepartmental and interdepartmental. A work process which seems to be as simple as providing a medication by a nursing staff to the patient also involves a defined work process which if not followed can lead to serious consequences. A slight deviation in work processes leads to inefficiency at some or the other area of the process. The work process in a hospital can be divided on the basis of functional areas such as Medical and non-medical processes. Medical processes involves all the processes which involves any level of medical or paramedical professionals and patients. Non-medical processes include all the administrative and supportive processes which contribute to the functioning of a hospital and providing care to the patients. Medical processes include all processes such as medical consultation, nursing, medication, investigations, surgeries etc. these are the processes which contribute to the medical care to a patient. Apart from the medical processes a number of non-medical processes also operate in a hospital. These processes can be as simple as providing a suitable diet to the patient to as complex as moving a patient from ward to operation theatre. All these non-medical processes operate in conjunction with medical processes and involves all sort of professionals. Non-medical processes also involve a number of administrative processes operating at back end of hospitals. These processes include billing, admission, patient transfers, discharge etc. All these processes also operate in conjunction with medical processes and thus a delay in either of these can result in serious inefficiencies. The processes in the hospital can also be divided as Interdepartmental or intradepartmental. Interdepartmental processes as name indicates involve processes which operate with two or more departments in conjunction with each other. Intradepartmental processes are the processes which include all the processes within a single department. The hospital are the most complex organisation employing people with lowest to highest educational qualification. All the employees need to work in coordination with each other to deliver efficient and effective patient care. These work processes not only involve the staff but also depend on the patient being treated. The number of work processes operating in a hospital tend to increase with increasing number of patient and technology involved. These processes also tend to change due to involvement of large number of stake holders. Thus a clear understanding about the work processes operating in the hospital is very essential for all stake holders involved in the process. Maintaining a clear guideline for the employees about a work process is very essential to ensure an efficient delivery of service. Standard operating procedures need to be developed with minutest detail about a work process. However developing Standard operating procedures does not suffice the purpose of efficient and guided work process. Clear observation and action with slightest deviation is required to maintain quality and efficiency of care. Managers in a hospital should be able to acknowledge the change in the work process as work processes in a hospital are widespread and has a very high tendency for deviation due to involvement of numerous handoffs. Deviation in Work processes in a hospital not only leads to inefficiency or poor quality of service but also lead to dissatisfaction among the patient who are already in the state of despair, thus slight deviation in work processes add to their dilemma. The dilemma is high if the employees involved in the process are themselves not aware about what needs to be done or who is responsible for action. The Medical processes if well-defined results in a better clinical outcome while other processes in the hospital improve patient satisfaction. As the demand of healthcare is increasing day by day, demand for better services is also increasing at an equivalent pace. The patient visiting hospital not only demand good care but also efficient and better services. In addition to satisfy a patient for his demand of good care, hospitals are these days facing increased challenge for satisfying another cadre of customers known as attendants and visitors visiting the hospital with the patient. These people are observing each and every activity in the hospital and are very important critic about the hospital processes. The important processes which increase the anxiousness of the patients and visitors are administrative which they can easily observe and criticize. The processes include admission process, discharge process, interdepartmental patient transfers, diet delivery etc. Admission process starts after the consultant decides an admission for the patient for continuous observation or procedure. The moment consultant orders an admission the patient joins the queue to get admitted and obtain a suitable bed for him. The patient at the time of admission is already anxious due to the pain or suffering he is bearing which gets increased if the admission process is slow and takes long time. The patient satisfaction score keeps on falling down with increasing delay in the admission process. The admission process in the hospital is an entry point for the patient in an IPD which as perceived by the patient involves only the front office department. In reality the admission is a process which can be delivered with efficiency only if other departments involved in it function as expected. An efficient admission process involves better bed management which can be achieved only after understanding the complexity of the system. Another process which proves to be a pain for the patient and attendant is interdepartmental patient transfers. This include the transfers between ICU and wards, OT and ICU/Wards, between different wards etc. The patient after receiving information for the transfer of the patient is generally in a state of anxiousness as each state has a consequence attached to it. In case the patient has been ordered a transfer from the ICU to Wards the anxiety of the attendant and patient increases as the family members and relatives of the patient are curious to know the state of the patient. Also any patient in ICU is considered to be in a serious state endangering life. After the patient is ordered a transfer to the ward there is a relief for the family who expects their patient to be out without delays. The interdepartmental transfers are important for the patient and the hospital in terms of finance as well. As the bed occupied by the patient in the ward or the ICU is lined up to be allotted to another patient in need. Also the charges for the bed could not be recovered from the patient if the delay in transfer is on the part of the hospital. The same is the case for the patients who do not want to lose money in case their patient recovers a downgraded care. NEED FOR IMPROVING WORK PROCESSES A smooth and uninterrupted patient flow is desirable for an efficient and effective utilization of resources and revenue generation in the hospitals. Renowned obstructions to “patient flow” in hospitals include: Difficulties in gaining admission to inpatient beds (i.e. inefficient bed management or insufficient bed capacity) The congestion in the emergency department. Incorrect retention of patient beds. Need for improving different administrative processes associated with patient flow arises for efficient and effective management of hospital beds and other resources. The effective management of hospital beds is essential if the growing demand of inpatient beds is to be met. With the limited supply of the medical resources and excess of demand, the hospital beds are in short supply. As the gap between the supply and demand of the resources reduces with each passing day, efficient utilization of available resources by means of an effective bed management is the need of the hour. To ensure a steady supply of beds for incoming patients, the processes for patient flow need to be improved to attain an optimal care. As discussed in today’s time with increased expectations of the patient for good care and better services, efficient processes leading to steady flow of the patient which contributes to an improved patient satisfaction, better reputation of hospital and a faster turnover rate leading to higher revenues for the hospital is most essential requirement. The need to improve work processes in hospitals has arisen of late because of Present day patients who are: Well informed and knowledgeable: Today’s patients are not completely dependent on the healthcare provider to decide for the service or care to be provided. With increased use and penetration of internet patient are well informed and gain knowledge about each and every aspect of care. They demand to know disease profile, treatment administered and side effects. They are also curious about various other processes and of the inefficiency of these processes in terms of money and time lost. Value seekers: today the patient ask immediate attention in services. They have become more demanding and are not ready to adjust. They voice their dissatisfactions and opinions about the quality of service in medical care but also about the non-medical areas. The availability of various forums on the internet and media has transferred the power to the consumer. Cost conscious: patient not only compare the prices of the services provided but also compare the value they got through services. The customers are not ready to accept a low quality service at any cost it comes. Possess preferences: patients today have a range of preferences which they expect to be addressed by the hospitals. The hospital are expected to indulge the patients and attendants in various decision making and other services. Desire customized services: With the increasing paying capacity of the patients with increasing income and improvement in insurance coverage, they are demanding customized services from the hospital in order to make their visit and stay at the hospital more pleasant. To acquire and retain new patient hospitals are expected to deliver fast and better services. Perform continuous analysis: Patient grade a hospital on a number of measures or factors and are in a state of continuous analysis for the same. These include Cleanliness of the premises and facilities. Latest and cutting edge Technology available Staffs’ behaviour and mannerism while providing services to the hospital. Time spent by the care givers to impart patient information. Action taken by the hospital for the suggestion given Clarity and transparency of the hospital billing system Systemic nature of the work. Profitability of the hospital increases with increase in the number of loyal paitients because: Lower cost of services: loyal patients are easier and cheaper to serve as they are familiar with the services and facilities, thus do not demand much. They are also less likely to make mistakes. Increased sales: loyal customers reuse the services and tend to progressively increase the consumption thus improving sales. Less price sensitive: as the relationship between the patients and hospitals strengthened over a period of time they become less price sensitive and are willing to pay a premium for better services. They are also less susceptible to competitors appeal as they are much more satisfied with the hospital. Favourable word of mouth: the use of advertising in the hospital industry is minimal as designing an advertising campaign for services seems to be too desperate for the patients. The publicity for the hospital can be obtained by creating a positive and meaningful experience for the patients. Word of mouth publicity is the best medium of publicity available as it clearly demonstrates the satisfaction achieved by the patients through the hospital services. This enables a hospital to create a positive brand image in the market. What is work process mapping? Improvement efforts in health care have generated a variety of quality improvement and risk assessment methodologies such as, Healthcare Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, PDSA cycles, Lean and Six Sigma to name a few. A common pre requisite of these approaches is to understand the existing system before implementing improvement strategies. Any organization cannot evaluate, measure or improve its performance without properly understanding of internal processes. Most effective and a pre requisite to understand all the work processes operating in a hospital is process mapping. Before improvements can be recognised for a process, a process’s anatomy should be understood. Process mapping is therefore a central component of quality improvement efforts in healthcare. Process mapping is a visual depiction of the work process. It displays the steps involved in a work process for a better understanding of work flows or for recognizing improvement opportunities in a process to reduce cycle time, avoid duplication of effort, prevent errors and reduce handoffs. There are different forms of process maps with different levels of detail. A process map mainly focuses on who is responsible for a step/action, in what order and how long does it takes to complete a step/process. It depicts when and where important decisions are made. It represents the entire process from start to finish at a detailed level of inspection, allowing for exploration to optimize the workflow. Process mapping also involves data collection that is done during the mapping process and while improvements are being made. The data collected are the real power of the process map. A visual of the work process shows a sequence of steps, but capturing and tracking the data is what tells the true story. A process map can be used to identify gaps between what is actually happening and what has been determined to be the ideal process. It is a work in progress used to track potential improvements in a process by providing visual representations of the process before and after the changes are implemented. Process mapping requires cooperation and coordination, and promotes a better understanding across functional areas in a hospital. Another important benefit is the communication occurring between the staff, enabling them to observe and understand how their roles are interdependent. This results in a better acceptance of the accountabilities and contributions of each staff to the process. Process mapping can provide a clear understanding of the work process which helps to identify prospects for improvement. Important enhancements can be made to improve workflow by eliminating insignificant or inefficient steps or combining steps in a process. Apart from depicting the present state, process mapping is a useful tool to create a diagrammatic depiction of the ideal process. Prior to implementing major system upgrades process mapping can be used to restructure or reorganize the work process to support the fulfilment of the overall goal. Process Maps gives everyone a wider outlook of what is actually happening. It has a potential to improve team work as it promotes ownership of the process and increases staff involvement in designing of processes. It is a moderately quick and inexpensive tool to employ, the main cost being the time obligation by the individuals. Process maps are used to improve understanding of a process, to produce ideas for process enhancement or motivate discussion, build communication, and document a process. A process map often highlights problems, bottlenecks, duplication, delays, or gaps. Process maps help to establish process margins, process possession, process accountabilities, and efficiency measures or process metrics. Process maps are effective at improving process understanding during training. Process maps are not limited to a one department or function but are required for the holistic approach to hospital functioning. Essentials of a good process mapping First and foremost requirement to achieve a good process mapping is that Stake holders of a process should supply the information regarding the process which needs to be mapped should understand and support the reasons for the mapping exercise. The process map thus developed should be organized in a way that it enables all stake holders to clearly understand the process. Thirdly, the information assembled in the map should be verified with the stakeholders and validated. The stake holders work directly within the process and have a better knowledge about the facts of a process. In order to map a process cooperation from all the stake holders is the prime importance to receive good inputs required for mapping the process to a perfect precision. Apart from knowledge the stake holders are in a better position to inform about the problems encountered in a particular process and also the solutions which need to be looked upon for improving the process delivery. The stake holders are sometimes too afraid to inform about the process due to a fear of downsizing. It is very important for the organisation to win the confidence of the employees. The fear of losing their jobs may prevent the employees from responding to the call of process mapping. It is important to inform the key stake holders about the objective of the process mapping exercise to obtain relevant information about the process. Most of the process mapping exercises fail as these do not consider the importance of stake holders in the process and only concentrates on the observation of the process. This approach omits the important information which required to be obtained for effective results as the stakeholders are assumed to perform simple tasks which can be logically deduced without their help. This limits the mapping exercise to analytically structured display of overviews. The process maps permits managers to actually analyse a process and then deduce a new process and implement it for the work process in association with the stake holders. Obtaining cooperation from the stake holders and learning from the facts provided by them are two different things that are required to build an effective process map. The person building the map has to deduce specifics about a process by breaking down the process into the elements. As previously discussed specific details about a process cannot be obtained without involvement and cooperation of the stake holders. To gather specific details about a process we need to focus not only on the process but rather on the individual items that are processed. Process maps are not detailed because of the mapping technique. They become detailed because the process is detailed. They record reality and put us in a position to effectively understand and improve that reality. To assure that data is actually valid, we need to verify our data from the stake holder involved in that work, at the work place, one step at a time or while observing it being done. When there are a large number of stake holders involved in the same work process, data should be collected from the most skilled. If a work process is followed through each step of the process while observing it at the work place then most of the faulty data is eliminated. Illustration of process maps We can illustrate the process maps using the following: System Map – Informal and Formal Top Down Chart Block Diagram – Logic Flow Left to Right Block Diagram – Responsibility Matrix Block Diagram – Cycle vs. Process Flow Process Chart Work Flow Diagram Swim Lane, or Deployment, Chart State Change Chart The System Maps are very useful when evaluating the systemic interplay between processes. Informal System: It provides indicators to areas that cause concerns and delivers useful margin analysis. Its powerful root cause analysis and visual links guide process improvement efforts and leads to a conclusion within a short span of time. Formal System Map: It represents a wide view which recognizes the process and the stakeholders’ necessities. It provides an early suggestion of functional gaps and assists in arranging them. The Formal System Map explains which stake holders provide which feedbacks to the process and defines high level activities in the process. This is called the SIPOC model, for Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer. When developed in concurrence with a thorough gap analysis, actual data makes a convincing case for change. Top Down: The chart provides an excellent starting place. Three to five main activities that occur in process are described in the start. These are the “macro” steps. The “micro” or detailed steps that establish each of these macro steps are then analyzed. This gives us a thorough description of what is being done in the process. Block Diagram: It is a flexible tool. It is so flexible that unlimited variations can exist. The commonly used formats include the Logic Flow, the Responsibility Matrix and the Cycle vs. Process Time charts. Logic Flow: It represents the work process flow from left to right. This ordinary depiction eases understanding. The employment of key decision points makes the diagram valuable. The decision shapes and arrows allows interpretation of activities to follow for decision “yes” or “no.” Responsibility Matrix: It simplifies the understanding of responsibility for each activity. Managers use this tool to determine and allocate roles and responsibilities clearly. In the matrix, the columns represent the activities and the rows represent the functions. The Cell connects the activity and the function using a symbol such as a solid dot (full responsibility) or a circle (involved). Managers uses the letters such as R, A, C, or I for the same. These represent responsible, accountable, consulted or informed. Cycle vs. Process: The chart indicates the difference between “clock time” and “touch time” for activities in a process. The chart combines the flow of work left to right with timing information of each activity. The chart highlights the areas where there are severe delays. The tool is simple yet supports a substantial impact for improvement and change. Flow Process: The chart, also called an Activity chart, provides thorough task-level information. It looks at specific value-added steps and irradiates potential non-value-added steps such as transportation, delay, rework, inspection, or storage. This view provides understanding about the steps and challenges they add to the total process. In combination with the Cycle vs. Process chart, it exposes reasons for difference between elapsed time and transformation time and facilitates activity based costing. Work Flow: The diagram demonstrates movement of goods, people or information. The tool communicates spatial relationships. It identifies the area of bottlenecks in the process. Swim Lane: The chart, also called a Deployment chart, identifies three questions, who does what and when. It lists the functional participants on the left and clarifies what each function does and their relations. It also determines areas and timings of hand-offs. It provides a wide perspective to cross-functional teams to clear an understanding of how they interact. State Change: The chart allows brainstorming. By capturing “what state” information of each step, it mainly focuses on the customer needs. It is Strategic in nature as it investigates the requirements of activities rather than the method of performing these activities. Process Mapping in Hospitals Process mapping is a simple exercise. It is one of the most potent ways for multi-disciplinary teams to recognize the difficulties from the patient’s view, and to identify prospects for improvement. The patient is the only person who experiences the entire journey of hospital visit and stay. Process mapping helps the managers to appreciate this experience and an improvement team can take improvement steps based on facts rather than their opinions about a work process. Process mapping helps to identify the areas of improvement which will have highest impact on patients and staff satisfaction. It helps managers and their teams to set targets and measures, and identifies methods of testing ideas before implementation. Process mapping in a hospital enables the management and staff to visualize complexity in work processes which then enables them to brainstorm and thus improve the system and processes for efficiency. Process mapping is required for hospital to impart a clear information to the employees about work processes and thus imparting knowledge at the time of induction and training. It improves the connectivity of the staff to the work processes who then are able to deliver the same with improved efficiency. The problems in the processes which are otherwise considered trivial by the management can be addressed and the complexity of the process can be explained, this improves the confidence of the staff in the management who earlier believed to be demanding extra without putting an effort to improve. A clear identification of the bottlenecks and problem areas help the management take improvement steps towards implementation. It also helps management to keep a track of improvement. Regular exercise of process mapping enables them to identify the areas of further improvement. The management can take suitable efforts by identifying key areas for improving the quality of care delivered to patients while bringing a rational approach to work processes and contain the spiralling expenses. The hospitals can apply various methodologies available in other industries for improving the processes but process mapping is an initial step which requires to be established to understand the process completely before implementing improvement steps. While reducing cost of services and improving revenues is desirable by management, process mapping can be used to address the issues of quality, satisfaction and safety over cost. Delay in service cost hospitals loss of quality and satisfaction in addition to monetary losses. This loss is mainly because of the absence of standardization of the process. Process mapping enables management to address the issue of standardization of processes thus enabling improvement. As hospital is a complex organisation with a large number of departments and staff with different qualifications and knowledge working together there is a problem of duplication of efforts. With process mapping this duplication of effort can be eliminated by identifying the areas of problem. The process mapping can also enable a hospital move towards a human centred environment involving both the staff and patients thus improving the delivery of efficient and acceptable care to all. Process mapping also enables the staff to understand discipline and developing relationships with managers and directors which is very important for an organisation to run efficiently. Process mapping followed by an improvement exercise can save a lot of money for the hospital which will surpass the cost of putting an effort for the same. Thus to summarize, mapping a patient’s Journey provide us with: A start point for an improvement project, which can be tailored to suit organisation style An opportunity to organize multi-disciplinary teams of all areas and line of work and provides a sense of ownership, accountability and responsibility An overview of a complete process which helps the staff to appreciate, the complication of the system for patients. For example, number of stints the patient has to wait unnecessarily or the number of Handoffs in a process. It helps us to identify the areas for testing the ideas of improvements that are likely to have the most impact on the improvement, It motivates the staff who normally do not have an opportunity to contribute to service organisation, but who really know how things work An event that is collaborative and involves all the stakeholders to provide their views and ideas. A process map which is easy to understand and highly visual. 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The American Persona Political Science Project.

I’m working on a political science project and need an explanation to help me study.Define what makes it means to be a member of American society. Do Americans maintain a distinct belief system in comparison to foreign nationals? Can someone who is not born here develop a belief system that is distinctly American?How does the American Persona guide this nation’s foreign policy?Does the American Persona require any alteration or is does it work for the United States?Embedded within the American persona is a belief that the U.S. was not solely an experiment in republican government, but a nation blessed with superior principles and institutions, which in time would be adopted throughout the world. American policy makers have maintained an idealist ideology in order to formulate foreign, as well as domestic policy, though its foreign policy is based inherently on realist dogma. U.S. foreign policy is thus utilized as an avenue in which to promote American ideals, combining practical capacity for realizing the evils of man, yet continuing to remain devoted to the idealistic notions of the American success story. Can you define the “American Persona?” State from your perspective what it means to be an American. There is no correct way to pursue this assignment. This is a personal statement. Review the readings if you need additional foresight about this subject.YOUR TASK FOR THIS PAPER IS TO DO THE FOLLOWING:Define what makes it means to be a member of American society. Do Americans maintain a distinct belief system in comparison to foreign nationals? Can someone who is not born here develop a belief system that is distinctly American?How does the American Persona guide this nation’s foreign policy?Does the American Persona require any alteration or is does it work for the United States?ALL OF THE FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS MUST BE FOLLOWED. THE PAPER MUST BE:TYPED! Three pages (coversheet not included). NOTE: You can type till your heart’s content.The paper should have 1-inch margins with a font size of 11 or 12 and be double-spaced.Written well in your own words.Papers must be submitted according to the posted due date on the course calendar.Send via Canvas!PAPER LAYOUT: Students should organize their papers in the following manner:Coversheet: Paper title, name, class, section number, e-mail address and instructor’s name.Introduction: Begin your paper with an introduction that tells the reader how your paper is going to be laid out. Never assume the reader already knows about the subject you are writing about. Tell the reader (Dr. T) what you are writing about all while thinking about the following phrase “Here is the path I’m taking you down and here is why!”Body: This is the “guts” of your paper.Conclusion.ABOUT CITINGThe last section of your paper should contain a bibliography of reference materials used for this paper. There are various style formats available for use, including APA, Chicago, etc. Students need only to utilize the suggested style when listing their resource materials.
The American Persona Political Science Project

Tried Using A Calculator and Got It Wrong Ratio and Capital.

20152014Current assets    Cash and cash equivalents$ 3,003$1,795    Accounts receivable, net3,2003,122    Inventories2,6942,986    Other current assets1,8141,566Total current assets$10,711$9,469Current liabilities$ 4,901$5,889  Calculate the current ratio and working capital for 3M for 2014 and 2015. (Round current ratio to 2 decimal places, e.g. 1.25 : 1.)
Tried Using A Calculator and Got It Wrong Ratio and Capital

Causes and Types of Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA)

Cerebro-vascular accident Introduction Cerebrovascular accident or CVA as it is commonly called is defined as the unforeseen death of some of the cells of the brain because of lack of the supply of oxygen to the brain. This occurs when the flood flow to the brain is hindered by blockage or some rupture of an artery going to the brain another common term used to denote a cerebro vascular accident (CVA) is stroke. The most common symtoms of a cerebro vascular accident vary depending upon the area of the brain affected. The commonly presenting symptoms of a stroke are weakness and/or paralysis of any one side of the body with either partial or complete loss of wilful movement or sensation in the arm or leg or both. Other associated problems can be speech difficulties and weakness of facial muscles which causes drooling. Tingling sensations and numbness of the limbs is a common occurrence. Cerebrovascular accidents which involve the base of brain can cause imbalance, visual imparity, trouble in swallowing, breathing difficulties and loss of consciousness. Patho-physiology A cerebrovascular accident or stroke can be classified into two broad categories- Ischemic stoke Haemorrhagic stroke Ischaemic stroke When a blood vessel like an artery supplying to the brain is hindered by a blood clot resulting in obstruction of the blood flow to the brain, ischemic stroke is said to have occurred. This occurs in two ways. One, called as a thrombotic stroke, occurs in an artery that has already narrowed. A clot may form in this artery causing stroke.this accounts for 80% of all cases of cerebro vascular accidents. Second, called as an embolic stroke or central embolism occurs when a clot breaks off from another part of the body and travels thrugh the circulation to reach the brain. 10-15% of people diagnosed with CVA fall under this category. Haemorrhagic shock Sometimes a blood vessel in the part of brain becomes weak and bursts causing blood to leak in the brain cavity. This can occur in patients with certain defects in the blood vessels of brain and is called as haemorrhagic shock. Such defects include- arterio-venous malformation (AVM) or aneurysms. The cause of vessel bursts can be high blood pressure. Haemorrhagic strokes might even occur in patients on blood thinners. A patient who has ischemic stroke can develop bleeding and change to haemorrhagic shock. Signs and symptoms The side effects of stroke rely on upon which some piece of the cerebrum is harmed. Sometimes, an individual may not realize that a stroke has happened. More often than not, side effects grow abruptly and all of a sudden. Be that as it may, manifestations may happen on and off for the first day or two. Manifestations are normally most extreme when the stroke first happens, yet they might gradually deteriorate. A cerebral pain may happen if the stroke is brought about by draining in the cerebrum. The cerebral pain: Starts abruptly and may be extreme May be more regrettable when you are lying level Wakes you up from slumber Gets more terrible when you change positions or when you twist, strain, or hack Different manifestations rely on upon how serious the stroke is and what a piece of the cerebrum is influenced. Manifestations may include: Change in readiness (counting lethargy, obviousness, and trance state) Changes in hearing Changes in taste Changes that influence touch and the capacity to feel torment, weight, or diverse temperatures Clumsiness Confusion or loss of memory Difficulty gulping Difficulty composing or perusing Dizziness or strange feeling of development (vertigo) Eyesight issues, for example, diminished vision, twofold vision, or aggregate loss of vision Lack of control over the bladder or insides Loss of offset Loss of coordination Muscle shortcoming in the face, arm, or leg (normally just on one side) Numbness or shivering on one side of the body Personality, temperament, or passionate changes Trouble talking or comprehension other problems Stroke and nervous system When you have an ischemic stroke, the oxygen-rich blood supply to some piece of your cerebrum is diminished. With a hemorrhagic stroke, there is draining in the mind. After around 4 minutes without blood and oxygen, mind cells get to be harmed and may bite the dust. The body tries to restore blood and oxygen to the cells by augmenting other veins (corridors) close to the territory. Recuperating after a stroke may feel like an overwhelming errand. In addition to other things, your mind must relearn aptitudes it lost when it was harmed by the stroke. Late research, however, demonstrates that the mind is amazingly strong and equipped for adjusting after a stroke. This implies that recuperation is more conceivable than beforehand suspected. On the off chance that blood supply isn’t restored, lasting harm ordinarily happens. The body parts controlled by those harmed cells can’t work. This loss of capacity may be mellow or serious. It might be transitory or perpetual. It relies on upon where and how a significant part of the cerebrum is harmed and how quick the blood supply can be come back to the influenced cells. Life-debilitating complexities might likewise happen. This is the reason it’s critical to get treatment at the earliest opportunity. Recovery relies on upon the area and measure of mind harm created by the stroke, the capacity of other sound ranges of the cerebrum to assume control for the harmed regions, and restoration. As a rule, the less harm there is to the mind tissue, the less inability results and the more prominent the possibilities of an effective recuperation. Stroke is the most well-known apprehensive system–related reason for physical inability. Of individuals who survive a stroke, half will even now have some handicap 6 months after the stroke. You have the best risk of recovering your capacities amid the initial couple of months after a stroke. Recovering a few capacities, for example, discourse, comes gradually, if by any means. About a large portion out of every other person on earth who have a stroke will have some long haul issues with talking, comprehension, and choice making. They additionally may have changes in conduct that influence their associations with family and companion. Right sided hemiplagia and resolving dysphagia Hemiplagia Hemiplegia is loss of motion of one side of the body. Hemiparesis is shortcoming of one side of the body and is less extreme than hemiplegia. Both are a typical symptom of stroke or cerebrovascular mishap. One may consider how stand outside of the body can get to be incapacitated or powerless after a stroke. Uneven loss of motion or shortcoming happens when a stroke influences the corticospinal tract of one side of the mind. The right half of the mind controls the engine capacity of the left half of the body. The left half of the cerebrum controls the engine capacity of the right half of the body. Therefore when one side of the mind is harmed, it causes stand outside of the body to be influenced. Dysphagia Dysphagia is a regularly reported grimness after stroke, yet its accounted for frequencies are broadly discrepant; going somewhere around 19% and 81%.The vicinity of dysphagia has been connected with an expanded danger for aspiratory complications and even mortality. There is rising confirmation that early discovery of dysphagia in patients with intense stroke decreases these muddlings as well as diminishes length of clinic stay and general medicinal services expenditures. A precise appraisal of the occurrence of dysphagia and its expanded danger for pneumonic outcomes in the stroke populace will be basic to guide the outline of future exploration meaning to survey advantages of dysphagia mediations. Cerebral, cerebellar, or mind stem strokes can debilitate gulping physiology. Cerebral sores can intrude on intentional control of rumination and bolus transport amid the oral phase.Cortical injuries including the precentral gyrus may create contralateral hindrance in facial, lip, and tongue engine control, and contralateral bargain in pharyngeal peristalsis. Cerebral injuries creating debilitations in subjective capacity, for example, focus or specific consideration might likewise impede control of swallowing.Brain stem strokes are less normal than cortical injuries yet bring about the biggest gulping trade off. Cerebrum stem sores can influence vibe of the mouth, tongue, and cheek, timing in the trigger of the pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal height, glottic conclusion, and cricopharyngeal relaxation. Regardless of injury area, in light of the fact that stroke is more basic in the elderly, typical age-related gulping could further compound stroke-related dysphagia. The elderly poststroke patient may never again have the capacity to make up for ordinary changes in skeletal muscle quality that diminish mastication or lessen lingual pressure. Therefore, single or numerous parts of the swallow may be debilitated relying upon stroke sort and patient age.

ECC Healthcare Law White House & Congress Hottest Economic Policy Issues Discussion

assignment helper ECC Healthcare Law White House & Congress Hottest Economic Policy Issues Discussion.

hello, this assignment must be at least 400 words, with 3 references in APA style, in text citation as well as a reference list.please use this article for additional info in answer, thank youMust post first.The hottest economic policy issues now facing the White House and Congress include government spending levels, the statutory debt limit extension and efforts to “repeal and replace” the new health care law. Largely overlooked in the public debate, however, has been the close relationship between the last two of these issues. The new health care law causes us to reach the debt limit more quickly because of the law’s double-counting of Medicare savings.The recently enacted health care law used savings in the Medicare program to finance a new federal health entitlement.But at the same time, the government claimed that the Medicare savings produced an extension of Medicare solvency, in turn reflected in the issuance of more debt to the Medicare Trust Fund.In effect, the savings were double-counted — once as a means of offsetting the costs of the new entitlement, a second time as a means of financing future Medicare benefits.Did you favor change or not? Why or why not!
ECC Healthcare Law White House & Congress Hottest Economic Policy Issues Discussion

Pharmacies and Child Vaccinations Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Vaccinations train the immune system in the body to fight against infectious diseases. They contain a dead or weakened pathogen that will not cause any symptoms of the disease. The immune system will continue to produce antibodies due to the foreign antigens on the surface of the pathogen. Memory cells are produced and will remain in the body so when the same antigen triggers an immune response it will be faster and the pathogens are destroyed.(Pappas, 2010). The World Health Organisation have stated ” Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available, saving millions of people from illness, disability and death each year.” (World Health Organization Regional office for Europe, 2019) Vaccinations not only protect individuals who have them but also the people who surround them as the disease is less likely to occur if less people can catch the disease. This is called herd community. The more people are vaccinated the less likely it is for people to catch different diseases. (Pappas, 2010). For example, in the United states since the MMR vaccine was introduced it became unlikely for children across the country to have these diseases. However negative speculation in the media about vaccines particularly MMR members of the general public to become wary and some have come to the belief that vaccinations are not necessary. (Smith et al., 2008). Mrs Hall has seen negative comments in the media regarding vaccinations, particularly MMR and is unsure of whether it is necessary for her daughter Sophie (04/07/18) to receive the vaccinations required at 12 months ( one year ). Sophie received the routine vaccinations that all babies in the UK are given at eight, twelve and sixteen weeks old. (Assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2018) At the age of one Sophie will receive the routine vaccinations: (Assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2018) Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Haemophilus influenzae type B otherwise known as Hib is a type of bacterium that causes several different severe diseases such as: meningitis septicaemia pneumonia epiglottitis These are just some of the numerous infections that people particularly children can develop due to Hib. Meningitis is the most serious illness that can develop as a consequence of Hib bacteria. At least 1 in every 20 children can die as a result of contracting meningitis from Hib bacteria. Despite the high statistics of children that survive many suffer from long term conditions such as hearing impairment and physical and mental disabilities. The symptoms of Hib depend upon the infection that is developed from Hib bacteria for example if the infection was meningitis the symptoms may include headaches and vomiting whilst if it was pneumonia the symptoms may include coughing and having difficulty in breathing. (nhs.uk, 2016) Meningitis ” Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges).” It can become fatal quickly if not treated fast enough. Meningitis can lead to septicaemia ( blood poisoning) and permanent damage to the nervous system. It can appear either as a viral or bacterial infection, of the two bacterial meningitis is more dangerous. The symptoms of meningitis include: a fever vomiting headaches a rash seizures fatigue There are other symptoms of meningitis and can appear in any order, however not all symptoms turn up. Meningitis vaccines can be used as protection against certain strains of meningitis. (nhs.uk, 2019) Pneumococcal Infections The bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia causes pneumococcal infections which can cause septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis. In the most severe cases they can lead to long term conditions and death. People that are most vulnerable to these infections are babies, seniors and people with long term illnesses. Pneumonia is one of the illnesses that is caused by pneumococcal infections. it is a bacterial infection that can cause the tissue in the lungs becoming inflamed. Symptoms of pneumonia can develop over one or two days. These can include: coughing – producing thick yellow, green, brown or blood stained mucus breathing difficulties fever Increased pulse chest pain These symptoms are common. The more severe symptoms can include: coughing up blood headaches fatigue nausea being short of breath muscle and joint pain disorientation The Pneumococcal vaccine helps to protect against pneumococcal infections and is offered as part of the routine immunisation for children at 8 weeks, 16 weeks and 12 months. Adults over the age of 65 will receive one shot of the pneumococcal vaccine whilst people with long term conditions may receive the vaccine every five years. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines one for children under two years called PCV whilst adults over the age of 65 will receive the pneumococcal vaccine PPV. The vaccine should not be given if people have a fever or an allergy to one or more of the ingredients in the vaccine whilst females who are pregnant or breast feeding should not have the vaccine. (nhs.uk, 2019) Measles Measles are a viral illness that spreads quickly and is most common in children. However it clears up between 7- 10 days and is not very serious. Once having measles it is unlikely that you will get the virus again. Symptoms of measles appear around 10 days of being infected with the disease and can include: runny nose, sneezing cough sore, red eyes a fever small greyish white spots on the inside of the cheeks A few days later after the symptoms a brown-red rash will appear and spread across the body. Complications can occur and lead to more severe illnesses like pneumonia. Common complications that can occur are: diarrhoea and vomiting, which can lead to dehydration middle ear infection, which can cause earache eye infection inflammation of the voice box infections of the airways and lungs (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and croup) fits caused by a fever Less common complications can include hepatitis, meningitis and misalignment of the eyes. There is a greater risk if a pregnant female contracts measles as it can lead to miscarriage, stillborn, premature birth or a low birth weight. (nhs.uk, 2018) Mumps Mumps is also a viral infection that can be very contagious. Mumps causes painful swelling on the sides of the faces under the ears. Other than the swellings symptoms of mumps can include: headaches joint pain high temperature nausea abdominal pain Mumps is not a very serious illness but it can lead to more severe diseases like tonsillitis, meningitis, swollen testicles and ovaries. However these conditions improve once the infection passes. (nhs.uk, 2018) Rubella Rubella otherwise known as German measles is a disease that causes a spotty rash which people normally recover from within 7 days. Complications occur when a pregnant female contracts the disease which can lead to miscarriage or problems after birth. The main symptom for rubella is a red-brown rash that is easily spotted after 2-3 weeks of contracting rubella. Other symptoms of rubella can include: aching fingers, wrists or knees a high temperature of 38C or above coughs sneezing and a runny nose headaches a sore throat sore, red eye Measles, Mumps and Rubella can be prevented by taking the vaccination MMR at or around 12 months and a second dose at around 36 -40 months ( 3 years 4 months). (nhs.uk, 2018) Vaccinations and the media In recent years, the rate of vaccinations has been vastly influenced by both the media and literature, whether the information is positive or negative. The anti vaccine content causes concern for members of the general public particularly parents with young children. This leads parents to consider whether vaccinations are completely necessary. However, despite the growing concern of a small percentage of parents believing in anti vaccination, a vast majority believe the benefits outweigh the risks. Modern vaccines are safe and cost effective and the side effects that occur are mild at best and short lived. The most severe side effect is likely to be an allergic reaction to one or more of the ingredients in the vaccine. This is incredibly rare with ‘ less than 1 in a million’ (Giroir, Redfield and Adams, 2019) (Vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk, 2019) NHS (2019). The more people vaccinated the rarer the disease becomes and even those that have not been vaccinated are less likely to contract the disease as the people around them are immune to them. This is called herd community. (Pappas, 2010).However due to the increasing concern of side effects, parents are less likely to have their children vaccinated, which can lead to the increase of these diseases occurring, for example the global measles outbreak. The vaccine for measles is part of the MMR vaccine and requires two doses. However for the last several years, the vaccination for the first dose has stopped at around 85% globally, whilst the second dose stops at 67%. According to the WHO a 95% global coverage is needed to prevent outbreaks. (World Health Organization, 2019). However the controversial thoughts in the media and forms of literature discourages parents from inoculating their children not just against MMR but various types of diseases. For example, social media. Brunson 1 found peoples’ decisions are influenced heavily through what is called the people ‘s network as they are more likely to look at social media and therefore base their decisions on what they read on online blogs, twitter or face book regardless whether the information is true or false. (Wachob and Boldy, 2019). For instance MMR and its link to autism. It began with the study by Dr Andrew Wakefield in 1998 who claimed that MMR might cause autism or bowel disease. However since then his work has been discredited and his title as a doctor has been rescinded. (nhs.uk, 2018). In addition, critics pointed out flaws in his study such as his small sample size. (Sathyanarayana Rao and Andrade, 2011). Furthermore several studies over the last nine years such as the Danish study (Hviid et al., 2019 )conducted with over 650,00 children have proven there is no link between autism and MMR. Despite this the publicity gained caused fear to grown and stop both children and adults being vaccinated, and the measles outbreak that occurred has been linked to the decreased rate of vaccinations. (Sathyanarayana Rao and Andrade, 2011).This shows how an incorrect portrayal of vaccination led to a global negative impact regarding vaccinations. On the other hand, despite the negative speculations regarding vaccinations the WHO continue to campaign about global vaccination and many other articles and journals continue to be published about the positive effects of vaccinations for instance ‘This Is The Truth About Vaccines’ published by the New York Times highlighting the positive impact of vaccines and the negative impact the decrease of vaccines can and will have. In addition the negative portrayal of vaccines highlights the importance of healthcare professionals in giving guidance to the public and providing the accurate information to increase the uptake of vaccinations. As pharmacists are at the frontline and one of the first points of contact for the public, they could provide leaflets on up to date information regarding vaccines, the diseases they protect against and their side effects in particular. As side effects are one of the main concerns of parents. This would help ease parents and comfort them knowing the benefits which heavily outweigh the risks. In addition pharmacists could provide several routine vaccinations that both adults and children require to increase the uptake of vaccinations to make it easier for the public to access as the GP are often booked particularly around the summer season due to holiday vaccinations. The collaboration between GP’s and Pharmacies would increase the uptake of different vaccinations similar to the flu vaccination. (Collaboration between GPs and pharmacists key to increased flu vaccine uptake, 2017). In conclusion, Mrs Hall should have Sophie inoculated. Routine vaccinations are important in babies and young toddlers as they protect them against diseases. References Collaboration between GPs and pharmacists key to increased flu vaccine uptake. (2017). The Pharmaceutical Journal. [online] Available at: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/news/collaboration-between-gps-and-pharmacists-key-to-increased-flu-vaccine-uptake/20203796.article?firstPass=false [Accessed 10 Jul. 2019]. Vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk. (2019). FAQs about vaccines | Vaccine Knowledge. [online] Available at: http://vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk/faqs-about-vaccines [Accessed 10 Jul. 2019]. Brunson EK. The impact of social networks on parents’ vaccination decisions. J Pediatr 2013;131:1397-1404. [ Accessed 10 Jul.2019]. Giroir, B., Redfield, R. and Adams, J. (2019). Opinion | This Is the Truth About Vaccines. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/06/opinion/vaccines-autism-flu.html [Accessed 10 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2016). Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hib/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2019). Hib/MenC vaccine. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/hib-men-c-booster-vaccine/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2019]. Hviid, A., Hansen, J., Frisch, M. and Melbye, M. (2019). Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism. Annals of Internal Medicine, [online] 170(8), p.513. Available at: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2727726/measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-autism-nationwide-cohort-study [Accessed 10 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2018). Measles. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/measles/ [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2019). MenB vaccine. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/meningitis-b-vaccine/ [Accessed 6 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2019). Meningitis. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/meningitis/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2018). MMR vaccine. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/mmr-vaccine/ [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2018). Mumps. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/mumps/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2019]. World Health Organization. (2019). New measles surveillance data for 2019. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/measles-data-2019/en/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2019]. Pappas, S. (2010). How Do Vaccines Work?. [online] Live Science. Available at: https://www.livescience.com/32617-how-do-vaccines-work.html [Accessed 4 Jul. 2019]. Pearl, e. and Joseph, b. (2014). Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) (for Parents) – KidsHealth. [online] Kidshealth.org. Available at: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/hib.html [Accessed 5 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2019). Pneumococcal vaccine. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/pneumococcal-vaccination/ [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019]. nhs.uk. (2019). Pneumonia. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pneumonia/ [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019]. Pottinger, H., Jacobs, E., Haenchen, S. and Ernst, K. (2018). Parental attitudes and perceptions associated with childhood vaccine exemptions in high-exemption schools. PLOS ONE, [online] 13(6), p.e0198655. Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198655

UCLA The Social Science Role of Globalization Essential for Life Essay

UCLA The Social Science Role of Globalization Essential for Life Essay.

I’m working on a social science Argumentative Essay and need support to help me understand better.

Contrast the role played by globalization in the stories about food told by: 1) Mintz and/or Gupta (“A Different History of the Present”) on the one hand, and 2): Ochs et. al., Reese, and/or Frazier and Gupta (“Tasting Independence”) on the other. Choose at least one reading from the first group and at least one from the second. Do the readings mean different things by the term “globalization”? Use evidence from the text to support your answer. 1200 words
UCLA The Social Science Role of Globalization Essential for Life Essay

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