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When removing the lug nut from a free-turning wheel using a wrench

When removing the lug nut from a free-turning wheel using a wrench.

1- When removing the lug nut from a free-turning wheel using a wrench, why is it best to keep the car tire on the ground rather than first jacking it up ?2- When loading a truck with boxes of varrying weights, is better to load the lighter boxes before the hevier ones ? Discuss 3- Is it possible to predict the strength and deflection of an I-Steel beam and when you have your choice of choosing between an I-Steal beam or L-Steel beam which one will you prefer and why ?
When removing the lug nut from a free-turning wheel using a wrench

ETM419 Aarons Academy of Beauty Technological Changes and Bioengineering paper.

Due date: June 6th, 20191. (2.5 Points) Will technological change make HFE obsolete?2. (2.5 Points) Would it be possible to ‘re-engineer’ the human body when designinglifelike robots?3. (2.5 Points) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the following data onstature (show all your steps in the calculations to arrive at the answers): Stature mm 1650 1760 1665 1720 1810 1690 18504. (2.5 Points) Mr. Smith’s stature is 0.4 standard deviations below the mean stature for US males.a. What percentile is his stature?b. What percentage of US males is taller than he is?c. Suppose the mean stature was 1700 mm and the standard deviation 200mm. How tall would Mr. Smith be?
ETM419 Aarons Academy of Beauty Technological Changes and Bioengineering paper

MATH 160 CC Mod 13 Music Influences a Rat Ability to Run a Maze Discussion.

Progress CheckUse this activity to assess whether you and your peers can: Compare distributions to determine whether the primary goal of random assignment is achieved.Learn by DoingUse the rubric at the bottom of this page as a guide for completing this assignment.DirectionsSubmit your work:Carefully read all sections below (beginning with the Context section and ending with the Prompt section).Commit a good-faith effort to address all items in the Prompt section below. Please be sure to number your responses.Complete your assigned peer reviews:After you submit your initial good-faith attempt, continue to the ANSWER(S) page and review your instructor’s response. But please do not submit your corrected work yet.Within three days after the due date, return to this assignment and complete your assigned peer reviews (directions (Links to an external site.)).Submit your corrected work:We all learn from mistakes (our own and our classmates’ mistakes). So please do not immediately correct your own mistakes. If possible, wait until you receive feedback from at least one of your peers. If necessary, correct your work and resubmit the entire assignment. Your instructor will only review and grade your most recent submission, so please do not refer to a previous submission.ContextA high school student named David Merrell did an experiment to examine if music affects the ability of rats to run a maze. The explanatory variable was exposure to music. He had three treatment groups: one group listened to heavy metal music by the group Anthrax. A second group listened to Mozart. The third group never heard music. This last group is the control group.The response variable was the average time (in seconds) to complete three runs. Every week the rats ran the maze three times. Merrell recorded each rat’s average time for the week.Direct controls of potential confounding variables:Merrell trained all of the rats to run the same maze.He gave all mice the same amount of food and light.All mice had the same approximate age and weights.During the treatment phase, the rats were exposed to the treatment for the same amount of time, e.g. rats heard music at 70 decibels for 10 hours a day for a month.Results:By the end of the month the Anthrax group was much slower at running the maze. The Mozart group was much faster. The dotplots below show average run times for the first and last week of the experiment. Each dot represents one rat. The X-value is the rat’s average run time for the week. (Each rat ran the maze 3 times each week.) The blue line is the mean run time for each treatment group.If you are curious, here is a video of Merrell explaining his experiment.Merrell explaining his experiment (Links to an external site.)(captioned version (Links to an external site.))PromptMerrell claims that he randomly assigned rats to treatment groups. Does the data shown in the dotplots above support his claim? Why or why not?RubricPeer Reviewed AssignmentPeer Reviewed AssignmentCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAddressing the Prompt8 ptsFull MarksAll parts of the Prompt are addressed. Answers are correct. Statistical vocabulary is used appropriately. Writing is clear and thought process is easy to follow.5 ptsPartial CreditSome parts of the prompt are not addressed, are incorrect, or are unclear.0 ptsNo MarksThe prompt is not addressed.8 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIndividual Penalty0 ptsNo individual penalty-1 ptsIndividual penalty.Please see the instructor comments for more information.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePeer Reviews2 ptsFull MarksYou completed all assigned peer reviews (maximum of 2). For each peer review, the points you assigned in the rubric are appropriate. You included comments explaining the score you posted in the rubric. If you deducted points in the rubric, your comments explain what the author needs to do to earn a higher grade when the teacher grades the assignment.1 ptsPartial CreditCommitted a good-faith effort to provide a high-quality peer review, but many necessary instructive comments are missing.0 ptsNo MarksNo peer review provided or the comments are not instructive.2 ptsTotal Points: 10
MATH 160 CC Mod 13 Music Influences a Rat Ability to Run a Maze Discussion

Introduction Cultural trends and preferences are the dynamic phenomena of society, and their changes often reflect the existing current political, economic, and other features of state development. In South Korea where much attention is paid to the national identity, a definite trend has been formed, which determines the country’s course towards the globalization of its cultural interests. This movement is called the Korean Wave, and today, it is one of the most significant Asian trends. National food, music, fashion, and some other aspects are part of this process. In this regard, a special term is proposed for consideration – soft power, the form of governing activities, which implies pressure on citizens’ interests through unobtrusive attraction and the formation of sympathy in certain issues. Neighboring Asian countries, in particular, China and Japan also experience the impact of the Korean Wave, which is one of the examples of soft power. This paper aims to identify the tendency of forming cultural interests for the development of South Korea’s political and economic relations with China and Japan, two other powerful states of the Asian region. The Concept of Soft Power and Its History Despite the fact that soft power is not the official form of political interaction and influence, this concept of governance is quite widespread in various world regions, including Asian. The characteristics of this phenomenon and the main ways of achieving goals are not distinguished by aggressiveness or violent forms. Nevertheless, this process is of great strategic importance, shaping the impact on people’s thinking and their perception of reality. In this regard, it is required to determine the history of the emergence of such a political direction and its examples. The Peculiarities of Soft Power and Differences from Coercion The use of appropriate forms of influence on the mass consciousness may allow the formation of a national opinion to change people’s preferences. Nye considers “two diplomatic strategies, which are public diplomacy and soft power” (419). In the first case, specific ideas are promoted through negotiations, discussions, and the mutual exchange of experience. In the case of soft power, no agreement is made, and any impacts are unobtrusive and hidden. Nye compares this concept with “hard command power” and argues that it is no less important today when much depends not on military capabilities but an opportunity to find the suitable ways of interaction (166). As Iwabuchi notes, the term in question was first proposed to the world community in 2004 (419). In its classical understanding, it meant the unobtrusive dissemination of the ideas of one country among others through the introduction of cultural interests and values. Thus, the history of soft power is not long; however, this concept finds its application in the modern world. In comparison with coercion, soft power does not accept any violent means of imposing certain ideas. Hashimoto gives an example of the forced teaching of the Japanese language, which took place in the provinces of Taiwan and Korea in the middle of the last century (66). In that case, the main emphasis was placed on coercion. However, in the context of soft power, this practice is impossible, and any manifestation of aggressive behavior cannot be considered in the framework of this concept. It is the type of ideological propaganda, the method of influencing the mass consciousness through the gradual and sometimes unobtrusive imposition of certain specific values, as a rule, cultural ones. Thus, there is a significant difference between coercion and soft power. The Key Features of Soft Power in the Context of Cultural Preferences Based on the aforementioned facts, soft power is carried out due to the influence of one nation on others through the imposition of cultural values. To begin with, as Nye remarks, it is required to evaluate the available cultural sources of strength (168). It may be literature, music, films, and other forms of art that are designed to attract a large number of people. In order for certain genres to become popular abroad, thereby affecting the consciousness of other people, it is crucial to ensure that they contain some accents that need to be conveyed. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, to form the status of strong military power, it is possible to make films where a certain country plays the role of a winner with significant resources. Any other forms of the cultural manifestation of soft power may include drawing public attention to a specific issue, forming a mass opinion about the superiority of one nation, and other methods of influence. Soft Power in the Leading Asian Countries in Terms of Economic Development In the countries of the Asian region, this phenomenon has existed for a long time. With the help of the aggressive policy of the Japanese language dissemination described by Hashimoto, local states sought to gain the greatest influence (66). The author also argues that the main competitors in the fight for advantage in this region are China, Japan, and Korea (Hashimoto 35). The economic development of these countries is at a sufficiently high level, and the desire to win the status of the state-leader is due to the additional opportunities offered by superiority. As Iwabuchi notes, each of them has certain areas that are considered the most powerful, and the development of specific markets can be a priority in the rivalry process (421). For example, Japan is known for its technological innovations and quality engineering industry. The sphere of robotics in the island state is also developed significantly, which can also form the strategy for the further development of the country. However, other countries in the region are also able to provide decent competition at the expense of cultural forces. McGray mentions a significant contribution that Japan has made to the development of the film industry, thereby rendering competition to European and American companies (45). Dominance in this area helps the island state to create certain trends and has a positive effect on its economic development. In China, despite its rich history and long development path, there are some problems regarding the issue under consideration. Its resources “are still limited compared to those of the U.S. and Europe because of China’s lack of intellectual freedom, its political corruption, and the issues surrounding the Taiwan Strait” (Cho and Jeong 454). Despite strengths in other industries, a cultural sphere here is underdeveloped. Therefore, it is essential to take into account all these features defining soft power as a complex mechanism for controlling mass consciousness in order to achieve leadership. The Korean Wave and Its Place Among Current Trends in Soft Power The Korean Wave is the cultural phenomenon of the mid-1990s, representing a surge in the world interest in the culture of the Republic of Korea (Lee and Nornes 75). There are many opinions concerning what exactly caused its appearance. For instance, there is an assumption that Korean culture was a successful substitute for Japanese one that experienced difficulties at the beginning of the 90s is still in search of a new path of development. Previously popular samurai films, books filled with Zen-Buddhism and Shintoism, and animation and manga-style comics have become trivial for the audience and have lost most of their appeal. The History of the Korean Wave The term the Korean Wave, or Hallyu, was first introduced in China in the mid-1990s by Beijing journalists who were surprised by the rapidly growing popularity of the Korean entertainment industry (Lee and Nornes 75). Initially, this concept was used exclusively in relation to China since Korean cultural products had not yet gained any particular popularity in other countries. However, even today when the Wave has passed almost around the world, it is China that remains the main importer of Korean films, television series, and music production (Lee and Nornes 76). Since the late 1990s, this culture has significantly increased the percentage of its presence in neighboring countries and has penetrated much deeper there in recent years. We will write a custom Term Paper on Soft Power of South Korean Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From 2000 to 2002, the Wave advanced in various parts of Asia, including Southeast and Central Asia. On the whole, the period of formation may be divided for four stages, and the last of them still continues. According to Iwabuchi, “the Korean success stirred neighbouring countries including Japan to extend their cultural diplomacy activities, thereby contributing to the soft power competition” (423). Therefore, it can be argued that an active penetration stage was achieved. The Economic Effects of the Korean Wave and Cultural Trends Popularization The discourse of the Korean Wave has already gone beyond the original cultural aspects and, as Lee and Nornes argue, is involved in “the realms of economics, business, science, and technology” (9). It may be expressed not only in the export of media products but also the influx of tourists who want to learn more about this country. At the same time, not only the neighboring Asian states participate in the process of replenishing the budget of Korea. Lee and Nornes note that the influence of the Wave on the global socio-political picture is also significant, which is reflected in the popularization of fashion trends, music preferences, and other aspects of life (9). Thus, both economic and social factors demonstrate the impact of soft power supported by Korea. The Key Manifestations of the Korean Soft Power One of the main manifestations of the Korean soft power is music. Record companies adapt to certain trends and strive to attract as large audience as possible. According to Lee and Nornes, “the Korean pop music industry in the late 1980s and early 1990s was going through a major transformation” (76). In particular, sad ballads were replaced by vivid motifs, for example, in the hip-hop genre with dance-oriented melodies. The mainstream policy in music production has led to the popularization of contemporary songs not only in neighboring countries but also outside Asia. This cultural sphere has become key in shaping the state soft power. The profit obtained through the sale of the records of popular groups and fashion clothing is significant. Given the fact that due to the development of Internet technologies, many multimedia products are distributed online, the recognition of Korean brands is enhanced constantly. A great influence is also felt in the fashion industry, and Korean designers are trendsetters. Lee and Nornes remark that various shows are tremendously popular all over the world, and the number of views on the Internet is estimated in millions (96). Also, the national cuisine is the important component of the overall idea of soft power. According to Lee and Nornes, “the uniqueness and healthy nature” of Korean food are appreciated throughout the world (47). Such dishes as kimchi, kalbi, daikon, and other food are well-known among the supporters of healthy nutrition. All these aspects form the national soft power that influences the world community significantly. Reactions to the Soft Power of South Korea in Other Asian Countries Since one of the main goals of soft power is to achieve dominance in at least a separate region, Korea implements this policy in large Asian countries, in particular, China and Japan. According to Lee and Nornes, multimedia products (series, films) are very popular in the PRC, and the share of imports of Korean content has increased significantly in recent years (80). Also, China adopts some eating habits, also taking part in the Wave. Despite the fact that Asian dishes have much in common, there are unique aforementioned Korean products, and they are popular with the Chinese. Another sphere of influence is a pop culture that is adopted by both China and Japan. As Lee and Nornes argue, some singers’ and groups’ popularity is typical for only one region, for example, as BoA among the Japanese and H.O.T. among the Chinese, and some (TVXQ) – for both countries (80). As a rule, these performers attract a teenage audience; however, this population group forms a significant fan base. Moreover, adolescents use the Internet more often than others and quickly learning about new multimedia content. All these nuances allow speaking about the indisputable influence of the Korean Wave on China and Japan. However, despite the stable policy of soft power, some attempts were made to stop the Korean Wave in Japan. Lee and Nornes give an example of the anti-Hallyu movement, describing the attempts of the Japanese to hamper the influence of foreign culture by publishing comics against this phenomenon (196). In the future, these comics were reprinted several times and always found interest among the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun. The topic of resistance is sometimes raised quite aggressively because the Japanese value their national culture, and many of them are not ready to give preference to another one. Nevertheless, a large number of the country’s citizens support the Korean Wave, thereby strengthening the policy of soft power. Not sure if you can write a paper on Soft Power of South Korean Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The policy of soft power promoted by South Korea influences the world socio-cultural picture and has a significant impact on neighboring Asian countries, causing both positive and negative reactions. Various cultural trends formed by this state draw much attention to its modern development, and the term the Korean Wave describes the country’s course in popularizing its unique features – national cuisine, music, fashion, and other aspects. Particular influence on China and Japan causes discontent among some citizens, but in general, soft power is implemented successfully, and the significance of this country grows both locally and globally. Works Cited Cho, Young Nam, and Jong Ho Jeong. “China’s Soft Power: Discussions, Resources, and Prospects.” Asian Survey, vol. 48, no. 3, 2008, pp. 453-472. Hashimoto, Kayoko, editor. Japanese Language and Soft Power in Asia. Springer Singapore, 2018. Iwabuchi, Koichi. “Pop-Culture Diplomacy in Japan: Soft Power, Nation Branding and the Question of ‘International Cultural Exchange’.” International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015, pp. 419-432. Lee, Sangjoon, and Abé Markus Nornes, editors. Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media. University of Michigan Press, 2015. McGray, Douglas. “Japan’s Gross National Cool.” Foreign Policy, vol. 130, no. 1, 2002, pp. 44-54. Nye, Joseph S. “Soft Power.” Foreign Policy, vol. 80, 1990, pp. 153-171.

Define the time value of money. Do you believe that the average person considers the time value of money when they make investment decisions? Distinguish between ordinary annuities and annuities due. Also, distinguish between the future value of an ann

Define the time value of money. Do you believe that the average person considers the time value of money when they make investment decisions? Distinguish between ordinary annuities and annuities due. Also, distinguish between the future value of an ann. Help me study for my Management class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

(1) Define the time value of money. Do you believe that the average person considers the time value of money when they make investment decisions? Please explain.
(2) Distinguish between ordinary annuities and annuities due. Also, distinguish between the future value of an annuity and the present value of an annuity.
Submission Details:
Initial discussion board post due by day 4, Thursday 11:59pm EST addressing the question.
You also need to have two other postings throughout the week by day 7, Sunday 11:59pm EST.
While you can post as much as you want your three posts need to be spread over three days to earn full credit.
Click on Create Thread to create your initial discussion board post.
Define the time value of money. Do you believe that the average person considers the time value of money when they make investment decisions? Distinguish between ordinary annuities and annuities due. Also, distinguish between the future value of an ann

De Anza College Art Tympanum Sculpture by Gislebertus Titian Paper

cheap assignment writing service De Anza College Art Tympanum Sculpture by Gislebertus Titian Paper.

This is an informal paper based on any single work of art or architecture by one of the following people or artists:Giotto RaphaelDonatello Leonardo Da VinciBramante MichelangeloAbbot Suger CharlemagneGislebertus TitianBotticelli JustinianJan van Eyck Verrocchio Look up and choose one work by any one of the above listed patrons/ individuals/artists. Your paper should be a minimum of three pages (double spaced) in length discussing that single work. You may discuss the historical context, style, formal qualities, biography of the artist, subject/iconography of the work, or the social context that might have motivated the artist to create that particular kind of image. As well you might discuss aesthetic influences affecting the artist and the influence that the artist then had on others. You certainly don’t have to discuss all these things. You should write about what you find interesting in the work. Be careful to put every thing into your own words. Do not copy directly from another text without giving credit. Do not plagiarize. You don’t need to use footnotes and may instead use endnotes or cite sources within the written text. A short bibliography is appropriate. Remember, this is an informal paper and you don’t need to follow an MLA format. It should demonstrate effort, insight and a conclusion on your part. The important issue here is not how much information you gather but how much critical insight you gain and can demonstrate from that gathered information.
De Anza College Art Tympanum Sculpture by Gislebertus Titian Paper

Were the Greek Dark Ages, really dark?

In this assessment, one will investigate the timeline (1100 – 750 BC), the so-called (Greek Dark Ages), (Dark) being a term loosely used by Greek poets in their prose, to explain five centuries without recorded history. During ones research, one has discovered that this topic is still, like many archaeological topics, (Passionately Debated). One has considered the significants of archaeological evidence gathered from (Greek Iron Age) sites, and scholarly debate on the topic, to put forward opinion to whether this timeframe in ancient Greek history, was indeed dark, shadowed, or a period of enlightenment. 1600 – 1200 BC was a period of particularly strength and growth in southern Greece, the (Late Helladic Culture) dominated the entire Aegean and Cyprus. It is due to the impressive archaeological findings in Mycenae, that we now know and have named this culture (Mycenaean). For reasons not yet completely understood, and variously interpreted by scholars, these Mycenaean towns completely collapsed towards the end of the Bronze Age 1200 BC, and suffered further significant decline during the following early Iron Age. The consequence being the transition into the Greek Dark Ages (AMA 2009: pp15-31; Murray O. 1993: Chapters 3-10). The Collapse of the Mycenaean World: The collapse of the Mycenaean world marked the beginning of a period of (Uncertainty) and changes in the Aegean. Πολλές δεξιότητες φαίνεται ότι χάθηκαν, ανάμεσά τους η γραφή, η ζωγραφική, η λιθοτεχνία και η μνημειακή αρχιτεκτονική, ενώ σημειώθηκαν ριζικές αλλαγές και στον τομέα των ταφικών εθίμων με την εμφάνιση της καύσης των νεκρών. Many skills seem to have been lost including writing, painting, stone art, and monumental architecture. Αρχαιολογικά ευρήματα και φιλολογικές μαρτυρίες τοποθετούν στους πρώτους αιώνες της περιόδου αυτής μετακινήσεις πληθυσμιακών ομάδων, ανάμεσά τους και την περίφημη «ÎºÎ¬Î¸Î¿Î´Î¿ των Δωριέων» , στην κεντρική Ελλάδα και την Πελοπόννησο.Archaeological evidence presents an overall picture of this period, particularly during 1100 BC and partly into 1000Ï€.Î. (δηλαδή κατά τη λεγόμενη “Προγεωμετρική περίοδο”), είναι μια εικόνα ένδειας, με λιγοστές εμπορικές επαφές και καλλιτεχνική έκφραση που περιορίζεται στο επίπεδο της αυστηρά γεωμετρικής διακόσμησης των αγγείων, της ειδωλοπλαστικής σε πηλό και της κατασκευής μικρών χάλκινων ειδωλίων και σπανιότερα χρυσών κοσμημάτων. BC (The Protogeometric Period), as a period of limited commercial trade (Murray O. 1993: Chapters 3-10). Age of Iron: Iron was introduced probably at first for farm implements, such as the plough, smelting and casting takes considerable skill and (Initially) the iron was soft, so bronze weapons remained in favour. However, due to limited trade opportunities, copper was in short supply hence, as iron ore was more abundant, iron implements and weapons grew in popularity as smelting and casting skills improved (Murray O. 1993: Chapters 3-10). Dorian Invasion / Migration: Greek Mythology since ancient times, attributes the Mycenaean collapse to the Dorian invasion and the return of the Herakleidae, this myth spoke about the displaced descendants of Hercules who joined the Dorians to invade Peloponnese and destroy the Mycenaean centres. The Dorians of the Peloponnese and the later colonies, were separated into three sub-tribes: Dymanes, Hylleis, and Pamphyloi. The Dymanes were acknowleged as the oldest original Dorian sub-tribe, the Hylleis were believed to have descended from Hyllos, the son of Heracles, being the sub-tribe from which the historical (The kings of Sparta), Dorian royalty claimed to descend from. Nothing much is known about the Pamphyloi, only the fact that their name literally means (Mix of all tribes). The views of (Modern History and Archaeology) scholars on the authenticity of the Dorian invasion, and its relationship to the Mycenaean collapse, range from a total dismissal of the concept of an invasion, to its recognition as a historical fact. In general, a majority of History and Modern Science scholars, are inclined to adopt an intermediate positions agreeing that the Mycenaean collapse was not an acute process, having both internal and external causes. On the authenticity of the Dorian invasion most scholars now acknowledge that migration did occurred however, it was a substantial mix between Doric and Pre-Doric populations, which became the Dorians of the Peloponnese and their colonies. Archaeological finds and literary, reveal that there were population shifts among the Dorians of central Greece and Peloponnese, and it is probable that the population did decline, though the idea that some parts of the land became totally uninhabited is probably exaggerated (Snodgrass, A.M. 2000; Eder, B. 1998: 225-36; J.L. Fitton, 1996: 48-103; Chadwick 1973: 209-529). The Major Settlement at Lefkandi: Recent archaeology has revealed that there was a major settlement at Lefkandi on the west coast of Euboea during the Dark Age, flourishing and reaching its height of prosperity in the 900 BC. Burial customs changed communal tombs and cremation becoming more fashionable. There is an 800 BC tomb of a hero who is buried with his horses in a heroon, and his bones are contained in a bronze jar inlayed with hunting scenes. Beside him is his inhumed consort, adorned with gold coils in her hair, rings, gold breastplates, and heirloom jewelry, this indicates great wealth and prestige. The region of Thessaly, Boeotia, and Euboea has been shown by archaeology to have possessed a common culture of which the Lefkandi settlement is its centre (M. R. Popham, E. Touloupa, and L.H. Sackett, 1985). The Art and Culture: Archaeologically there have been many craft and pottery finds of figurines made of clay, small bronze figurines and vases, which reveal that the Mycenaeans were gifted potters, artistic expression was restricted to conceptual patterns of which concentric circles were a favourite. The art changed in 1000 BC, from the (Decadent) and laidback style of the Mycenaeans, to the Dorian geometric style, this new style spread out from Athens to southern Thessaly and the Argolis, also to some of the islands. This proto-geometric art developed into mature Geometric art involving numerous abstract patterns such as squares and oblongs in chequer-board patterns, diamonds and crosshatched triangles. Around 800 BC animal figures start to appear in the designs, and about 750 BC bands showing human scenes of life and death are depicted. Rarely have archaeologists found any gold jewellery from this period, but what has been found is of extraordinary artisanship and quality (Hurwitt, J.M.1985: Chapters 1-3). Alphabet: During the Dark Age the phonetic alphabet was created it is alleged, by either Cadmus or Diodorus Siculus. The Phoenicians created a script with 22 characters, a mature form of which was in use by 850 BC, an inscription (Mesha, King of Moab who fought Ahab of Israel) has been found using the 22 characters script; The Ionians started to use this script by 700 BC at the latest. The Greeks adapted some of the Phoenician characters to form a set of symbols for pure vowel sounds, while in Cyprus; the 200 signs of the Linear B script were reduced to about 40 (Miller, F.P. Agnes, F. Vandome, F.A. McBrewster, J. 2009). Homer and Hesiod: [p]In una società senza scrittura in cui la trasmissione della cultura è affidata all’oralità, la poesia è il principale strumento capace di educare le nuove generazioni.Any literary work that survives from the Dark Age period is poetry and not history. One of the poetic works of this period is a (Hymn to Delian Apollo), ascribed to Homer a native of Chios, Ionia, who drew upon an oral tradition relating to the heroic age, which he embellished it with his own genius. His works influenced the Greek psyche of the ideal of manhood, in the character of Achilles, his loyalty and friendship for Patroklos and above all, his placing of honour above long life. Odysseus was another kind of hero – resourceful, cunning, yet indomitable. It is known that Homer was the author of the (lliad), and according to tradition, the (Odyssey) It is agued that Homer was blind and could not write, this may well explain why he was a travelling (Oral Story-Teller), and why his works were not transcribed until well after his death (Dickinson O.T.P.K, 1986: 20-37). Hesiod was a farmer from Askra, on the southern side of Mount Helikon in Boeotia. He lived around 725 – 700 BC. In his poem (Works and Days), he begins by upbraiding a lazy brother and proceeds to give a manual of good agricultural practice, which involves a combination of practical knowledge and astrology. His work also indicates that by his day land could be bought and sold. Hesiod claims that he was inspired by the Muses to write and employs Homeric hexameters and writes in Ionic, which would not have been his native dialect. Hesiod is also credited with writing the poem (Theagony or the Genesis of the Gods) which attempts to provide a systematic account of the early history of the world. In his (Works and Days), Hesiod introduces a theory of human history and the myth of (Five ages of Man), starting with the Golden Age and culminating with his own age, the Iron Age. He ascribes the Heroic age to the period between the Bronze and Iron Ages (West, M.L. 1988). The Dark Age City-State (Poleis): Generally, the regions of Greece were not unified – the exceptions being Attica under Athens and Laconia under Sparta. Each region was divided into city-states or (Poleis). For example, there were twelve city-states in Achaia, and up to thirty in Phokis. In Boeotia, there were fourteen cities each with a population of around 10,000 inhabitants. They formed themselves into a loose federation, but this did not prevent them from occasionally fighting wars among themselves. Greece (1100 – 750 BC), was more forested than present day, and the plains were fertile, subsequently inhabitants were forced to farm marginal land owing to the pressures of population expansion, and this is because Greece has the reputation for being (Thin Soiled); however, the plains did not deserve this description. Every fertile plain contained at least one city, being fortified by towers and walls and placed in a good defensive position and close to water; citadels were often sited on mountain spurs. The Greek city-state (Polis) was a community made of adult male citizens; women and children linked to these males were citizens without political rights, as were non-citizens such as slaves and resident foreigners. All of these occupied a region with a defined or undefined constitution. The city would have a market place (agora) and a place of assembly, which was often also the agora. The citizens were bound together by a sense of community and as a whole, autonomous. There would be frequent wars arising over border disputes or cattle raids, chariots, and horses conveyed armed men quickly to borderlands in order to meet a raid. The strength of the citadels, made it very difficult for one city to conduct a successful siege against another – the time and expense involved being prohibitive, so even small and relatively weak city-states could survive; distances between cities were also not easily covered. Kingship disappeared in most cities by 700 BC, the Mycenaean kingships were sustained by trade; without this, kings lacked the means to maintain retainers. In most cities, the government took the form of a Council of the (Aristoi), which would appoint executive officers, originally for life, but later on for shorter period usually of one year. In the citadels, where there used to be a palace, there now usually stood a temple dedicated to the city’s patron deity. The (Best People) or aristoi were those who owned the richer and more fertile land in the plains closer to city walls. Less well-off people farmed more remote and more marginal land, subsequently because they would not always be able to return to the city every night, they became know as perioikoi or (Dwellers Roundabout). Because the aristoi were much better situated, the gap between rich and poor in these communities widened. The landed aristocracy had more power and prestige within the city-state than the trader did. It is important to distinguish a colony (Apoikia) from a trading station (Emporion). A colony was founded from the beginning as a separate state with a separate government, laws, and constitution; a trading post was a commercial venture under the control of the parent city (Snodgrass, A.M. 2000; Thomas C.G. and Conant, C. 1999: 12-14; Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994: Chapters 1-3). Colonization During the Dark Age: In the past scholars were divided over their interpretations of why there was a period of increased colonization, was it a desire for more land or increased trade opportunities that was the determining factor. The hypothesis that it was the desire for land that was the drive behind the increased colonization is now favored, one author who supports this is (Murray 1993). It is a fact, that the Greeks themselves endorsed this hypothesis of (Land Hunger) as the cause of the increased colonization – case in point, Thucydides states unequivocally that, “Those who had insufficient land, made expeditions against the islands and subdued them”. Towns, from which the colonial expansion spread, were predominantly coastal towns, with insufficient agricultural land, or were incapable of expanding within its boundaries for some reason – they include Achaea, Corinth, Chalcis, Eretria, Megara, Miletus and Phocaea. The economy during 800 BC of Archaic Greece flourished, one side effect of this was a population explosion during the second half of the 800 BC. Limited fertile land was availably and the tradition of dividing land equally between brothers caused problems. Hesiod, in his Works and Days, raises the issue of (Land Hunger). In the epilog to his work Hesiod complains about the division of land between himself and his brother, accusesing him of receiving a larger portion by bribing the aristocratic magistrates. In In his writings Solon’s also deals with the social problems caused by inadequate arable land. Another reason for the foundation of a new colony would be the reduction of political tension inside the ruling aristocracy. A colonys would select a foundeer (Oikistes) selected from one of the best aristocratic families – thereby, removing from the capital city a prospective rival eader. The archaeological records support the theory that there was a substantial (Increase) in the population in Greece during 800 BC. For example, a statistical analysis of datable graves in Attica indicates that the number of graves during the ninth century BC was relatively static, whereas during the period 800 – 700 BC the number increases six fold. It is likely that the population of Attica increased by four times during the first half of the 8th Century, and double again in the second half. Whilst this evidence is not conclusive, combined with other sources it strongly suggests that the population of Attica, and the whole of Greece, (Dramatically increased at this time). The foundation of Zancle (Messina) 730 BC can best be explained by the strategic need to control the straits of Messina and trade with the Etruscans. The foundation of Olbia 645 BC on the northern shore of the Black Sea, Messalia (modern Marseilles), and northeast Spain around the same was probably also motivated by trade in grain, tin and silver. During the 800 BC the Euboean confederation appears to have fragmented, this may be the cause of their colonizing activity. There was a war between Chalcis and Eretria 730 BC, which according to Thucydides split the Greek world into two camps. One speculation is that the war between Phrygia and Assyria that raged 720 – 710 BC sparked off conflict within Greece. It is likely that Lefkandi was the site of Eretria, and the conclusion of the war was its demise. Lefkandi was abandoned and the Eretria was defeated. As this began as a border war between Chalkis and Eretria in Sicily, it is known as the Lelantine War. Samos and Miletos joined the two sides as allies respectively. It was during this war 733 BC that the Corinthians took Kerkyra (Corcyra, Corfu) from the Eretrians and founded Syracuse in Sicily. It is possible that the war also contributed to the wave of emigration that took place in the late 8th Century BC, with settlers moving from the mainland, Ionia, and the islands. The Euboeans subsequently established colonies on the north-west coast of the Aegean. According to tradition, the Olympic Games were established in 776 BC. The site of Olympian in Elis was originally sacred to the Great Goddess, who was subsequently identified with Hera. The date of 776 BC was calculated by Hippias of Elis at a later date by working backwards from the records of victors at the games, but one cannot say with certainty that he got the calculation right (Graham, A.J. 2001). Summery and Conclusion: The phrase (Dark Ages) is placed in quotations because, as with the post-Roman period, there is a debate about just what it means. The phrase suggests a society lost, without art or literature, without the social institutions commonly associated with civilization, and there is archaeological evidence to support both sides of this debate. The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were striking in the material evidence they left behind; clearly, these civilizations were strong, wide reaching, and vibrant. While there are signs of record keeping, much of the surviving language is undecipherable to us today, so we cannot know if they used written language for more than records. We cannot also be completely certain how closely related to ancient Greeks the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were, though they are commonly covered in most introductions to the Greek world courses in Colleges and Universities. When compared, the decay and fall of these two civilizations can certainly make the following five centuries seem like a (Dark Age). Beyond this comparison though, there is also archaeological evidence that areas that may have been proto-Greek and later Greek regions, underwent agricultural difficulties, as well as political conflicts; this has resulted in few remaining buildings or towns for archaeologists to investigate. The dating of Homer and Hesiod to the Dark Ages by most scholars, suggests that they was working within a culture of strong oral traditions, where the ideas and stories of earlier generations was being passed down. Along side this evidence of a creative oral tradition there are images on vases, weapons, shields, and statuary, which demonstrate that art as well as traditions continued to be important, even if strong political and economic centers had faded. Over the five centuries, the philosophical and political groundwork was being laid for the development of the city-state or polis, which would be the foundation for what moderns often consider being (Greek civilization at its height). Therefore, by comparison, 1100 – 750 BC was indeed (Darker) in the (Greek) world, then they had experienced under the Minoan or Mycenaean kingdoms. Like the legendary (Phoenix), after 500 years the mighty Greek civilization arose out of the ashes to influence most of the western civilizations, during the (Golden Ages) that were to follow. Conversely, one feels that rather than seeing this period as one of (Darkness) with little information, we should view it as a period of (Illuminated Transition).

How Democratic Is The Us Constitution Politics Essay

To begin with, the US constitution is a vеry brоad cоncеpt without a bеginning or еnd that includеs so many elements of pоlitics, and dеfying it as a sеt of idеas, rules, regulations and propоsals is a purе generalisation. Hence, it was an arduоus task for mе to write an essay with such a gеneral tоpic as there are sо many aspеcts of the fоrmation of the constitution that neеd a detailed scrutiny in ordеr to have a better percеption and undеrstanding. Nevertheless, in the following essay I will focus on a notion of democratization and what the dimensions arе for a state to be democratic. Later on I will attempt to examine history and outcomes of the creation of the American Constitution by the Founding Fathers. The following speech was addressed by Sir Winston Churchill to the House of Commons directly after the World War II (Publications, 2011): “Many forms of government have been tried, and will be tried in this world of sin and woe. No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government, except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time”. For this purpose, in order to obtain a vivid image of how democratic the US Constitution is we need to define the concept of democracy and what the measurements of a democratic state are – or whether they are democratic at all. According to Rose R. (2009, p.10), every government needs to satisfy the following criteria to be described as democratic such as free elections, freedom of speech, key role players that are accountable to their citizens and who do not act according to their own interests, greater economic prosperity, more equality and so forth. In Dahl’s perspective (1989), there are solely seven dimensions: elected political officials, free and fair elections, inclusive suffrage (the right to vote for virtually all adults, the right to run for public office, freedom of expression, alternative sources of information, associational autonomy (freedom to form organizations). Furthermore, political analysts from Freedom House use the mentioned indicators as a proxy for democracy. Hаving said thаt, there are no precise dimensions that could аssess democratizаtion for it is аn аmbiguous concept with a myriad of interpretations and perceptions. According to the Freedom House data (2012), the United States’ freedom rating is reported to be the 1st in the table. One might cast a doubt on the findings as Freedom House itself is based in the States and thus they are more likely to be biased when it comes down to ranking but let us have a look at the current situation on the whole in the United States. First of all, citizens of the United States have more freedom of speech and expression than citizens of other states for instance Syria or any other country in the Middle East for where anyone who opposes the government gets executed without a trial. As for the States, the situation is completely different – as a prime example we can see that 700 000 Americans petition the White House to secede from the US due to the dissatisfaction with the recent election results. With respect to the mаss media in the Stаtes, it may oppose the government as well. In addition, it drаws the policy mаkers’ аttention and hаs an effect in the sphere of politics аs mаny politicаl proposаls from time to time come out on the covers of newspаpers and mаgazines, emerge from television progrаmmes or in the internet аrticles and so forth. Be that as it may, one article on its own does not make аny difference, but a consensus in the press mаy generate some аctions. Irregularly points of view of some journalists аre sometimes considered by the political leаders and аre picked up to the аgenda. At this point it is important to look at the concept of Constitution and its prehistory and by whom it was originated. Thus what is a constitution? As P. Norton puts it (2010, p.254)”a constitution can be defined as the system of laws, customs and conventions that defines the composition and powers of organs of the state and regulates the relations of the various state organs to one another and of those state organs to the private citizen”. After America’s Revolutionary War the country’s economy was in a tremendous debt that resulted in cutting down subsidies for the poor as well as pensions for the veterans, shutting down local businesses and so forth. Many farmers, which made up three quarters of the population, were forced to auction off their real estate and land for they could not meet their financial obligations. Moreover, thousands of people had to face imprisonment for failing to repay their debts. As a consequence a violent uprising broke out across the country against the government, yet the rising insurrection was ended with the help of a privately funded army. Those rebellions, also known as “founding fathers”, that stood up for their rights and opposed the authorities were the first ones who laid the foundations of the current US Constitution. (Murphy, D., 2001, p.21-31) With the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain the seeds of democracy had taken root. Nevertheless, the state had no government and therefore the new established country was not ready to deal with the potential dangers such as military threats from Spanish colonies fighting from the South who claimed some territories, Native American tribes attempting to protect their land from the intruders, and even France that was requesting repayments of war loans. For over a decade the state was maintained by the so-called Constitution called “the Articles of Confederation”. The above mentioned problems were partly caused by the Articles of Confederation under which all of the states were bound. Due to its principles, Congress was limited in power culminating, for instance, in being unable to regulate commerce amidst the states. In addition, Congress had to enquire the states to gather their forces to raise an army in case it declared a war. Subsequently, being frustrated with a government the framers demanded for a new Constitution written from scratches. Next, a meeting was called which was attended by the representatives of each state where they through long and hard negotiations decided to create the Constitution. The US Constitution is one of the oldest constitutions in the world with its advantages as well as disadvantages. It is a subject of envy as it is unique amidst other constrictions of highly developed countries with a democratic form of government. Nevertheless, one of its main flaws is that the founding fathers attempted to retain the slavery during the formation of the constitution but it was altered within three amendments after the Civil War. Apart from validating the slave trade, they also used a vague language (Fiorina, M.P., 2008, p.41)”that later Americans could interpret according to the needs and beliefs of their age as well as protect the privileged at the expense of the underprivileged – for example, provisions protecting contracts and so forth”. The Founding Fathers used a number of different strategies to create a plan that could suit the voters so that they would accept it. As Morris P. Fiorina (2008, p. 33) put it “the delegates split the difference, compromising between the two sides. When their ideal system was unlikely to win voter approval, they often used vague language that would allow flexibility of interpretation later. With other conflicts, they simply delayed the decision, either by giving someone else the authority to choose or by using language whose implications would be unclear until some time had passed”. Having taken everything into consideration, it is important to say that the framers were not “saints” as they are depicted these day in American schools as they were no different from the elected politicians of today with vested interests. Nevertheless, after the establishment of the Constitution the States improved the economic development as a consequence trade amidst the states showed better results. Secondly, the constitution has led to a unified nation. Finally, a strong executive branch was implemented. Conclusion: To sum up, the concept of democratization is rather ambiguous to assess, yet some political analysts are of the opinion that certain criteria could be satisfied by a state to become democratic such as elected political officials, free and fair elections, inclusive suffrage (the right to vote for virtually all adults, the right to run for public office, freedom of expression, alternative sources of information, associational autonomy (freedom to form organizations) and so forth. As for the Constitution, it was created by the framers (also known as the Founding Fathers) since its previous predecessor “The Articles of Confederation” proved to be insufficient to maintain the government. Since its adoption the economy of the United States improved dramatically leading to a mutually beneficial trade between the states; the nation became more unified and finally a strong executive branch was implemented.