On Monday July 5th, 1852, Frederick Douglass captivated his audience at Corinthian Hall in Rochester, New York with one of the most powerful antislavery orations ever delivered, “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”1 As an African American and former slave himself, Douglass was a crucial component to the Civil Rights movement and the abolishment of slavery. His concern for equal rights sprouted as early as twelve years old, often listening to debates among free blacks in Baltimore, as well as becoming a member of the East Baltimore Mental Improvement Society.
While enslaved, he taught himself to read and write with the patriotic essays and speeches in Caleb Bingham’s The Columbian Orator, which emphasized the power of a speaker’s natural language and delivery, eventually influencing Douglass as an orator. Once Douglass courageously escaped slavery, he became a high-powered abolishment activist in the movement to create equal rights for all Americans. 2 Douglass was invited to deliver the Independence Day speech addressing what the Fourth of July meant for the slaves.3 Instead of celebrating the accomplishments and legacy of America, Douglass strayed away from the norms of the holiday, and instead scorned the current American generation for its failure to provide justice to all American citizens.
His message criticized the present state of the nation and its failure to live up to the promises of the Constitution by allowing slavery in America. Contrary to what the holiday stood for in America, Douglass argued that the Fourth of July, for enslaved Americans, was the one day of the year that represents more than anything else the great injustice of slavery: 5 “What, to the American Slave, is your 4th of July? I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim.” 6 Douglass’ message was vastly different than other Fourth of July orations because it clearly distinguished the contrasting meaning of the holiday between white and black Americans. Although undoubtedly putting great shame on America’s shortcomings, Douglass praised the Founding Fathers for their courageous fight to achieve liberty.
By supporting the Revolutionaries actions to break free from British Rule, Douglass alluded to the similar fight that the American population faced to attain the same liberty that white citizens had. With the same courage the Founding Fathers had to create a free country, the American generation of 1852 faced a similar test to uphold the values of the Declaration of Independence, and liberate American slaves.7 After applauding the Founding Fathers, Douglass acknowledges that the emphasis of his speech is not to give praise, but to call on America to act on it’s own failures and begin to faithfully fulfill the nations oath.8 He asks his audience, “Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us [African Americans]?”9
This rhetorical question Douglass presents, challenges America to reevaluate what they are truly celebrating on the Fourth of July, for it is surely not the freedom in which they claim to have achieved. Douglass asserts that asking black people to rejoice in the “shouts of liberty and equality, hollow mockery”10 and do not respect the courage, and steps the Founding Fathers took to create a free, liberated nation.11 Early on in Douglass’ career as an abolitionist, he affiliated his beliefs to fellow abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison, claiming that the Constitution was a proslavery document.
Despite previously supporting Garrison’s opinion, Douglass changed his views in 1849 and declared the Constitution pledged liberty and freedom to America, and never intended to be a slave-holding document.12 In his speech, he contends, “If the Constitution were intended to be, by its framers and adopters, a slave-holding instrument, why neither slavery, slaveholding, nor slave can anywhere be found in it.”13 Douglass claimed that the Constitution only proclaimed that liberty should be granted to all Americans, and never defined that slavery was an exception to this basic American ideal. In his address, Douglas not only criticized the present generation of American citizens, but also condemned the church for not openly criticizing the allowance of slavery, especially the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
The Fugitive Slave Law recognized slavery nationally by declaring that all runaway slaves captured, by law, must be returned to their slave masters.14 Douglass shared his profound disappointment and bewilderment in the churches for not publicly acknowledging the injustices created by this law. He affirms the law reflects the church to be “simply a form of worship, an empty ceremony, and not a vital principle, requiring active benevolence, justice, love and good will towards man”.15 In the speech, Douglass claims that the American church is hypocritical because it goes against the Christian beliefs they claim to support. Douglass powerfully contends that the American Christian Church’s were an embarrassment to the Christian Gospel and a bad representation of Christian morals. 16 Frederick Douglass’ deliverance of his Independence Day speech contributed greatly to his legacy as one of the most influential African Americans to take a stand against slavery.
Never before this speech had an African-American taken the podium on the Fourth of July and deliver such a powerful, and unforgettable oration as brilliantly as Douglass did. Just as intoxicating as his rhetoric, Douglass delivered his message with the utmost confidence, and dramatization, captivating audiences today who hear the recording of his striking Independence Day oration. 18 “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?” courageously asserted the failures of America, while also paying tribute to the founding American ideals of liberty, and freedom. In his conclusion, Douglass expressed his faith that with continued efforts to end it, one day, slavery will no longer exist. This faith gave him hope that America will achieve the greatness its Founders aspired for:19 “There are forces in operation which must inevitably work the downfall of slavery…I, therefore, leave off where I began, with hope”.20 Douglass was fearless in challenging the moral conflict in America, and went on to give hundreds of other speeches besides his most celebrated “Fourth of July” speech.21 Through his efforts, Douglass awoke a nation that was dying under the restraints of slavery by supplying America with the means to prosper, and truly allowing “All men to be created equal” no matter what race they belong to.
fire protection structure bracing
see attached file
A 1-1/4 inch schedule 40 steel pipe is to be used as a longitudinal brace connecting an 8- inch main to a nominal 6 x 12 wood beam with a single 5/8-inch through bolt as shown below. Assuming that the sway brace assembly fittings are listed for a load of 800 lbs determine the following. What is the maximum allowable load capacity of the following:Maximum allowable load capacity of the brace?
Maximum allowable load capacity of the brace fittings?
Maximum allowable load capacity of the through bolt fastener?
What is the maximum required distance of the bolt from the bottom of the beam? *
Given the layout of the building and sprinkler system in Figure 2.8, indicate which seismic protection features are required and where they should be located. Specifically address longitudinal braces, lateral braces, restraining means, flexible couplings, clearance and seismic separation assemblies. The building, which is located in Boston, MA has a single story and was constructed in two phases. The main building, which measures 120 ft by 90 ft was constructed during phase one. An office addition was added to the complex as a freestanding structure as part of phase two and measures 60 ft by 60 ft.
Assume the Ss for the California area is 28 (0.28 g). Earthquake protection is required for a new terminal at the International Airport, and the foundations are designed to rest on hard rock. Determine Fp values using both the NFPA 13 simplified method and the 2005 ASCE 7 method. Values of ap and Rp are as given in NFPA 13 and in the slides.
Is seismic protection needed for a water-based fire protection system for the high-rise office building located at 175 W Jackson Blvd, Chicago, IL based upon the IBC? Provide all references for your response.
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