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What is the Scientist Practitioner Model?

Is the scientist-practiitioner model the best way to guide the practice of clinical psychology? What is the Scientist-Practitioner Model? The scientist-practitioner model is defined as a training model which integrates science and practice in psychology, where each must constantly inform the other (O’Gorman, 2001). The model was established in Boulder, Colorado, in 1949, at the conference on Graduate Education in Psychology under the auspices of the United States Public Health Services and the American Psychological Association Committee for the Training of Clinical and counselling Psychologists (Jones
Causes Of Animal Extinction Biology Essay. Abstract: This essay discusses about the causes of animal extinction. Animals are sidestepped as we tend to focus more on something that happens to our brethren. However, we also forget that what happen to our species, the human beings, it affects the animals and plants more, as they don’t have the ability to think and manipulate the environment as skilfully as we do. Habitat destruction, uncontrolled hunting and trading spreading of diseases, and drastically changing climates are among the prominent causes of animal extinction. We are exposed to what animals are endangered, we are exposed to how we can conserve them, but we have yet to be exposed to what causes the extinctions, which will roll the ball for further research on how to prevent them. This would be useful, as prevention is always better than cure. Animals are part of our ecosystem, not only they contribute to the ecosystem and help to balance the ecosystem, they also have many uses in our daily lives, as the source of nutrition, researches, pets and trading. But due to human’s greediness, selfishness and also expand in populations, caused the population of the animals to decrease up to the point that they are in danger and eventually disappear from the surface of Earth like Dodo bird and Tasmanian Tiger. Yet, this issue is ignored or sidestepped as we care more of what affect us directly, when we should know that sooner or later, as part of the mammal species, these phenomena will also happen to us. Habitat fragmentation, destruction or loss, unsustainable hunting and wildlife trade, global warming and disease are the factors that lead to animal extinction. Based on AZE’s [1] calculation, endangered species under their observation consist of amphibians (408), birds (217), mammals (131), and reptiles (15). This could be referred to Figure 1 [2] . Figure Habitat Fragmentation One of the main factor of animal extinction is habitat fragmentation, loss or in another word habitat loss. Research had been carried out by Bancroft and Turchin in year 2003, using a series of experiment with grain beetles, Oryzaephilus surinamensis proved that “6% out of 247 populations went extinction” [3] when they carried out the experiment on the relationship between “habitat fragmentation and decreasing food abundance” [4] and the result shown that these grain beetles went to extinction due to low food supplies. This result gives a suggestion that” habitat quality is more important than the habitat size itself”. Not only are that, another study that was carried out by Warren, another researcher, who does research on 13 types of protists in 1996 [5] by applying three levels of habitat destruction of microcosm. As the result, the population of the surviving species greatly declined due to the rising in habitat destruction. As we know, Tropical Rainforest [6] consisted of many precious trees that used as the materials in industrial purpose. Not only for industrial uses, but also as the habitat for variety of species. Due to the huge demand by various parties, more trees had to be cut down to satisfy the demand of the parties. As the result, that inhabitant’s population begin to decrease as there’s not enough place to live and hunt. If this is prolonged, the animal’s species will go extinct. Unsustainable Hunting and Wildlife Trade Another factor that contributes to animal extinction is unsustainable hunting and wildlife trade. This happened in many countries across the world. Many animals were hunted to extinction when the aboriginal Europeans, Americans and Australians developed the “effective hunting technology” [7] . One such animals were hunted to extinction by this is the Dodo birds. Certain bird such as the Eskimo curlew went extinct when they were “relentlessly hunted by the market gunners during their migration”. Some animals were caught for pet trade such as orang utan. These animals are considered exotic and were sold to the people that are interested in this kind of wildlife animal and were willing to pay for it. “In one of the most outrageous cases of simultaneous drug and wildlife smuggling which occurred at Miami Airport in 1993, 312 boa constrictors that arrived from Colombia were found carrying inside them 39 kilos of cocaine. All of the snakes eventually died” [8] … Shows that wildlife not only kept as pet but also for drug trading purpose. Animal such as leopards, jaguar and Guadalupe fur seal were highly favoured for their beautiful furs was hunted to get their pelts and the same goes to tigers where poacher killed them for their body parts which are used in “traditional medicine and aphrodisiacs” [9] . Not only tiger was hunted for this purpose, but rhinoceros and elephants too, were hunted for their tusks. All these items were sold for high price in black market. “Commercial whaling for their meat and oils” [10] had threatened the most of the Baleen whale and several toothed whales species in the world. Whale’s meat is popular among the Japanese and it’s one of their favourite dishes, thus in order to meet the demands in Japan, every year whales was hunted during whaling season. Primates are often captured for research purpose especially in well developed country. They are trade to the biomedical lab with certain price and this biomedical lab will use them as research in finding cure for certain disease. An example of primates that often used in this field is chimpanzees. Even though they are not yet extinct, but they are classified as the endangered species because they are not only used in research but also become the target of the bushmeat hunter. Global Warming The third factor would be global warming. Mother Earth and its residence depend on the seasons for their routines and timings. Mating season, migration, all of it due to the weather. With global warming, the timing of seasons is changing. Some are longer than expected, some are shorter than hoped. This bungled the biological clock of animals that are already accustomed to instinct-based timing and activities. While it seems nothing to us humans, it is consequential towards animals and plants. Migration accelerates.( will expand later) Dehydration, combined with the rapidly vanquishing habitats, causes certain species to vanish.(will expand later) Stuart Pimm, an expert in extinctions and biodiversity at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina stated that species living in the ecological sites are more vulnerable, as they don’t have much choices of places to migrate to when the temperate changes [11] . It is interesting to note that not as expected, the animals living at the polar (North Pole and South Pole) is not as vulnerable as the animals living in other climates, though the poles have experienced seen differences. That is because of the scarce geographical places the endangered species can run to is smaller than them. Dangerously, not only animals in endangered spots that are facing the fatalities. According to biologist Terry Root, of Stanford University’s Center for Environmental Science and Policy, many species are striving to hold on to their current locations. [12] Disease There are two groups of diseases: natural occurrence, which is formed since a very long time and unpreventable, and the other one would be human-induced or mutated. Both would give dire consequences on the species affected, especially in masses. Among the example of human-induced diseases are effects of insecticides. Insecticides are regarded as a low-level dangerous substance, as they tend to prevent high crops loss. However, it also forced pests and infections to evolve. Once evolve, we would need a higher dose of insecticides. In the end, the effects of insecticides in plants will affect the animals that eat them too. Besides that, there are effects that happen not to the animal directly, but towards the next generation. A hen may lay eggs with thinner and fragile eggshells. This, while seem minor, could actually cause a higher risk of survival. In the long run, extinction would not be far in the future of the species. This really did happen. One insecticide, DDT, caused the eagle and peregrine to produce eggs with fragile eggshells, causing the eggs to break when the mother sit on them [13] . How can they be incubated without the mother warming the eggs? How can the mother incubate the eggs without sitting on them, yet when it sits, they will break? These are among the complexities that we don’t comprehend or didn’t put into the equation when we create the insecticide. Too much protection would also be unhealthy. When a species is protected from risks and diseases up to a paranoid level, it causes them to have lower and lower immunity to their offspring. This causes them to be weak and unable to sustain injuries and total fatalities if they ever catch any infections. Lastly under the factor of diseases, are the effects of genetic evolution. While it was not the total annihilation of species, it is still, in a sense, the cause of species extinction, happening due to the chances of survival with the enhanced or reduced ability. Perhaps a smaller or robust body is better adapting during this period of time, whereas speed and agility is more vital during the past. This theory applies to the birds, where during prehistoric times; birds have wider scales of bones while they have smaller lighter body now. Habitat, food consumption, and brain metabolism, all contribute towards genetic evolution, causes the extinction of the older type of species in exchange for a better, new species. Conclusion Thus, it is supported that the evidently seen causes are habitat loss, unsustainable hunting and trading of wildlife, global warming, and finally, infectious diseases. Two of it in which we contributed a lot in making it much worse, and two of the latter in which we have taken part albeit indirectly. Although a little out-dated, this research still hold a whole lot of truth. It is hard to fund more of these kind of research, as we humans are more interested in studying further of subjects that brings more material benefits instead of invisible threats. We are keener on studying on the psychology of potential customers, convenient products, and less consumption of resources. These researches are conducted with good intentions, but obsession of a narrow topic makes us putting a blind eye over other things that matter too, namely, other creatures co-existing with us. Some of the references here were spoken on 2006. Now, it’s 2011. In the span of 5 years, how much have we lose, can you imagine? Causes Of Animal Extinction Biology Essay

Bergen Community College Septic Shock Case Study

Bergen Community College Septic Shock Case Study.

A client is admitted with septic shock. Despite fluid resuscitation, the client’s BP remains 86/30 mm Hg with a HR 120 bpm and UOP of 20 mL/hr. The patient’s weight is 86 kg. The following questions pertain to this situation.Dopamine is ordered to start at a dose of 6 mcg/kg/min; titrate for a MAP of 70. Call if dopamine is titrated higher than 15 mcg/kg/min. Pharmacy delivers a dopamine bag with a concentration of 800 mg/250 mL. At how many milliliters per hour (mL/hr) would the IV infusion device be set?Create a titration table for the dopamine. Indicate the flow rate for each of the dosage rates below:The client’s blood pressure does not respond to the dopamine. An order for Levophed, start at 4 mcg/min, titrate for MAP greater than 70 mm Hg is received. Pharmacy sends an IV bag with a concentration of Levophed 2 mg/250 mL NS. Calculate the milliliters per hour required.Answer: ml/hrShow your dosage calculation below:Titration Table Dosage Rate (mcg/kg/min) Flow Rate (mL/hr) 6 mcg/kg/min 7 mcg/kg/min 8 mcg/kg/min 9 mcg/kg/min 10 mcg/kg/min 11 mcg/kg/min 12 mcg/kg/min 13 mcg/kg/min 14 mcg/kg/min 15 mcg/kg/min Go to Next Page…
Bergen Community College Septic Shock Case Study

Consequences of Abusing the Power of Artificial Intelligence

online homework help Consequences of Abusing the Power of Artificial Intelligence. Throughout the course of the last decade, technology has become an essential tool for completing everyday tasks in addition to large scale operations. From the alarm clock used to wake someone up in the morning, to the car someone drives everyday, technology plays a fundamental role in the lives of most people. Nonetheless, it seems we as a society have just merely scratched the surface of the potential uses of modern technology. Each year, new astounding technological advancements are made which propel the ever growing technology industry and ultimately shape society’s future. Moreover, in recent years, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seemingly become the new and intriguing facet of technology. The ability for machines to mimic human behaviour and make informed decisions has so far proven to be both an exciting and useful tool. However, with the increased demand and interest for such a powerful tool comes increased risk and responsibility. If the developers of future technology are not vigilant towards the volume of AI replacing human tasks and the volume of data given to such machines, the future of humanity as it is currently defined could be in serious jeopardy. To illustrate these potential dangers, we will discuss and analyze what it means to be human and how it could possibly change, the political and societal implications future AI inflicts, and the fear and uncertainty an AI ruled future embodies. One of the most controversial movements pertaining to AI is the transhumanism movement which essentially advocates for the advancement of the human race – particularly life extension and memory storage – by means of technology (Henriksen, 2015). According to present theological anthropology, human beings are finite, relational, embodied and vulnerable species (Henriksen, 2015). Consequently, this movement would attempt to remove one or even all of the qualities that define what it means to be human, which raises several reasons for caution. Firstly, life extension is attempting to alter one of the most important features of human life, mortality (Henriksen, 2015). It is because we are finite that we cherish life and its value, and are motivated to have an impact upon the world. Life extension effectively diminishes this notion of how precious life is and would certainly change the future of humanity for the worse. Secondly, the transhumanist movement would ultimately depreciate the relational aspect of human life (Henriksen, 2015). Housing data by means of recording memories may initially sound useful, however it consequently ruins relational aspects of life with both the self and others. The ability to experience new and real situations would be lost to this unnecessary use of AI and would weaken the value placed on relationships and experiences (Henriksen, 2015). In addition to the definition of humanity, the overuse of AI also poses a threat to the future of humanity politically and socially. For decades, democracies have proven to be more successful than dictatorships, however, future advancements made in AI will likely make dictatorship a more plausible option than democracy (Harari, 2018). Democracy allows for data to be outsourced to different groups and people whereas dictatorship does quite the opposite, which is why democracy has always been superior in terms of data processing. For example, in the twentieth century, the Americans consistently made significantly better decisions than the Soviet Union and sustained a superior economy because they operated on a democracy rather than dictatorship (Harari, 2018). However, with future advancements in AI showing signs of promise towards increased ability to handle mass volumes of data, concentrating all data to one group becomes a more feasible option, which presents a significant problem (Harari, 2018). The shift to a dictatorship although allows for better data processing inevitably surrenders more and more authority to machines rather than humans (Harari, 2018). This directly ties into the discussion of what it means to be human. Once we concede all authority to machines, we effectively diminish our ability to make our own informed decisions – a fundamental part of what it means to be human (Henriksen, 2015). This problem is much more evident than it may seem. We currently allow google, music streaming services and food delivery apps to make informed decisions for us, it won’t be much longer before the magnitude of these decisions becomes greater and we must carefully monitor the data we give AI access to. In addition, the conception of an AI dominated future has extremely unpredictable outcomes which may jeopardize the future of humanity. Society has publicly voiced it’s uncertainty and in some cases, fear of a predominantly AI controlled future via an online forum that went viral (Singler, 2019). A member of an online forum called the Less Wrong forum created a thought experiment known as Roko’s Basilisk which illustrated the apocalyptic despair of future punishment through the use of AI (Singler, 2019). While this notion of an apocalyptic future for humanity predicated on the creation of a supremely intelligent AI is somewhat drastic, the receptive feedback towards the idea was extremely negative and thought provoking. Several members of the forum claimed to have suffered actual psychological damage and as a result, the post was banned and any comment similar to the post was banned (Singler, 2019). This thought experiment in the Less Wrong forum gives thoughtful insight to what may result as a misuse of AI in the coming future. It’s feedback and results prove that not everyone is openly receptive to the notion of an AI controlled future and further solidifies that argument that a finite human controlled future is far more desirable (Singler, 2019). Furthermore, the Roko’s Basilisk post ties directly to the argument about allowing AI to make informed decisions for us and have authority. The uncertainty of implementing such powerful technology is a reasonable argument to resist provoking such an attempt. Indeed, the data collected from the Roko’s Basilisk thought-experiment instills the notion that we as a society are clearly not ready nor capable of properly monitoring and implementing authority based powerful AI technology (Singler, 2019). The powerful tool of AI has been a monumental breakthrough in recent years and certainly has a place in society for benefiting the lives of humans. However, as we become more curious and develop increasingly powerful technology, we must be careful as to how much data we are willing to concede to the AI machines. Failure to restrict the data limitations of AI machines could prove to be detrimental to the future of the human race. For instance, the transhumanist movement and its promises could effectively alter what it means to be human and diminish the precious value of life’s greatest experiences (Henriksen, 2015). Additionally, conceding mass volumes of data to a select and concentrated group would be much more manageable with advanced AI, thus allowing for AI to make more informed decisions than humans and perhaps eventually – better decisions than humans (Harari, 2018). Further, if the plausible reasoning for doubt weren’t enough, the uncertainty that surrounds an AI dominated future is undeniable and it has been voiced by people such as those of the Less Wrong forum that not everyone is sold on an AI future (Singler, 2019). While the most concerning consequences of abusing the implementation of AI have just been highlighted, this is not to say that AI cannot play an extremely fundamental beneficial role in the future of humanity. If controlled properly and restricted, artificial intelligence will surely become a cornerstone of the future of humanity and contribute handsomely to the success of mankind to come. Bibliography Harari, Yuval Noah (2018). “Why Technology Favors Tyranny.” The Atlantic, October 2018. Henriksen, J.-O. (2015). Is a Finite Life Such a Bad Idea? Transhumanism and Theological Anthropology. Dialog, 54(3), 280–288. doi: 10.1111/dial.12189 Singler, Beth (2019) “Existential Hope and Existential Despair in Ai Apocalypticism and Transhumanism’, Zygon 54(1): 156-76 Consequences of Abusing the Power of Artificial Intelligence

Global Poverty Studies and their Importance Essay

Global Poverty Studies and their Importance Essay. Poverty is a burning issue nowadays because it exists not only in separate countries or regions but throughout the world. Even in rich countries, such as the United States and Great Britain, poverty causes serious problems, like alcohol and drug abuse, violence, premature morbidity, and stress. All these factors influence the society and the economy negatively, cause enormous underdevelopment and bring about different forms of social and political protest, which, in many cases, end up with violence and destruction. Global poverty arises an intent interest as the world economy is becoming more and more globalized. According to Martell (2017), “large-scale global processes of economic restructuring have a big impact on our individual lives. The global economy and distribution of wealth effect, for example, our chances of unemployment, alongside our material circumstances generally” (6). That is why one should admit that in the modern world, poverty is not only a lack of jobs and money but also a many-sided and complex global phenomenon. It depends on macroeconomic factors and should be treated globally. As a fundamental science, sociology explains various social phenomena. When the roots and causes of a problem have been described, the issue can be solved, and sociology becomes an applied science. Global poverty is worth consideration because it is a problem, to which there is still no solution. Moreover, the gap between the rich and the poor has become larger globally. According to Townsend (2014), “poverty is deep-seated in many rich and not only poor countries and seems destined to get worse in both groups of countries” (p. 3). It means that the rich are growing more prosperous, and the poor are becoming poorer. This tendency is unfavorable for the world economy as people in need have no time or money for education and self-development. They do underpaid jobs and get little money. Such individuals are inclined to crimes. To reduce the growth of poverty, well-grounded, and scientifically based, macroeconomic measures need to be taken. The most difficult thing in discussing and scientifically explaining the phenomenon of poverty is that there is no macroeconomic approach to it. In fact, sociologists have not yet worked out a proper global conception, or a system of measures, which could eliminate or even reduce poverty. For this purpose, “myopic and piecemeal preoccupation with particular cultural and regional meanings of the word has to be relinquished” (Townsend, 2014, p. 3). It means that the current scientific view of the poverty issue is too narrow and insufficient. To reach good results, there should be thorough sociological research on global poverty. As poverty depends mainly on the state of the economy and job market, such inquiries will have a visible practical effect. It will provide sociologists and governments with instruments to give people more well-paid jobs and reduce the number of the poor. According to Bhalla and Lapeyre (2016). “studies show a positive correlation between economic and social indicators, for example, between economic vulnerability, social-relation deprivation, bad housing, health conditions and weak social participation on the one hand, and employment status on the other” (p. xii). That is why, when the causes have been studied on a complex scientific basis, there will be some opportunities to combat poverty effectively. All these facts make one conclude that poverty is a serious issue that should be treated and studied globally. In addition, the above-mentioned facts show that there is no adequate scientific approach to the topic. That is why this problem requires a thorough scientific discussion, which will demonstrate how to eliminate poverty and its consequences – social diseases, such as crime, suicide, sex, and racial discrimination, premature morbidity, exposure, and drug abuse. References Bhalla, A.S.,Global Poverty Studies and their Importance Essay

Effects of Over-Education on Economic Growth

CHAPTER 1 THE EFFECTS OF OVEREDUCATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MALAYSIA 1.1 Introduction This chapter discusses the research background, problem statement, research objectives and research questions. This study also discusses the contribution in ensuring continuous improvement in economic growth in Malaysia. This section will discuss the importance of education in the formation of human capital and the impact of overeducation to economic growth. 1.2Background Study Education in a general sense is a learning system that passed from one generation to another in various forms such as skills and knowledge by a group of people through training, coaching, teaching, research, and others. In terms of economic development, education and social development have a strong relationship. According to Abhijeet Chandra (2011) states that the function of education becomes more important in enhancing human capital. In this modern era, the emphasis is more on knowledge-based economy. Thus, Massey (1988) argues that the education system is the foundation for the development of human resources. Daisi (2011) also argues that human resource development can improve the quality and productivity of labor and lead to economic growth. However, he also stressed that the economic capacity of a country also determines the ability to invest in human resources. Shahar (2008), explains that the labor market caused by productive human resource development is shaped by the quality of the education system and the country’s economic growth will largely depend on him. In addition, education is considered as long-term investments that lead to high production for a country in the future (Ismail (1998)). In fact, economists have argued that the education sector will bring success to the economic and social development of a country. Therefore, most of the developed countries and the developing emphasize the development of the education sector and this has been supported by Dollar and Gatti (1999). Sheehan (1971) has listed some of the benefits of education. These include increasing productivity and labor income, economic growth and an increase in the literacy rate. In addition, education can also improve the efficiency of the distribution of income and labor mobility and transfer it to the demand for trained workers earn. Education can contribute many benefits to a country in order to determine the ability to achieve developed nation status. In the study Ujunwa (2009), he found that education can be seen as an investment that allows individuals to be available knowledge and skills to improve their employability and higher earnings in the future. In addition, Stephen (1997) found that the fundamental difference in living standards between countries is differences in human capital while the main mechanism of growth is the accumulation of human capital or knowledge of a country. Two main goals of the New Economic Policy (NEP) is to eradicate poverty and restructure society. The role of the Ministry of Education is to help the government achieve its goals in implementing the New Economic Policy, which requires more highly trained academics and education experts as among the public is the most effective tool to eradicate poverty and restructure society and the country’s economy. Report of the New Economic Policy (2012), the Government of Malaysia specified in the second thrust in the Ninth Malaysia Plan in order to develop human capital, high level of mentality and intellectual ability is a major challenge in the country under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. He also said that if the demand for Malaysia to become a knowledge-based economy, a country that developed and maintains a developed country status, priority should be given to the development of human capital. But, in the context of globalization, the quality of human capital has become a key requirement. Three main strategies tailored to the “First Class Mentality” is to increase the number and mastery of knowledge by strengthening national capacity in science, research and development and innovation, and nurture a civilized society which stores the values moral strength. Human Resource Development Policy also emphasizes the supply of skilled and knowledgeable labour force to assist the development of knowledge-based economy and training. The education system will be reoriented to enable students to acquire the knowledge and thinking skills and entrepreneurship. Educational facilities will be enhanced through the construction of schools based in rural areas and facilities, infrastructure and sufficient trained teachers. The addition of a quality educational facilities and training system is to ensure the supply of labor in line with changes in technology and market demand. Therefore, the school curriculum will be reviewed to generate creativity and independent learning among students, as well as the inclusion of aspects of knowledge and new technologies and innovative teaching methods. With this, the development of human resources is an important element in achieving an increase in the economic growth of a country. Lucas (1998) in his study explains that the development of human resources in knowledge and skills in Taiwan is the prime mover in the process of economic growth. Therefore, since 1968 Taiwan has continued to invest in education at the school level and the results showed improvements in both human capital accumulation on average in all population. Number of Labour Force by Higher Certificate obtained, Malaysia : 2009-2013 CERTIFICATE (‘000) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 TOTAL DIPLOMA 940.9 990.7 1,102.0 1,088.1 1,229.4 5,351.1 DEGREE 1,034.6 1,196.7 1,267.9 1,355.3 1,392.4 6,246.9 Source: Statistics department Table 1.0 Table 1.0 shows the labor force with academic qualifications at Diploma and Degree of occurrence of continuous improvement for five years starting in 2009 until 2015. This proves that the population is very concerned about education at the tertiary level. According to Labour Force Survey report Malaysia, In 2012, the Labor Force participation rate increased to 65.5 percent from 64.4 percent the previous year. An increase of 1.1 percentage point was contributed by the increase in population in the labor market from 12.68 million in 2011 to 13.12 million people in 2012. According to a report from the Department of Statistics and the Labour Force Survey Report Malaysia, showed an increase in the number of labor force participation and achievement in education at the tertiary level. This will cause problems overeducation and undereducation in Malaysia. Overeducation refers to a situation where the level of education being owned by an employee in excess of the level of education required for a job. Undereducation refers to a situation where the level of education required for the jobs offered exceeded the level of education that is owned by an employee According Rumberger (1981), overeducation can be defined in a variety of purposes. He believes that overeducated can occur when the individual has greater educational level of requirements needed to do a job, and vice versa. Tsang et. al (1991) pointed out in a study that overeducation affects the productivity of an employee for not having satisfaction in the work. Freeman (1976) asserts that the problem overeducated been widely accepted since 1970 when the number of graduates who are educated beyond job requirements offered and given their low salaries. Therefore, this study has been made to meet the gap between overeducation with economic growth. This is because previous studies only showed the influence of overeducation on individuals and firms only, and no comprehensive study done to see the effect of overeducation on economic growth. With this, this study will provide empirical evidence on the effect of overeducation on economic growth in Malaysia. 1.3Problem Statement With the rapid development of the country over the world, each country has prioritized the education as the important engine to the growth of their economy. Many ASEAN countries especially Malaysia has become the education places for the student all over the world to further their study and Government of Malaysia do not neglect their own human capital to pursue their education from a level to the next. With this, Malaysia government has distributing much budget to afford the education infrastructures besides improve or maintain their own current facilities to develop the Malaysia’s economy. Musai and Barghi (2012) interpret the definition of economic growth is continual increase of per capita national production in a country and considered as a criterion for testing economic performance of a society and increase of its growth rate leads to improvement of social welfare. So, from their perspective, different factors are effective on growth of per capita production. Study on factors of promotion and development in developed countries shows that all of these countries have capable and efficient education. Education is manifested in training of committed, sophisticated, specialized and skillful manpower. According to Riddell (2006), investments in human capital yield a private return in the form of greater employment opportunities and higher lifetime earnings. Thus, greater employment opportunities and higher lifetime earnings yield to the increase in the total output of goods and services formed. Some researchers argued that return on investment in education can encourage economic growth. Freeman (1967) asserts that the returns to education have declined. He found some graduate employees underutilized. In addition, he stressed that the returns to education decreased due to modest growth in the supply of educated workers. The complexity of this problem becomes even more critical when the length of time needed to produce a skilled workforce and educated. According to Murray (2006) The Government has realized the high demand for skilled labor due to an increase in the inflow of foreign workers since the end of 1980. Therefore, in order to meet this demand, the government has decided in the establishment of private sector institutions for technical subjects and provide facility for pre-university and courses at certificate and diploma levels. High growth in education occurs in the state indirectly provides opportunities for students to pursue higher education in local institutions and slowly will reduce the number of students who wish to pursue abroad and help the government to reduce the outflow of foreign trade exchange. Duncan and Hoffman (1981) argues that overeducation allow problems in income occurred. This can be seen when there are individuals who work in accordance with the level of education does not have a earning problem. According to (Mavromaras, Mcguinness,