Respond to two colleagues in one of the following ways: share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting, validate an idea with your own experience, or expand on your colleague’s posting.(Note: You do not need to respond to the discussion questions, it is included for your reference so you are aware of what questions the students are replying to) I posted my colleagues’ responses to the discussion question above, please respond to their post. Begin the response with Hi Leakita/Hi Jerman) (I need at least a half page response for each person) Please include references and provide the url link to all journal articles you use as references. Use current (meaning within the past 2 years) scholarly journal articles as references. Please use APA 6th edition format. Thanks)Discussion Question:Last week we discussed the ways in which we define social problems and how our current values and beliefs affect our definitions. This week, think about the impact of mass media and the way we receive our news.If your source of information suddenly disappeared, where would you go for current events?What is the role of media in:a) our awareness of social problems,b) public policy,c) politics,d) service delivery?Do you think definitions of social problems will change as societal sources of information change? If so, in what ways? How will these changes impact service delivery to individuals, groups, and/or communities?Leakita’s Post:When I think about the impact of mass media I reflect back on the days when I was a young girl growing up in the city and I can clearly remember on summer days always hearing someone’s radio playing in their kitchen window and remembered the breaking news which would interrupt the music playing. During the old news era everyone in my neighborhood bought the daily news journal. It was not unusual to see the elders sitting on the porch drinking coffee and reading the daily news. With the new era of news mass media has fundamentally changed the way we access and interpret current events and news. Today we have unlimited news sources and with all the modern technology we are all constantly exposed to breaking news. Mass media has the ability to influence peoples opinions and decisions even if the news being presented is “fake news.”My current source media comes mostly from television shows that I enjoy watching. I have never really thought about having to look for an alternative source. I would probably utilize the radio which also has unlimited news resources such as podcasts. I definitely would not get my news from FaceBook. Whenever those pop-ups show up on my news feed I immediately scroll pass them. I have a strong distrust of news on sources such as FaceBook.The first and foremost function of the media in a society is to provide news and information to the masses. People need news/information for various reasons. The role of media is very important in keeping society informed of any social problems. Exposing social problems and raising awareness among viewers and/or readers helps to create activists groups which to help combat some of these social issues. The role of media regarding politics and public policies is also very important because legislative bills and laws are passed often that effect the lives of all Americans. The majority of people want to know about bills and laws that are on the table in their local and state offices as this will be affecting them directly. In my opinion the role of media in service delivery has been a crucial role. I say this because service delivery requires accountability and the media helps bring awareness to unfair and unsafe practices regarding service delivery as well as acknowledgement of service deliveries done well.I do believe that the definition of social problems will change but not because of change in societal resources but because of who is delivering the news. Depending on which channel you watch and the motivation of the host will determine the change of definition. I say this because you can hear breaking news on your regular local news station and turn to a democratic or republican news channel and not only will the event be reported but the blame on the other party will directly follow. Sometimes it’s done very subtlely and others times it’s quite overt. There are three underlying concepts when we use low-level cognitive decision-making processes (also known as heuristics) that the person who is receiving the news must consider and they are content, motivation and credibility cues. It is always best to research information that you hear on these news sources. It is known as fact checking which has become a powerful tool.REFERENCESJohnson, S. T. & Ewbank, A. D. (2018). Heuristics: An Approach to Evaluating News Obtained through Social Media. Knowledge Quest. Vol. 47 No. 1Mughal, M. A. (2014). World News. The Daily Journalist: Mass Media and Its Influence on Society. https://thedailyjournalist.com/pen-and-pad/mass-media-and-its-influence-on-society/Jermane’s Post:I’m personally not big on watching news just because there is so much to sort through. Today the media is reported with so many hidden agendas, ulterior political motives, and one-sided biases. I believe that much of this is due to politics and the attempt to always control or influence different constituent groups in our society. There is no question that technology and social media has tremendously increase the speed and accessibility that information and news can be spread. Despite the media turmoil of today’s world, the media has its way of showing us informative and constructive information. However, the burden of responsibility lies with the viewer to ensure that what they view is credible.What is the role of media in:a) our awareness of social problems,b) public policy,c) politics,d) service delivery?In this new era of information abundancy, we have added unlimited news sources—cable news channels, blogs, and news found on social media. The popularity of social media has also enabled these technologies to emerge as platforms for delivering health information to at-risk individuals. and social media is constantly changing (e.g., updates to the interface, terms and agreement, and general features), and people of different age groups use and experience social media differently.Do you think definitions of social problems will change as societal sources of information change? If so, in what ways?I think that social problems will change in two ways that are already taking shape. The first is, an increase in public awareness. However, this does not come without impacting opinions, and views on certain issues. Which brings on the second element of change. This is the concern for what is authentic information and news. There will have to be a concerted effort by individuals to ensure what is being communicated to them is real and undiluted. There are so many mixed versions of news that are communicated and exploited with various agendas. One of the most popular, is the political agenda. Mass media plays a huge role in influencing the lives of the people. It can cause a huge turmoil or a social uprising. It can insight an angry riot, peaceful protest, fear or inspiration. How it can affect a person, totally depends on the way they consume the information and perception is everything.How will these changes impact service delivery to individuals, groups, and/or communities?In service deliver the main concerns are ensuring that people understand the information being communicated and the risk around confidentiality and privacy. According to a research social media use is increasing at an astonishing rate globally. Using existing and popular social media technologies to reach large numbers of at-risk individuals might be a sustainable and cost-effective alternative in delivering health education.Chiu, C. J., Menacho, L., & Young, S. D. (2016). The association between age and ethics-related issues in using social media for HIV prevention in Peru. Ethics & Behavior, 26(2), 99–109. https://doi-org.mylibrary.wilmu.edu/10.1080/105084…Johnson, S. T., & Ewbank, A. D. (2018). Heuristics: An Approach to Evaluating News Obtained through Social Media. Knowledge Quest, 47(1), 8–14.
What Is the Role of Media in Politics Discussions Replies
IVU Preparation and IVU Procedure
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp What is Intravenous Urography? Intravenous Urography examines is the urinary system by using a special dye (contrast medium) that is injected into one of your veins. The dye travels through the bloodstream and is removed by the kidneys and passed into the ureters and bladder. The dye helps to show up these organs more clearly on X-rays. The test can help find out the cause of urinary problems. It can show kidney and bladder stones, tumours, blood clots or narrowing in the ureters. It is routinely done as an out-patient procedure in the radiology department. The procedure is comprised of two phases. First, it needs a functioning kidney to clean the dye out of the blood into the urine. The time necessary for the dye to come into view on x rays correlate exactly with kidney’s function. The second phase gives entire anatomical images of the urinary tract. Within the first few minutes the dye “lights up” the kidneys, a stage called the nephrogram. Later the pictures follow the dye down the ureters and into the bladder. The final film taken after urinating shows how well the bladder empties. The contrast is removed from the bloodstream through the kidneys. Then contrast media becomes visible on x-rays almost immediately after injection. Attention is paid at the: Kidney BladderÂ Â Tubes that connect them (urethras) Why Intravenous Urography is done? The most common reason an IVU is done is in a condition be the suspected presence of stones in the urinary tract. Other pathology are such as renal failure, myeloma and infancy. The doctor would like to know how the urine is draining from the kidney to the bladder and how the stones have affected your urinary system. This may be used to balance the ultrasound of the kidney to the bladder and how the stones have affected the urinary system and the other wise. IVU uses a dye, also called as a contrast medium. This shows up the soft tissues the urinary system on the x-ray. This will allow the cancer to be seen in any parts of the patient’s urinary system. The cancer shows up as a blockage or an uneven outline on the wall of the bladder or ureter for an example. It is also used in the investigation of other suspected causes of urine “obstruction” or blood in the urine. Patient preparation for Intravenous Urography. Patient should be held NPO for 24 hours prior to the radiographic study. Patient should receive a minimum of 2 cleansing enemas prior to study. One enema should be performed the night before the procedure. Patient should receive large-bore catheter prior to examination start time. Patients over 60 lbs should receive 2 large-bore catheters to facilitate contrast administration. Medication Instruction Fasting Instruction Bowel Preparation A) Unless the patient have an asthma or other allergies the medications are not reqiured. Therefore, the suggestion for the examination is reviewed since the patient can develop a reaction towards the contrast media that are used. If the doctor feels the benefits of this procedure will equalize the risks, then the patient may be arranged to prednisolone (a type of steroid medication) tablets for the examination. This would be 40 mg 12 hours and then, 40mg 2 hours prior to the procedure. Sometimes in an urgent examination, the patient may be given an injection of Hydrocortisone 100 mg (another type of steroid) just before the the examination. B) If the IVU procedure is in the afternoon, patient can take light breakfast. Until 4-6 hours before the procedure, the patient can take a small cup of clear fluids per hour such as water, fruit juice, black tea or black coffee. No milk must be taken because it causes indigestion. It is preferable that nothing should be taken for at least 4 hours prior to the procedure. Water is allowed in diabetics, myeloma patients, renal failure and for other conditions where dehydration is contraindicated. C) Low residue vegetable-free diet for 1 day before the examination. A lot of water should be taken during this period before fasting begins. The patient may be given laxatives such as 2 tablets of Dulcolax at 9 pm the night before the examination to increase the peristalsis action. Procedure for Intravenous Urogram. Patient will be asked to lie on an x-ray table where the radiographer will take a preliminary film of their abdomen. The doctor will then give patient an injection of contrast medium into their arm. After this, a series of films will be taken over the next 30 minutes as the dye passes through your renal tract. At one stage of the procedure, a tight band may be placed on patient’s lower abdomen to help the radiographer to obtain maximum filling of the kidneys before the contrast medium flows down into the bladder. At the end of the examination, patient will be asked to empty your bladder, and then another film will be taken to see the empty bladder. Sometimes the contrast medium takes some time to go through the kidneys and these results in an extended examination time. Contrast medium is a fluid that is opaque to x-rays, is concentrated in the kidneys and goes into the bladder before being passed out in your urine. It is colorless, so the patient cannot see it when you go to the toilet. Aside from the minor sting from the injection as the contrast medium is injected, some people report feeling a warm flush, and sometimes have a metallic taste in their mouth. These things usually disappear within a minute or two, and are no cause for alarm. Incase the patient become itchy or short of breath, let the radiologist know straight away, as they may have a slight reaction to the contrast, which can be eased with antihistamines. If the patient have asthma or severe allergies, the radiologist may suggest them to take a steroid, or use other imaging options. Patient care after Procedure Sometimes, there would be minor (generalised warmth, to rashes) to moderate, asthma and difficulty breathing, a drop in the blood pressure (usually transient) or rarely severe and life threatening (anaphylaxis). Infrequently, there may be severe discomfort/pain when compression is applied, but usually the compression will be released the moment the patient inform the radiographer in charge of your examination. The only severe complication of an IVP is an allergy to the iodine-containing dye that is used. Such an allergy is rare, but it can be fatal. Patient are given and asked to lay on top of draw sheets cause the radiographic may be cold. Pillows are given for comfort. There is usually no special instructions post IVU. The patient may eat and drink unless your referring doctor has another examination or procedure for you after the IVU examination About the Intravenous Urography Examination The procedure takes about 40 to 60 minutes. Patient need to empty their bladder before the test. In a private cubicle, Patient may be asked to remove their clothing and put on a hospital gown. Then patient will be taken to the X-ray room and asked to lie down on the X-ray table. Radiographer will take the first X-ray pictures without the dye. Radiographer will then inject the dye in a vein in their hand or arm, and take more X-rays of your abdomen and pelvis. Patient may be asked to move position and lie on your stomach, or hold their breath for a few seconds while the X-rays are taken. To help improve images of the kidneys, a tight band may be placed across their abdomen. Patient may also be asked to go the toilet to empty your bladder and have another X-ray taken. Results on Intravenous Urography A normal intravenous urogram indicates no visible abnormality in the structure or function of the urinary system. The radiologist looks for a smooth non-lobulated outline of each kidney, no clubbing or other abnormality of the renal calyces (collecting system), and no abnormal fluid collection in the kidneys that could suggest obstruction. The ureters must contain no filling defects (stones) or deviations due to an adjacent tumor. The bladder must have a smooth outline and empty normally as visualized on the post-void film. Abnormal results include hydronephrosis (distension of the renal pelvis and calices due to obstruction) as a result of tumors or calculi (stones). Cysts or abscesses may also be present in the urinary system. A delay in renal function can also indicate renal disease. An abnormal amount of urine in the bladder after voiding may indicate prostate or bladder problems. Intravenous urograms are often done on children to rule out a rapid developing tumor in the kidneys, called a Wilm’s tumor. Children are also prone to infections of the bladder and kidneys due to urinary reflux (return back-flow of urine). Film For a preliminary film, (35 x 43cm) supine full A.P. abdomen to include lower border of symphysis pubis and diaphragm, abdominal preparation,and for any calcifications overlying the renal tract areas. Additional films to decide position of any opacities.35Â° posterior oblique of the renal regions. Tomogram of the renal areas are at 8-11 cm 4 reasom why we do preminilary Patient preparation The position of kidney (collimation) Exposure factor Instruction For an immediate film (24 x 30cm), AP of the renal areas, the film is exposed 10-14 s after the injection (arm-to-kidney time). It is to show the nephrogram. For a 5 minute film (24 x 30cm) AP of the renal areas, this film is taken to decide if the excretion is equal or if the uptake is poor and is important for assessing the need to adjust the technique. A compression band is now applied around the patient’s abdomen and the balloon positioned midway between the iliac spines. This can produce better pelvicalyceal distension. Compression should not be used in cases of suspected renal colic, renal trauma or after recent abdominal surgery. In 15 minute AP of the renal areas, there is usually sufficient distension of the pelvicalyceal system with opaque urine by the time. In the release of film the supine AP abdomen, this film is taken to show the whole urinary tract. If the film is good enough, the patient is asked to empty their bladder. The main value of this film is to access bladder emptying to demonstrate a return to normal of the dilated upper tracts with the relief of bladder pressure. In 25 Minute film (24 x 30cm) 15Â° caudal angulations centred 5 cm above the upper border of the symphysis pubis to reveal the swollen bladder. After micturition film, this will be the coned view of the bladder with the tube angled 15 caudad and centred 5cm above the symphysis pubis or the full length abdominal film to show the bladder emptying success and the return of the previously swollen lower ends of urethras to normal. Contrast agents and drugs Common examples for a 70 kg adult with normal blood urea values (2.5 – 7.5mmol/L.)Contrast media must be warmed to body temperature before injection. High osmolarity of contrast medium (HOCM) or low osmolarity of contrast medium (LOCM) 370 are acceptable but infants and small children, those with renal and cardiac failure, poorly hydrated patients, patients with diabetes, myelomatosis or sickle-cell anaemia and patient who have had a previous severe contrast medium reaction with low osmolarity contrast medium reaction with a strong allergic history have to receive low osmolarity contrast medium. Paediatric dose is 1ml kg/1 Equipment used for Intravenous Urogram Conray 400Â® — 1 mL / lb ( 3 mL / kg) In high risk cats or compromised dogs (abnormal BUN / Creatinine), consult with the radiologist about the use of Omnipaque (Iohexol) instead of the Conray. Indwelling catheter preplaced in patient by clinician, student or treatment room techs. Depending on size of the animal or amount of contrast to be injected, 2 catheters might be required. Crash kit should be made available in the case of allergic contrast reaction (ie: vomiting and / or nausea are the most common.) What are the risks on doing Intravenous Urogram? Intravenous urograms are commonly performed and generally safe. However, in order to make an informed decision and give your consent, you need to be aware of the possible side-effects and the risk of complications of this procedure .Patient will be exposed to some X-ray radiation. Level of exposure is about the same as the background radiation that you would receive naturally from the environment over 12 to 14 months. Pregnant women are advised not to have X-rays, as there is a risk the radiation may affect the development of your unborn child. If the patient is, or think you may be pregnant, they must tell their doctor before the appointment. These are the unwanted but mostly temporary effects of a successful procedure. Very rarely, they may sense a warm feeling or get a metallic taste in their mouth after having the contrast. This should last only a minute or two. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Sara Lee in 2011: Retrenchment Strategy Essay
assignment helper Table of Contents Background information Strategy identification for Sara Lee Analysis of performance of the retrenchment strategy of Sara Lee Recommendations for future decisions for the company References Background information Business companies operate in a very volatile and competitive environment. In such an environment, there are many forces that may work for or against the business company. More often, the forces generated from the environment have a negative effect on the business firm (Thompson, 2011). Therefore, firms have to respond and mitigate these forces so that they can continue to thrive in the market. Firms adopt different strategies that seem suitable to the situation. This depends on the nature of effect that the changes have on the internal and external business environment. These strategies are referred to as competitive strategies (Katz, 2010). Firms can either opt to focus on a single strategy or choose to employ different strategies in what is referred to as integration and differentiation of strategies. The firm has to be very sensitive when choosing a strategy. This is because the strategy chosen can have long term implications on the operation of the firm. Strategic choices are made depending on what other firms have adopted. This is because the activities of other firms often have an impact on the performance hence contributing to the competitive advantage of the firm. Strategies aim to raise the competitiveness of a given firm in a certain industry (Katz, 2010). Sara Lee is a fairly old company that has been in operation since the year 1939. It began as a small business and kept creating opportunities for growth. The company underwent a transformation with different strategies including the change of business name on several occasions. The changes also included merger and acquisitions as part of the divestitures. Divestitures, as adopted by the management, were aimed at sharpening the business focus of the company. It was aimed at putting the company in a significantly strategic position within the market (Thompson, 2012). Sara Lee Corporation, which is a company that is dealing in food, beverage and household products, got a new management in the year 2005. This indicated that changes were needed to transform the corporation. The Corporation appointed a new president, Brenda Barnes, who came up with a strategic plan that was ambitious. The plan was aimed at transforming the Corporation into a focused firm dealing in beverage, food and household products. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new president noted that the firm was running many units of product categories that were not strong enough for the collective performance outcome of the company. Therefore, the firm had to reduce the number of units. Though the strategy would result in the reduction of revenues to the company by about $7 billion, it was seen as the best option. Strategic plans will in most cases result to the disruption of the normal activities and functioning of a company. However, this is supposed to have a short-term effect, owing to the vision and objectives of the strategies used in effecting the plan. The retrenchment plan was expected to result into an increase in the after sales tax proceeds (Thompson, 2012). The strategic plan aimed at positioning the selected segments that would strengthen the financial outcomes from the segments and the financial performance of the company. The company was to venture into market segments that were brighter and promising for the products of the company. The retrenchment initiatives rolled out by the company were to be implemented in a systemic manner. This would see the company improve its sales activities, market share, and growth in profits resulting from the selected brands. The company selected brands that showed prospective signs of improvement in marketing for each of the product units (Daft, Murphy
SU Tax Planning Client on Irrevocable Trusts Letter
SU Tax Planning Client on Irrevocable Trusts Letter.
Tax-Planning Client Letter on Irrevocable Trusts, Gift Tax, and Estate TaxOverviewSuppose you are a CPA, and your client has requested advice regarding establishing an irrevocable trust for his two grandchildren. He wants the income from the trust paid to the children for 20 years and the principal distributed to the children at the end of 20 years.InstructionsUse the Internet and Strayer Library to research the rules regarding irrevocable trusts, gift tax, and estate tax. Be sure to use the six-step tax research process in Chapter 1 and demonstrated in Appendix A of your textbook as a guide for your written response.Write a 1–2 page letter in which you:Analyze the effect of an irrevocable trust on the gift tax and future estate taxes.Suggest other significant alternatives that the client could use both to reduce estate tax and to maximize potential advantages of the payment of gift taxes on transfers of property.Use the six-step tax research process located in Chapter 1 and demonstrated in Appendix A of the textbook to record your research for communications to the client.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Determine the effect of an irrevocable trust on taxes including a strategy to reduce taxes and maximize benefits
SU Tax Planning Client on Irrevocable Trusts Letter
ECETT 110 DU Wk 7 Voltage Dividers & Bipolar Junction Transistors Lab Report
ECETT 110 DU Wk 7 Voltage Dividers & Bipolar Junction Transistors Lab Report.
1. Voltage dividers are very important in electronics as they are often used to step down a voltage to a specific value. For instance, we will study Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs). For now, let us focus on the fact that BJTs are three terminal devices that are configured as shown in the diagram below. BJTs are typically used as amplifiers in various configuration methods. Let’s assume that we need to place a specific voltage on the base. Assume that a voltage divider consisting of two series resistors will be used to create the required voltage on the base. One resistor will be connected to a VCC source and the other to ground to create the divider. The connection between the resistors will set the required voltage. See the example in Figure 2 below.
ECETT 110 DU Wk 7 Voltage Dividers & Bipolar Junction Transistors Lab Report