Directions: Of the following questions below, choose only 1 to answer. Your answer is to be submitted on Canvas by the due date. Please write 1.5 to 2 pages double spaced using 12 point font. The same grammar and spelling rules of the semester apply, which includes the use of multiple paragraphs. Also, if you refer to other sources, articles, or studies, you must cite them.
What is the most common-sense solution for cutting carbon emissions? Why? What are the strengths and weaknesses of your choice?
Please answer this questions in 2 pages, double-spaced, 12 pt font, and in 4 paragraphs, one intro paragraph, paragraph for strengths, paragraph for weaknesses, and a conclusion.
I personally believe the most common sense solution for cutting carbon emissions is electric/ fuel efficient vehicles or renewable energy sources, please choose one of the two but not both.
What is the most common-sense solution for cutting carbon emissions? Why? What are the strengths and weaknesses of your choice?
SOCI1311 University of Texas High Suicide Rates in the UK Essay
SOCI1311 University of Texas High Suicide Rates in the UK Essay.
AFTER VIEWING THE ATTACHED FILES FOR THE ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS PICK TWO THEORIES FROM THIS LIST (I explained each theory the way my professor did below) TO USE IN THE ESSAY. MUST BE FROM THIS LIST.1. Dramaturgical Theory: Views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on a metaphysical stage, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.Dress (costume)Objects we carry (props)What we say (scripts)Setting (set)2. Mid Range Theory: Attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function. The key to mid-range theory is that it generates falsifiable hypothesis-predictions that can be tested by analyzing the real world. 3. Functionalism: The theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (necessary) function to keep society running. * According to functionalists society is like a body where the parts must work together to sustain it. * it is made up of different social institutions that serve different functions and play different roles in creating social order.* Functions maybe be manifest or latent.3. Conflict Theory: * The idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general.4. Feminist Theory:* A term for many theories with an emphasis on women’s experiences and a belief that society in general subordinates women. Emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world.
SOCI1311 University of Texas High Suicide Rates in the UK Essay
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
essay writer free Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. Paper details I am requesting your assistance with finalizing chapter 1 and writing of Chapter 2. I submitted chapter 1 and received the following feedback: Good start on chapter 1. However, it still needs further development and all subsections noted on the checklist need to be included in each chapter. For your next submission for chapter 1, please ensure that all subsections are included and fully developed with supporting citations to the literature. Chapter 1 is missing a couple of the subsections and some elaboration. I believe it will probably take around 2 pages to complete this chapter. Chapter 2 needs to be written from the beginning. 10 pages should be enough for Chapter 2. I want a dissertation that goes straight to the point but also meets the required subsections of the outline. I have attached Chapter 1. I also attached the Qualitative Dissertation Detailed Outline which needs to be followed to complete the chapters and the subsections. Additionally, I have attached a 2 sample dissertations so that you may use the references for citations. The requirement is 75 references for the entire dissertation (Chapters 1-5) , of which 50 or more must be within the last 5 years (2017-2021). At this time I am only requesting assistance with Chapters 1 and 2, but based on the quality of the work I will decide on requesting assistance for Chapters 3 to 5.Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
Western Imperialism Dynamics Research Paper
American imperialism is an expression that is basically used to denote political, economic, military and cultural influence of the United States. This term is often used in reference to the urge by which the USA undertakes its expansionary ideas with an oblivious attitude as to what consequences might result from such expansion. In David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly, this imperialism has been depicted in various dimensions. David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly is a post colonial drama that is a rewritten version of Puccini’s opera, ‘Madame Butterfly’. Aime Cesaire’s play, ‘A Tempest’ is a similar post colonial play that was originally written by Shakespeare. Both of these plays have been rewritten but they have nevertheless retained the same characters and basic plot elements. The original versions of the two plays had created symbols of other cultures which became household stereotypes. For instance, Puccini’s opera, ‘Madame Butterfly’ had attempted to symbolize the oriental woman as a butterfly, insinuating that they are indeed beautiful but of a fragile nature. The use of the term ‘butterfly’ in David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly is a clear depiction of American cultural imperialism. I feel that also the invocation of such terms as ‘The Orient’ results to a symbolization of the Far East culture. By giving it such an endearing terminology, it prepares the USA citizenry to eventually view colonialism as a positive endeavor. The constant use of such terminologies in the realms of literal works is aimed at solidifying this imperialist notion even in the minds of the future generations. Throughout the play, the American way of life has been depicted as most ideal. It has been depicted as a culture that upholds high moral standards while the other cultures have been found to lack in this. For example when Gallimard begins an illicit affair with Song, his perception of her is that one of a butterfly. This is a stereotype that Puccini had created in the eyes of the Western world in reference to women from the Far East. It was supposed to depict these women as possessing physical beauty but on the other hand being weak. The weakness here is more to do with personality and character. This would want to imply that they are loose morally and men could have their way with them with little or no resistance. Aime Cesaire has also clearly depicted how the colonialist’s view of the colonized people’s way of life is narrow minded often lacking proper understanding. For instance, his characterization of Prospero who was a foreign ruler of a certain Island and Caliban the only native of the said Island who resided there. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We see Prospero referring to Caliban as an ‘ugly ape’. This play highlights the manner in which imperialist carry out their dominance over the indigenous communities without really taking into consideration the feeling, aspirations and general welfare of the colonized. This lack of empathy prevents any sense of guilt from surfacing hence maintaining the status quo. This insensitivity attitude towards the occupied people’s culture by the imperialists is misleading. This is because it leads to the imperialists adopting a romanticized view of the very culture they blatantly choose to ignore. For instance, in David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly, Gallimard’s affair with the mysterious oriental ‘woman’ Song brings him much closer to Toulon a Commander at the French embassy who goes as far as complimenting him by intonating that, “Some of us have to be content with the wives of the expatriate community” (45). This illustrates a certain secret admiration and appreciation of the oriental women by the then imperialist. The commander is also seen to ask for ‘Song’s’ number from Gallimard when they are bidding each other farewell just before the latter is shipped back to France. Similarly, the fact that Gallimard had appeared quite comfortable at being strung along by Song in complete ignorance that she was a man shows some naïve fascination by that which is foreign. In Aime Cesaire’s ‘A Tempest’, this imperialistic romanticism with the foreign culture has also been highlighted. For instance Gonzalo romanticizes on the idea of colonizing an island but places emphasize on the need to preserve the indigenous people’s way of life. Not all the dynamics of Western imperialism in Asia bring about conflict. This has been illustrated in both David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly and Aime Cesaire’s ‘A Tempest’. In the former, song expresses her enthrallment with western men and it is also clear that she had great affection for him when at last she undisguised herself as a man, she assured Gallimard that she was still the same ‘butterfly’. In the latter play, Arial seems to harbor no ill feelings towards Prospero her colonizer. She even dreams of a peaceful world where all could live in harmony. Neither of the two plays pronounces absolute triumph for either the imperialist or the occupied. Rather it turns out that subsequent events can be argued to lean towards either of the two sides. In the play ‘A Tempest’, we see that Arial was eventually set free by Prospero. We will write a custom Research Paper on Western Imperialism Dynamics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This would seem to put emphasize on the need for the oppressed to co-operate with the oppressors in the sheer hope that all would turn out for the best. On the other hand, we see Calibo running away which can be perceived as a personal achievement towards the determination of self will. Prospero also at the end of the play is left in self doubt when he confess that calibos has been the first man to have ever made him doubt himself. To put this in to context, it appears that imperialist conquest is founded on false hopes and sheer subjugation which when challenged by the occupied suffers sudden loss in confidence resulting into a massive crumble. Similarly in M. Butterfly Gallimard confesses to have discovered the distinction between that which is fanciful and that which is real. This is a clear submission that earlier on his view of the oriental woman was miscued by the degree of romanticism that had formed in his mind due to earlier misconceptions and ignorance. Power relations, stereotypes, east vs. west, and man vs. woman, race, and gender are some of the issues that can be studied in attempts to define the dynamics of Western imperialism in Asia with specific reference to David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly. It is clear that the imperialists and particularly Gallimard’s presence in Asia is prompted by greed and the urge to dominate and conquer. However, the secret fascination and admiration of the occupied population brings forth some interesting interactions between the imperialist and the occupied people. It has shown that although the imperialists might possess financial and military powers to dominate other less fortunate societies, their failure to capture the aspirations, culture and ambitions of the conquered is not only self defeating but myopic in nature since it eventually misleads them to harbor misconceptions about the occupied people. This way, the occupier in the end ends up swallowing humble pie when they discover that whatever they had held close as truth was nothing but pure hog wash. It is also my feeling that although the imperialist try very hard to impose their culture on those that they occupy, eventually the desired results are far from what was originally targeted. For instance, in Aime Cesaire’s ‘A Tempest’, we see Arial being set free by Prospero and Calibo running away to his freedom. Putting the two scenarios into context will reveal that in the end both the imperialist and the occupied will have inevitably borrowed something from each other. Taking Calibo’s case into consideration, though he might have run away to get his freedom, his way of life would have changed significantly by having encountered Prospero. Similarly in M. Butterfly, the interaction between Gallimard and Song definitely influence each others’ view of the other and their subsequent cultures. The society that rises from the ashes of colonization will be a hybrid (Fanon, 2005). Not sure if you can write a paper on Western Imperialism Dynamics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inasmuch as a lot of views have been expressed concerning the work of David Henry Hwang in M. Butterfly, I would personally not fully agree totally with the picture portrayed in the play during this time and age. To echo the words of Fanon (2005) that ‘The society that rises from the ashes of colonization will be a hybrid, I tend to feel that there is a great disconnect in ideas between the earlier imperialist and the present day imperialist. With the advance in technology, I feel that most of the stereotypes depicted in the play have gradually been demystified . Thus it would be inconceivable for today’s generation to go on carrying on just as their ancestors did. However, other new misconceptions are bound to crop up since any interaction initiated with imperialistic intentions is bound to embrace subjugation and dominance of others as a certain necessity. Since to dominate needs a complete lack of conscience, feelings of guilt are bound to be shrouded under a façade of stereotype and fabrication, thus it is a definite that new stereotypes have to emerge Works Cited “Comparing David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly and Aime Cesaire’s A Tempest.” Web. David Henry, Hwang M Butterfly, Chicago; Gale Group Publishers, 2002. Matt Stoltz, Gravity. 2002. Web. Michael Meyer, Thinking and Writing About Literature, Connecticut; Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
Immunology Field Visit Report
Immunology Field Visit Report. WAN MAISARAH BINTI WAN ZAMRI INTRODUCTION On 19th May 2015, Introduction to Immunology was organized a field trip to Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) in Ipoh, Perak. It involved all students that took Introduction to Immunology course. The trip was escorted by the course’s lecturer, Madam Nor Dini Rusli. HISTORY OF VRI Veterinary Research Institute (VRI), Ipoh, Perak is one section in the Division of Research and Innovation, Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industrian Malaysia. It was established in 1984 in temporary premises Hospital Bahagia, Tanjong Rambutan, Perak and it was formerly known as the Federal Research Laboratory. VRI today has been moved to its present location in Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah, Ipoh in 1953. It covers an area of â€‹â€‹14.4 hectares. At that time, led by Director of Research VRI and assisted by 131 personnel comprising 13 Veterinary Surgeons 11 Research Officer, 2nd Assistant Veterinary Officer, 47 Laboratory Assistant, Veterinary Assistant 7 and 51 support staff. Since then, VRI has been expanded to meet the growing demand in the livestock industry. In 2008, VRI made history as recommended by international bodies recognized as FAO’s regional reference laboratories (Regional Reference Center) for HPAI disease (bird flu) and ND (Newcastle Disease). Recognition was also given by ASEAN secretariat own and OIE. This is the highest international recognition received by VRI. This recognition is based on the ability of VRI, complete research infrastructures (BSL3, BSCL3, Unit SPF and others) as well as excellent service record in addressing the epidemic situation in the national and international levels. Therefore, the scope of activities and services that are played VRI will increase in line with current developments. VISION AND MISSION OF VRI Vision Cooperation between the Veterinary Research Institute and the livestock industry by providing support services in the field of research in terms of health care practices based on proper bicultural, humane approach in the treatment of livestock and environmentally friendly use of resources. Mission We are committed to supporting the growth of animal industry by providing excellent services in research, diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of animal diseases through disease detection, advisory services and quality monitoring conducted by experts using the latest techniques. FUNCTION OF VRI Animal health research with main focus on economically important livestock diseases and zoonotic diseases; Produce and commercialize vaccines, antigens, antisera, conjugates and biological materials for economically important livestock diseases and zoonotic diseases; Providing efficient diagnostic service for instant detection, response and effectively control animal diseases; Being a national reference center for the laboratories of the country; Providing advice, consultation, surveillance and monitoring of elimination, control and treatment of animal diseases that are new and re-emerging diseases; and Provide personal training to the Department of Veterinary Services, Animal Industry, the Technical Cooperation Programme Malaysia, University, College and other agencies, whether within or outside the country. SECTIONS AND UNITS OF VRI Sections Section Multimedia and Information System (MIMS) section of Pathology Section of Parasitology and Hematology Bacteriology Section Bird Bacteriology section Mammals Section Virology Poultry Section Virology Mammals section of Biochemistry Serology section section Immunoassay Section Monoclonal Antibodies Zoonotic section and Exotic Bacterial Vaccines section Section Vaccine Virus Unit Administration and Finance Unit Unit Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Laboratory Animal Unit Animal Unit Donors Animal Experiment Unit Training Unit / School OBJECTIVES To learn the immunological techniques practically. To understand the purpose of immunological techniques. To obtain extra knowledge in Immunology field. METHODS OF TESTS a) SEROLOGY SECTION COMPLEMENT FIXATION TEST (CFT) OF BRUCELLOSIS Complement fixation test is commonly used for serological diagnosis of Brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep. This test consists of two stages of reactions and requires a total of five components. Five components of Brucellosis Complement Fixation Test Serum sample : Antibody Antigen : Standardized antigen diluted to working strength Complement : Pooled guinea-pig serum. 1¼ Minimum Haemolytic Dose (MHD) is used Sheep red blood cell : Sheep blood collected in Alsever’s solution and stored in 4 ÌŠ C. Immediately before use, the cell are washed and suspended as a 3% concentration in VBS. Haemolysin : Rabbit anti-sheep red blood cells serum. 5 MHD is used. For CFT indicator system, the 3% sheep red blood cells are sensitized with equal volume of 5 MHD of hemolysin. This mixture is also known as Haemolytic system. Two stages of reactions in Brucellosis CFT Stage 1 Serum Stage 2 Serum When antibody is present in the serum sample, complement is fixed which is indicated by the Haemolytic System (Sheep RBC Haemolysin) as ‘no lysis’. Meanwhile, when antibody is absent in the serum sample, complement remains free which is indicated by Haemolytic System as ‘lysis’. Positive Negative No lysis Lysis Materials Test serum- heat inactivated in waterbath Known positive serum Known negative serum Standardised Brucella abortus antigen for B. abortus CFT (diluted to working strength) Standardised Brucella melitensis antigen for B. melitensis CFT (diluted to working strength). Complement – guinea-pig serum. 1¼ (MHD) is used Haemolytic system Diluent- Veronal buffer saline Equipments 96-wells microtitre plates with round (U) bottom Diluter machine Multichannel pipette- adjustable to 150 µl 25 µl and 50 µl multichannel dispenser Incubator 37 ÌŠ C Waterbath 37 ÌŠ C Waterbath 58 ÌŠ C Waterbath 62 ÌŠ C Plate shaker Test Procedure Place 150 µl of undiluted serum in row H. Add 25 µl of diluents to all wells in rows A to G. Make 2-fold serial dilutions by transferring 25 µl undiluted serum fro row H to G onwards until row B. Discard 25 µl of the mixture from row B. Add 25 µl of undiluted serum from row H to row A (serum control well). Mix and discard 25 µl. Add 25 µl of standardized antigen to all wells in rows B to G. Add 25 µl of diluents to row A to replace the volume of antigen. Add 25 µl of 1¼ MHD of complement to all wells in rows A to G. Shake the plates and incubate at 37 ÌŠ C for 30 minutes. Remove paltes from incubator and add 50 µl of haemolytic system. Shake the plates and incubate at 37 ÌŠ C for 15 minutes. Remove plates from incubator and shake the plates, incubate for another 15 minutes. Remove plate from incubator, shake and leave at room temperature for several hours tp allow unlysed cells to settle down. Read the results. Interpretation of result Result No haemolysis complete fixation 4 25% haemolysis 75% fixation 3 50% haemolysis 50% fixation 2 75% haemolysis 25% fixation 1 Complete haemolysis no fixation 0 Interpretation ≤ ½ Negative 2/2 – ¼ Doubtful ≥ 2/4 Positive Quality control Each batch has five controls Serum anti-complementary control (A/C) in row A Negative control using a known negative serum Positive control using a known positive control Complement control Haemolytic system control Complement control (back titration) procedure Place 25 µl of VBS to wells in row H. Add 25 µl of complement to all wells in rows A to G. In row F, mix well and transfer 25 µl to well in row E. In row E, mix well and discard 25 µl to well in row E. Add 25 µl of VBS to all wells in rows D, E to F. Add 25 µl of antigen to all wells. Shake the plates and incubate at 37 ÌŠ C for 30 minutes. Remove plates from incubator and add 50 µl of haemolytic system. Shake the plates and incubate at 37 ÌŠ C for 15 minutes. Remove plates from incubator and shake the plates, incubate for another 15 minutes. Remove plate from incubator, shake and leave at room temperature for several hours to allow unlysed cells to settle down. b) IMMUNOASSAY SECTION The Immunoassay Section of VRI was created for several purposes such as : To diagnose veterinary diseases such as Nipah, Classical Swine Fever, Q fever, Brucellosis and etc. by using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA) technique. To provide theoretical and practical training courses to Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) staffs, students, and other relevant personnel. To provide advices to clients regarding screening and diagnostic tests on veterinary diseases via immunological and ELISA techniques. The activities conducted in Immunoassay Section include : To detect serum antibody of particular disease by ELISA technique. Research and development on immunological and ELISA techniques. To train DVS staff, students and relevant personnel on the specialized skills. The Immunoasaay Section routine work : ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBANT ASSAY (ELISA) The types of ELISA can be categorized into three : Direct ELISA Indirect ELISA Competitive ELISA Typically, immunoassay unit at VRI performing indirect ELISA since it is the easiest technique to be conducted, conventional, but effective. The types of tests in Immunoassay Section involves : Nipah on various animal species Brucellosis on cow Classical Wine Fever on pig Q fever on livestock Haemorrhagic septicaemia on cow Bovine Viral Disease Malignant Catarrhal Fever Infectious Bovine Rhino Caprine Athritis Encephalitis Contagious Bovine Pleural Pneumonia The principle of ELISA include : ELISA is one form of Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). It is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. ELISA is a 96-well plate assay utilizing a reporting enzyme that is conjugated to either an antibody or an antigen. Enzyme activity is a direct function for the amount of the antibody bound. The enzyme is detected by adding substrate and looking for a change in colour that can be measured in a specialized spectrophotometer, the plate reader. The procedure of indirect ELISA : Buffer Preparation 1. Bicarbonate/carbonate coating buffer (100 mM) Antigen or antibody should be diluted in coating buffer to immobilize them to the wells: 3.03 g Na2CO3 6.0 g NaHCO3 1000 ml distilled water, pH 9.6 2. PBS: 1.16 g Na2HPO4 0.1 g KCl 0.1 g K3PO4 4.0 g NaCl (500 ml distilled water) pH 7.4 3. Blocking solution: Commonly used blocking agents are 1% BSA , serum, non-fat dry milk, casein, gelatin in PBS. 4. Wash solution: Usually PBS or Tris -buffered saline (pH 7.4) with detergent such as 0.05% (v/v) Tween20 (TBST). 5. Antibody dilution buffer: Primary and secondary antibody should be diluted in 1x blocking solution to reduce non-specific binding. Protocol 1. Dilute antigen to a final concentration of 1-20 μg/ml using PBS or Bicarbonate/carbonate coating buffer. Coat the wells of a PVC microtiter plate with the antigen by pipeting 50μl of the antigen dilution in the top wells of the plate. Dilute down the plate as required. Seal the plate and incubate overnight at 4°C or 2 h at room temperature. 2. Wash plate 3 times with PBS. 3. Block the remaining protein-binding sites in the coated wells by adding 200 μl blocking buffer, 5% non fat dry milk/PBS, per well. Alternative blocking reagents include BlockACE or BSA. 4. Cover the plate with an adhesive plastic and incubate for at least 2 h at room temperature or, if more convenient, overnight at 4°C. 5. Wash the plate 3 times with PBS. 6. Add 100 μl of diluted primary antibody to each well. 7. Cover the plate with an adhesive plastic and incubate for 2 h at room temperature. 8. Wash the plate 4 times with PBS. 9. Add 100 μl of conjugated secondary antibody, diluted at the optimal concentration (according to the manufacturer) in blocking buffer immediately before use. 10. Cover the plate with an adhesive plastic and incubate for 1-2 h at room temperature. 11. Wash the plate 5 times with PBS. 12. Dispense 100 μl (or 50 μl) of the substrate solution per well with a multichannel pipette or a multipipette. 13. After sufficient color development (if it is necessary) add 50-100μl of stop solution to the wells. 14. Record the absorbance at 450 nm on a plate reader within 30 minutes of stopping the reaction. c) BACTERIOLOGY SECTION MAMMALS BACTERIOLOGY Identification Mammals bacteriology section perform isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi for further investigation and disease (diagnosis), conduct research related to the field of bacteriology animal diseases, monitoring of disease and as a reference laboratory for the veterinary laboratory or private laboratory in diagnostic bacteriology. This section is also the reference laboratory for Salmonella and Eschnerichia penserotipan coli and also testing for microbiological quality of Veterinary Public Health as milk quality testing. Function Conducting research in the field of bacteriology Perform laboratory diagnostics of animal diseases and antimicrobial susceptibility testing ‘veterinary important bacteria Testing the microbiological quality of Veterinary Public Health Testing for microbiological quality control of milk prices for farmers To carry out the project impact of livestock disease problem solving where necessary Store and manage cultural stock of bacteria that INTERESTED veterinary Provide training to university students, MTCP and employees of government departments and private BIRDS BACTERIOLOGY Identification Poultry bacteriology section is one section in the Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh, which provides diagnostic services and research.In addition, the sections also engaged in the production of antigen as well as provide training to government employees and students of institutions of higher learning. Function Isolation and identification of bacteria running a special for the investigation of veterinary diseases, congenital Mycoplasma sp, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Haemophilus sp, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP) Conducting research on the bacteria Mycoplasma sp, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Haemophilus sp, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP) Producing antigen Salmonella, Mycoplasma pen and antigen, genes and MASEN for the livestock industry Provide training to students of universities / colleges BENEFITS OF FIELD TRIP 1) Deep understand about immunological techniques During lecture session of Introduction to Immunology subject in university, we actually have been exposed about immunological techniques. Yet so, the exposure in lecture session was not completely explaining the details methods of every test because it is solely based on theory instead of practically. By joining the field trip in VRI, Ipoh, we get extra knowledge about the immunological techniques and related matters with animal health and immunology. Moreover, we can see directly a few equipments and materials involve in immunological techniques with our own eyes and get the chance to handle with them. Since VRI has experts in immunological techniques, they knew a lot about this field. They were able to explain every single thing related with the techniques until we fully understood. 2) Increase the number of enthusiasts towards immunology course As we know, immunology is basically related with laboratory works and research. All this while, we mostly having a field trip to the farm where we need to handle with ruminants, aquaculture and poultry animals. But this time, we got new experience involved in laboratory works which is more interesting and different work environment. Undoubtedly, immunology field is a branch of study that full of its own uniqueness. I personally have long been interested in immunology and this field trip gave me opportunity to be in real situation of laboratory work particularly in immunology. Thus, it increases my passion to study in immunology. 3) May produce more female immunologist in the future As Animal Husbandry students, we often exposed to farming work and most of occupational option related with farm. Eventhough females are not encouraged to work in farm due to the toughness, but all this while we cannot see any other choice of job that completely suitable for female who study in Animal Husbandry. So, after observing that VRI has many female workers, it seems like females has other job option which is to work in immunology laboratory one day instead of in farm because laboratory work is not as tough as working in farm. In fact, immunology field can be considered appropriate for females because it requires thoroughness corresponding to the nature of a woman conscientious. After all, this world will has more female immunologist in the future. CONCLUSION To sum up, the objectives of the field trip were achieved. We were able to learn the common immunological techniques used such as Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and ELISA and manage to understand them well. The information obtained from the field trip at VRI can be used in future notably for those who wants to further study in Immunology. RECOMMENDATION For better field trip in the future, supposedly we will be provided comfortably enough space for all of us to hear the explanation and gather up all information in order to achieve the objectives of the field trip. Since we are in large group, we should be divided into groups and each group goes to different sections to collect information and then rotate the turn of the groups to enter the sections. This ensure that everyone can clearly catch up every single words come out from the mouth of speakers. In fact, if one of the groups misses out some information, other group can collect information during their turn and then can share the information to all. Besides that, time provided for a field trip excluding the time spent for whole journey should be enough to make sure we able to collect all information. With a long and tired journey, it is not worth to have only two to three hours of time to learn important things related with our course. It should be started early in the morning and then continue until evening with two times short breaks between sessions. This can give extra exposure to the students and able to achieve the aim of the field trip but still have time to rest for a while to refresh our body and brain. REFERENCES Laman Web Rasmi Institut Penyelidikan Veterinar Perkhidmatan Jabatan Veterinar. Retrieved 27th May 2015 from http://www.dvsvri.gov.my/v3/. Indirect ELISA Protocol. ELISA Encyclopedia. Sino Biological Incorporation. Retrieved 28thMay 2015 from http://www.elisa-antibody.com/. Immunology Field Visit Report