Get help from the best in academic writing.

What Is The Main Purpose Of A Satellite Media Essay

A satellite is basically any object that revolves around a planet in a circular or elliptical path. The moon is Earth’s original, natural satellite, and there are many manmade (artificial) satellites, usually closer to Earth. The path a satellite follows is an orbit. In the orbit, the farthest point from Earth is the apogee, and the nearest point is the perigee. Artificial satellites generally are not mass-produced. Most satellites are custom built to perform their intended functions. Exceptions include the GPS satellites (with over 20 copies in orbit) and the Iridium satellites (with over 60 copies in orbit). Approximately 23,000 items of space junk — objects large enough to track with radar that were inadvertently placed in orbit or have outlived their usefulness — are floating above Earth. The actual number varies depending on which agency is counting. Payloads that go into the wrong orbit, satellites with run-down batteries and leftover rocket boosters all contribute to the count. This online catalog of satellites has almost 26,000 entries! Although anything that is in orbit around Earth is technically a satellite, the term “satellite” is typically used to describe a useful object placed in orbit purposely to perform some specific mission or task. In other words, satellite also refers to an ‘artificial satellite’ also which is a man-made object that orbits the Earth or another body. Scientists may also use the term to refer to ‘natural satellite’. Natural Satellite Moon, the common noun, is used to mean any natural satellite. There are at least 140 moons within the solar system and in fact many others orbiting the planets of other stars. There is a standard model of moon formation from the same collapsing region of protoplanetary disk. This give rise to primary. There are also exceptions or variations in this regard. Several moons are thought to be captured asteroids; others may be fragments of larger moons collapsed by impacts, a portion of the planet itself blasted into orbit by a large impact. As most moons are known only through a few observations via investigations or telescopes, most theories about their origins are still uncertain. Artificial Satellites An artificial satellite is a manufactured object that continuously orbits Earth or some other body in space. Most artificial satellites orbit Earth. People use them to study the universe, help forecast the weather, transfer telephone calls over the oceans, assist in the navigation of ships and aircraft, monitor crops and other resources, and support military activities. Artificial satellites also have orbited the moon, the sun, asteroids, and the planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Such satellites mainly gather information about the bodies they orbit. Piloted spacecraft in orbit, such as space capsules, space shuttle orbiters, and space stations, are also considered artificial satellites. So, too, are orbiting pieces of “space junk,” such as burned-out rocket boosters and empty fuel tanks that have not fallen to Earth. Artificial satellites differ from natural satellites, natural objects that orbit a planet. Earth’s moon is a natural satellite. The Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. Since then, the United States and about 40 other countries have developed, launched, and operated satellites. Today, about 3,000 useful satellites and 6,000 pieces of space junk are orbiting Earth. Satellite orbits Satellite orbits have a variety of shapes. Some are circular, while others are highly elliptical (egg-shaped). Orbits also vary in altitude. Some circular orbits, for example, are just above the atmosphere at an altitude of about 155 miles (250 kilometers), while others are more than 20,000 miles (32,200 kilometers) above Earth. The greater the altitude, the longer the orbital period — the time it takes a satellite to complete one orbit. A satellite remains in orbit because of a balance between the satellite’s velocity (speed at which it would travel in a straight line) and the gravitational force between the satellite and Earth. Were it not for the pull of gravity, a satellite’s velocity would send it flying away from Earth in a straight line. But were it not for velocity, gravity would pull a satellite back to Earth. To help understand the balance between gravity and velocity, consider what happens when a small weight is attached to a string and swung in a circle. If the string were to break, the weight would fly off in a straight line. However, the string acts like gravity, keeping the weight in its orbit. The weight and string can also show the relationship between a satellite’s altitude and its orbital period. A long string is like a high altitude. The weight takes a relatively long time to complete one circle. A short string is like a low altitude. The weight has a relatively short orbital period. Many types of orbits exist, but most artificial satellites orbiting Earth travel in one of four types: (1) high altitude, geosynchronous; (2) medium altitude, (3) sun-synchronous, polar; and (4) low altitude. Most orbits of these four types are circular. A high altitude, geosynchronous orbit lies above the equator at an altitude of about 22,300 miles (35,900 kilometers). A satellite in this orbit travels around Earth’s axis in exactly the same time, and in the same direction, as Earth rotates about its axis. Thus, as seen from Earth, the satellite always appears at the same place in the sky overhead. To boost a satellite into this orbit requires a large, powerful launch vehicle. A medium altitude orbit has an altitude of about 12,400 miles (20,000 kilometers) and an orbital period of 12 hours. The orbit is outside Earth’s atmosphere and is thus very stable. Radio signals sent from a satellite at medium altitude can be received over a large area of Earth’s surface. The stability and wide coverage of the orbit make it ideal for navigation satellites. A sun-synchronous, polar orbit has a fairly low altitude and passes almost directly over the North and South poles. A slow drift of the orbit’s position is coordinated with Earth’s movement around the sun in such a way that the satellite always crosses the equator at the same local time on Earth. Because the satellite flies over all latitudes, its instruments can gather information on almost the entire surface of Earth. One example of this type of orbit is that of the TERRA Earth Observing System’s NOAA-H satellite. This satellite studies how natural cycles and human activities affect Earth’s climate. The altitude of its orbit is 438 miles (705 kilometers), and the orbital period is 99 minutes. When the satellite crosses the equator, the local time is always either 10:30 a.m. or 10:30 p.m. A low altitude orbit is just above Earth’s atmosphere, where there is almost no air to cause drag on the spacecraft and reduce its speed. Less energy is required to launch a satellite into this type of orbit than into any other orbit. Satellites that point toward deep space and provide scientific information generally operate in this type of orbit. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, operates at an altitude of about 380 miles (610 kilometers), with an orbital period of 97 minutes. Types of artificial satellites Artificial satellites are classified according to their mission. There are six main types of artificial satellites: (1) scientific research, (2) weather, (3) communications, (4) navigation, (5) Earth observing, and (6) military. Scientific research satellites gather data for scientific analysis. These satellites are usually designed to perform one of three kinds of missions. (1) Some gather information about the composition and effects of the space near Earth. They may be placed in any of various orbits, depending on the type of measurements they are to make. (2) Other satellites record changes in Earth and its atmosphere. Many of them travel in sun-synchronous, polar orbits. (3) Still others observe planets, stars, and other distant objects. Most of these satellites operate in low altitude orbits. Scientific research satellites also orbit other planets, the moon, and the sun. Weather Satellites Weather satellites help scientists study weather patterns and forecast the weather. Weather satellites observe the atmospheric conditions over large areas. Some weather satellites travel in a sun-synchronous, polar orbit, from which they make close, detailed observations of weather over the entire Earth. Their instruments measure cloud cover, temperature, air pressure, precipitation, and the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Because these satellites always observe Earth at the same local time of day, scientists can easily compare weather data collected under constant sunlight conditions. The network of weather satellites in these orbits also functions as a search and rescue system. They are equipped to detect distress signals from all commercial, and many private, planes and ships. Other weather satellites are placed in high altitude, geosynchronous orbits. From these orbits, they can always observe weather activity over nearly half the surface of Earth at the same time. These satellites photograph changing cloud formations. They also produce infrared images, which show the amount of heat coming from Earth and the clouds. Communication Satellites Communications satellites serve as relay stations, receiving radio signals from one location and transmitting them to another. A communications satellite can relay several television programs or many thousands of telephone calls at once. Communications satellites are usually put in a high altitude, geosynchronous orbit over a ground station. A ground station has a large dish antenna for transmitting and receiving radio signals. Sometimes, a group of low orbit communications satellites arranged in a network, called a constellation, work together by relaying information to each other and to users on the ground. Countries and commercial organizations, such as television broadcasters and telephone companies, use these satellites continuously. Navigation Satellites Navigation satellites enable operators of aircraft, ships, and land vehicles anywhere on Earth to determine their locations with great accuracy. Hikers and other people on foot can also use the satellites for this purpose. The satellites send out radio signals that are picked up by a computerized receiver carried on a vehicle or held in the hand. Navigation satellites operate in networks, and signals from a network can reach receivers anywhere on Earth. The receiver calculates its distance from at least three satellites whose signals it has received. It uses this information to determine its location. Earth Observing Satellites Earth observing satellites are used to map and monitor our planet’s resources and ever-changing chemical life cycles. They follow sun-synchronous, polar orbits. Under constant, consistent illumination from the sun, they take pictures in different colors of visible light and non-visible radiation. Computers on Earth combine and analyze the pictures. Scientists use Earth observing satellites to locate mineral deposits, to determine the location and size of freshwater supplies, to identify sources of pollution and study its effects, and to detect the spread of disease in crops and forests. Military Satellites Military satellites include weather, communications, navigation, and Earth observing satellites used for military purposes. Some military satellites — often called “spy satellites” — can detect the launch of missiles, the course of ships at sea, and the movement of military equipment on the ground. The life and death of a satellite Building a satellite Every satellite carries special instruments that enable it to perform its mission. For example, a satellite that studies the universe has a telescope. A satellite that helps forecast the weather carries cameras to track the movement of clouds. In addition to such mission-specific instruments, all satellites have basic subsystems; groups of devices that help the instruments work together and keep the satellite operating. For example, a power subsystem generates, stores, and distributes a satellite’s electric power. This subsystem may include panels of solar cells that gather energy from the sun. Command and data handling subsystems consist of computers that gather and process data from the instruments and execute commands from Earth. A satellite’s instruments and subsystems are designed, built, and tested individually. Workers install them on the satellite one at a time until the satellite is complete. Then the satellite is tested under conditions like those that the satellite will encounter during launch and while in space. If the satellite passes all tests, it is ready to be launched. Launching the satellite Space shuttles carry some satellites into space, but most satellites are launched by rockets that fall into the ocean after their fuel is spent. Many satellites require minor adjustments of their orbit before they begin to perform their function. Built-in rockets called thrusters make these adjustments. Once a satellite is placed into a stable orbit, it can remain there for a long time without further adjustment. Performing the mission Most satellites operate are directed from a control center on Earth. Computers and human operators at the control center monitor the satellite’s position, send instructions to its computers, and retrieve information that the satellite has gathered. The control center communicates with the satellite by radio. Ground stations within the satellite’s range send and receive the radio signals. A satellite does not usually receive constant direction from its control center. It is like an orbiting robot. It controls its solar panels to keep them pointed toward the sun and keeps its antennas ready to receive commands. Its instruments automatically collect information. Satellites in a high altitude, geosynchronous orbit are always in contact with Earth. Ground stations can contact satellites in low orbits as often as 12 times a day. During each contact, the satellite transmits information and receives instructions. Each contact must be completed during the time the satellite passes overhead — about 10 minutes. If some part of a satellite breaks down, but the satellite remains capable of doing useful work, the satellite owner usually will continue to operate it. In some cases, ground controllers can repair or reprogram the satellite. In rare instances, space shuttle crews have retrieved and repaired satellites in space. If the satellite can no longer perform usefully and cannot be repaired or reprogrammed, operators from the control center will send a signal to shut it off. Falling from orbit A satellite remains in orbit until its velocity decreases and gravitational force pulls it down into a relatively dense part of the atmosphere. A satellite slows down due to occasional impact with air molecules in the upper atmosphere and the gentle pressure of the sun’s energy. When the gravitational force pulls the satellite down far enough into the atmosphere, the satellite rapidly compresses the air in front of it. This air becomes so hot that most or all of the satellite burns up. Importance of Satellite Satellites were exotic, top-secret devices. They were used primarily in a military capacity, for activities such as navigation and espionage. Now they are an essential part of our daily lives. We see and recognize their use in weather reports, television transmission by DIRECTV and the DISH Network, and everyday telephone calls. In many other instances, satellites play a background role that escapes our notice: Some newspapers and magazines are more timely because they transmit their text and images to multiple printing sites via satellite to speed local distribution. Before sending signals down the wire into our houses, cable television depends on satellites to distribute its transmissions. The most reliable taxi and limousine drivers are sometimes using the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to take us to the proper destination. The goods we buy often reach distributors and retailers more efficiently and safely because trucking firms track the progress of their vehicles with the same GPS. Sometimes firms will even tell their drivers that they are driving too fast. Emergency radio beacons from downed aircraft and distressed ships may reach search-and-rescue teams when satellites relay the signal. Miniaturized satellite Classification: Minisatellite Microsatellite Nanosatellite Picosatellite Miniaturized satellites are artificial satellites of ordinarily low weights and small sizes, usually under 500 kg (1,100 lb.). While all such satellites can be referred to as small satellites, different classifications are used to categorize them based on mass as given below. One reason for miniaturizing satellites is to reduce the cost: heavier satellites require larger rockets of greater cost to finance; smaller and lighter satellites require smaller and cheaper launch vehicles and can sometimes be launched in multiples. They can also be launched ‘piggyback’, using excess capacity on larger launch vehicles. Miniaturized satellites allow for cheaper designs as well as ease of mass production, although few satellites of any size other than ‘communications constellations’ where dozens of satellites are used to cover the globe have been mass produced in practice. Besides the cost issue, the main motivation for the use of miniaturized satellites is the opportunity to enable missions that a larger satellite could not accomplish, such as: Constellations for low data rate communications. Using formations to gather data from multiple points. In-orbit inspection of larger satellites. Minisatellite The term “minisatellite” usually refers to an artificial satellite with a “wet mass” (including fuel) between 100 and 500 kg (220 and 1,100 lb.), though these are usually simply called “small satellites”. Minisatellites are usually simpler but use the same technologies as larger satellites. Microsatellite Microsatellite or “microsat” is usually applied to the name of an artificial satellite with a wet mass between 10 and 100 kg (22 and 220 lb.). However, this is not an official convention and sometimes microsat can refer to satellites larger than that. Sometimes designs or proposed designs of these types have microsatellites working together or in a formation. The generic term “small satellite” is also sometimes used. Nanosatellite The term “nanosatellite” or “nanosat” is usually applied to the name of an artificial satellite with a wet mass between 1 and 10 kg (2.2 and 22 lb.). Again designs and proposed designs of these types usually have multiple nanosatellites working together or in formation (sometimes the term “swarm” is applied). Some designs require a larger “mother” satellite for communication with ground controllers or for launching and docking with nanosatellites. Picosatellite Picosatellite or “picosat” (not to be confused with the PICOSat series of microsatellites) is usually applied to the name of an artificial satellite with a wet mass between .1 and 1 kg (0.22 and 2.2 lb.). Again designs and proposed designs of these types usually have multiple Picosatellites working together or in formation (sometimes the term “swarm” is applied). Some designs require a larger “mother” satellite for communication with ground controllers or for launching and docking with Picosatellite. The CubeSat design, with 1 kg maximum mass, is an example of a large Picosatellite . Cube Sat A CubeSat is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that usually has a volume of exactly one liter (10 cm cube), weighs no more than 1.33 kilogram, and typically uses commercial off-the-shelf electronics components. CubeSat isometric drawing Since CubeSats are all 10×10 cm (regardless of length) they can all be launched and deployed using a common deployment system. CubeSats are typically launched and deployed from a mechanism called a Poly-Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), also developed and built by Cal Poly. The P-POD is a rectangular box with a door and a spring mechanism. It is made up of anodized aluminum. They are mounted to a launch vehicle and carry CubeSats into orbit and deploy them once the proper signal is received from the launch vehicle. The P-POD Mk III has capacity for three 1U CubeSats however, since three 1U CubeSats are exactly the same size as one 3U CubeSat, and two 1U CubeSats are the same size as one 2U CubeSat, the P-POD can deploy 1U, 2U, or 3U CubeSats in any combination up to a maximum volume of 3U. CubeSats are being used for everything from environmental sensing and fundamental biology research to testing new space flight systems. Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) and cross section CubeSat forms a cost-effective independent means of getting a payload into orbit. Most CubeSats carry one or two scientific instruments as their primary mission payload. Several companies and research institutes offer regular launch opportunities in clusters of several cubes. ISC Kosmotras and Eurokot are two companies that offer such services. The biggest advantage of Nano- and Pico-satellites is that they are a bargain. Most of the cost saving comes at the launch stage. Unlike conventional satellites, they don’t need a dedicated launch vehicle where they are the primary payload. Their affordability also comes from being built with off-the-shelf electronic circuit chips such as microprocessors and radio frequency transmitters and receivers. These are the same components that are inside smart phones, hand-held Global Positioning system units, and digital cameras.
NUR 3289 Miami Dade College Concept of Frailty in Gerontology Paper.

Instructions:Read the Frailty and Sarcopenia article. Write a summary in you own words about the concept of frailty.Describe what you believe the concept of frailty could be used for by a gerontologist and researcher in gerontology?Consider the use of the frailty as a concept, now describe how it could be used by a geriatrician working in the clinical arena. Summarized the ideal of frailty in gerontology and the many uses that you can think of.Your paper should be:One (1) page or more.Use factual information from the textbook and/or appropriate articles and websites.Cite your sources – type references according to the APA Style Guide.
NUR 3289 Miami Dade College Concept of Frailty in Gerontology Paper

Missouri Baptist Is Adulthood Memory of Childhood Abuse Unreliable Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Controversy abounds in the field of psychology, and the subfield of Cognitive Psychology is no different. In this assignment, you will read two articles that debate both sides of relevant issues in cognition. Then, you will describe and summarize the debate and choose which side you agree with, defending that position in written form. In other words, you should give reasons defending why you agree with a certain side. Additional research on your part can and should be included. Each paper that you write (one for the first article that you read and one for the second article that you read) should be a minimum of four typewritten pages, double-spaced with one-inch margins. Both papers should be turned in together as one paper and should be submitted through Canvas. So, your final paper will be at least eight pages, not including the title and reference pages. Any papers turned in after the due date qualify for half credit only, for up to one week–no exceptions. Papers more than one week late will not be accepted. You may choose two articles from the following four:
Missouri Baptist Is Adulthood Memory of Childhood Abuse Unreliable Discussion

Week 10 6243

Week 10 6243. I’m stuck on a Nursing question and need an explanation.

instructions: Click the link above to go to the discussion forum and participate in this week’s discussion.
This week we will discuss the case of a 72-year-old woman “Alice” with severe depression, substance use, and multiple medical complications. After reading the case study, answer the following questions with rationales and post to the discussion forum: 1) From the information given, what do you think her primary diagnosis is? Provide evidence to support your answer; 2) Of the following choices, what would you do: A. discontinue the antipsychotic, B. Switch the antipsychotic; C. Add an antidepressant; D. Add mood stabilizer; E. Switch antipsychotic plus add antidepressant; F. Add mood stabilizer plus antidepressant; G. None of the above. 3) If you would give an antidepressant, which one would you start?; 4) If you would add an antipsychotic, which one would you give?; 5) If you would give a mood stabilizer, which would you give? and 6) How would you respond to her current level of drinking? 7) Would you prescribe varenicline as requested by her daughter? 8) How does the biology of aging impact the pharmacological treatment of older adults?
Week 10 6243

INT 113 Rasmussen College Spain Country Analysis Presentation

professional essay writers INT 113 Rasmussen College Spain Country Analysis Presentation.

You are now ready to make your final recommendations for your selected country and submit your comprehensive country analysis presentation using the Final Project Presentation Template provided.Your presentation will include cultural, political, and economic research that may impact business operations and decisions that you have developed throughout the course. You will determine your final recommendations, communicating all in your PowerPoint presentation. The research will be communicated in presentation format, giving you the opportunity to practice business communication skills. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final project. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course.Also upload your presentation to the Module Eight discussion to share your final project with your classmates.For additional details, please refer to the following documents:Final Project Guidelines and RubricFinal Project Presentation TemplateFinal Project GuideI have include the last discussion and rubric for what needs to be put into this last part of this project.Economic IntegrationAimee Darwin posted Aug 4, 2020 9:05 PM Major Trading PartnersExports: France, Italy, Germany, The United Kingdom, Portugal.Imports: Germany, United States, China, Italy, France.Major Imports/ExportsExports:Intermediate goods19.2Metals 75. 4Textile 6. 95Plastic or Rubber 2.7Imports:Fuels 27.4Hides and Skins 45.7Weapons 36.9Chemicals, refined oil products, transport equipment.Regional Trade Agreements and member countries.European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Spain is a member of the European Union (EU) from 1986.Regional economic integration has made it quite easy for Spain to conduct business with other countries within the region in a great way. It has reduced the cost of trade through elimination of barriers. The integration also improves the availability of business commodities and services across between Spain and the other nations like Germany, France, among others. Opportunities for trade are increased due to the opening of more business branches and trading activities in the country. Opportunities for trade are also increased by the availability of good and services that come as a result of the open borders (Bown, 2017).The observation made on the key elements of the regional economic integration highlights several impacts on the organization’s decision to invest. First the opening of the borders for foreign countries may make it relatively challenging to the domestic organizations to operate due to the competition. The organizations may be reluctant on making decisions to invest due to the threats posed by the foreign competitors who get easy entry into the country (Howse, 2015).ReferencesBown, C. P. (2017). Mega‐regional Trade Agreements and the Future of the WTO. Global Policy, 8(1), 107-112.Howse, R. (2015). Regulatory cooperation, regional trade agreements, and world trade law: conflict or complementarity. Law & Contemp. Probs., 78, 137.James McCordAugust 9 at 6:54 PMAs we wrap up this module, what do you think about your country and its trading partners? Do the countries they do business with create more opportunities for trade or just increase the competition? What do you think about your country versus your classmates’ country?Feedback for 6-1 Checkpoint Submission TwoSubmission FeedbackOverall FeedbackAimee, thanks for your checkpoint submission. Remember that you get full points for turning this in. All of my comments are to help you for your final project and won’t count off of your grade. Really great Rationale here. Solid slides overall, good business observations here. I don’t see where you included any maps but one. Also, some graphics would be good. That is great. Everything looks completed and well done! Really a good job here! This was solid overall and looks like it is finished except what is mentioned. Great job. Score90 / 90 – AFeedback DateAug 12, 2020 12:33 PMAssignment6-1 Checkpoint Submission TwoMake sure you read this feed back because the Professor said what was needed.
INT 113 Rasmussen College Spain Country Analysis Presentation

Week 6 Discussion: Hot Topic

Week 6 Discussion: Hot Topic.

**Please Note: This Hot Topic Assignment is linked to your Hot Topic DiscussionPurposeThis assignment prompts you to identify and discuss current trends in professional nursing. You must search the Internet for one “hot topic” that relates to ethics or professional issues in nursing and describe this according to the rubric below.Course OutcomesCO 1: Consider the role of the professional nurse in relation to the concepts of integrity and ethical accountability within nursing practice. (PO 4, 6)CO 2: Explore the impact of contemporary health care issues on the role of the professional nurse. (PO 7)Due DateHot Topic is due Sunday end of Week 6 by 11:59 p.m. MT.PointsThe Hot Topic assignment is worth 100 points.DirectionsReview the types of topics that are covered in this course (i.e., professional, ethical, and legal issues).Make sure you review the grading criteria in the rubric.Selection of a Hot Topic:Search the Internet for a current story related to one of the course topics. Topics may be ethical, legal, political, or professional in nature. The story must be no older than 1 year. Do not use wikis, Wikipedia, Facebook, or other social media. Instead, look for stories that may be found in, but not limited to, online news sites, professional organizations’ issues pages, or journal editorials.Explain in excellent detail how the topic is related to the course. State the date when the story appeared (no more than 1 year old).Provide the location of the story on the internet:Identify the name of the site you selectedProvide a working URL/web addressSummarize the story in detail:Write two to three well-developed paragraphs that summarize the main points of the story.Determine what nursing issue is reflected in the story and key people involvedShare your viewpoint about the story as it relates to nurses and the nursing profession.Mechanics and organization of good scholarly writing: See rubric for detail.
Week 6 Discussion: Hot Topic

Nash Equilibrium Theory Essay

Introduction Nash equilibrium is a challenge that has acquired many increasing applications in both the internet and economics. It is evident from the internet that it is hard to count all the Nash equilibrium of a two player game. This is so even if the entry of the matrix is 0 or even 1. Nevertheless, the complexity which is involved in finding the Nash equilibrium is open and has been actually opposed as one of the most significant wide open problems in the complexity theory today. There is a new polynomial reduction given in finding the Nash equilibrium in the general bi-matrix games in finding Nash equilibrium in the games where all the playoffs are either 1 or 0 (Kim, 2004). Once a given problem is shown intractable in the in complexity theory, the research for the same shifts towards the directions of polynomial algorithms for approximation or modest goals and the exponential bounds which are lower for the restricted algorithm classes. We however conclude that Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally (Kim, 2000). Algorithm for the Nash equilibrium In calculating the Algorithm for Nash equilibrium, we give out a common algorithm for calculating the Nash equilibrium of the bi-matrix game within an exponential time. The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated. In the question, we will calculate the Nash equilibrium as follows: Let Si1 be the ith row of S1, and Sj2 be the jth column of S2 Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We then solve the linear program based on the 2n 3 variables: The variables: a, b ≥ 0, U, V, ᵟ The solution is then shown to the given conditions in a Nash equilibrium having the supports (S1, S2). The set of the constraints demands that the probabilities ai be non-negative and add up to one. They should also be 0 outside the required support with at least ᵟ within the desired support (Freund, 2006). The following charts show the Nash Equilibrium tables. The steps I used in calculating the Nash equilibrium. I examined the payoff matrix and determine what payoffs belong to whom I determined each player’s best response in all other actions of the other players, this process is done to all other players The Nash equilibrium hence exists where each player’s best response is similar to the other player’s best response For instance Step one Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) 2000(A) 101(B) 60(A) Step two We will write a custom Essay on Nash Equilibrium Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) (2000) 101(B) (60) Step three Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) 2000(A) (101) 60(A) Proof of equilibrium The algorithm is simple and enumerates all the pairs (S1, S2) where by S1 is the sub set of the pure strategies of the row player while S2 is the pure strategies for the column player. For every pair, the equilibrium is used to find the Nash equilibrium in case one exists with the specified supports. In case no Nash equilibrium exists with the supports, the algorithm terminates within the polynomial time and either asserts that there is no solution existing or for one with a ᵟ = 0. In the case latter case described, the solution to the problem will be a valid Nash equilibrium therefore the algorithm will find necessarily Nash equilibrium whenever it uses the initial algorithm on the support of the described Nash equilibrium. Hence, there exist at most the following in the solution: The 2m × 2n kind of pairs of the sets, therefore we get a total of (n m) 0(1) 2(m n) total time (Kim, 2000). Proof of negotiation algorithm The original proof of the existence of the Nash equilibrium is the Brouwer’s fixed point theorem. The proof is as follows: we can have the best of all correspondence for all other players with the relation from the set of the probability distributions over the profile of the opponent players to the set strategies as given in the supports, the profile of the mixed strategy of all the players except for player Si1. Analysis of negotiation algorithm Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by an assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally (Freund, 2006). Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally. Not sure if you can write a paper on Nash Equilibrium Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In calculating the Algorithm for Nash equilibrium, we give out a common algorithm for calculating the Nash equilibrium of the bi-matrix game within an exponential time. The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated. Autoregressive models The basic structure of an autoregressive model of the order p is indicated by the notation AR (p). It is defined as When the formulae are broken down into different sections that are used to determine the natural phenomena, its sub sections are as follows: are the parameters of the model in use C is the constant Is used to define the white noise (Friedman, 2001). For the prediction of natural phenomenon to occur using this formula, the model has to incorporate the whole autoregressive moving average model (Kim, 2000). Autoregressive moving average model To describe a standard ARMA equation we will use the example below which further breaks down the equations used in the autoregressive models. This model refers to a model with p autoregressive terms involved in an equation and q moving average terms in the same instance. Its combines the AR (p) and MA (q) of which the moving average model in the above equation is explained below MA (q) This model refers to moving average of the standard model of order q This is broken down into the following sectors of the equation to determine the outcome of moving averages in the combined model. θ1,…, θq are the limits μ is the expectation of the time series model εt,εt-1 is the white noise error terms. Example equation The path-order AR (AR(p)) Random Process is given by x(n) = −a(1)x(n − 1) − a(2)x(n − 2) − ・ ・ ・ − a(p)x(n − p) w(n) (1) where by; w(n) is white noise having variance σw2 (k), k = 1,… , p are the AR parameters. We assume that x(n) is real. The autocorrelation function of the AR process, rx(k), also satisfies the autoregressive property, this leads to the well-known Yule-Walker equations for the AR parameters rx(k)=- (k-i), k>- 1 Suppose the measurements used to estimate the AR parameters can be modeled as ˜x(n) = x(n) v(n) where v(n) is white noise having variance ¾2v, then the parameter estimates derived from the Yule-Walker equations will be biased since, r˜x(k) = rx(k) ±(k)¾2v where ±(k) is the Dirac delta function. It has been shown that the biased AR parameters produce a “flatter” AR spectrum since the estimated poles of the AR process are biased toward the center of the unit circle [1]. A number of methods have been described for estimating the AR parameters using noisy measurements, some of these methods are surveyed in [1, 5] (Freund, 2006). The Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations are defined as (R˜x − ¸B) u = 0p q (3), Where the dimensions of R˜x,B, and u are (p q) × (p 1) , (p q) × (p 1), and (p 1) × 1, respectively. The unknowns in (3) are u and ¸, so clearly, equality holds when ¸ = ¾2v and u = · 1 a(1) a(2)… a(p) ¸T. We observe that the first p equations are nonlinear in the AR parameters, u, and the measurement noise variance, The next q equations however are linear in u. In general there exist p distinct (¸, u) solving (3), the solution is taken to be that which corresponds to the minimum real value of ¸ solving (3). A number of authors have observed that solving the p nonlinear equations, in addition to the q linear equations can improve the parameter estimates [2, 3, 4]. In [5], a matrix pencil method based on the Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations was presented which was found to out-perform several other methods for AR-in noise parameter estimation. None of these papers have established the minimum number of linear equations that are required for the solution of the NCYW equations to be the unique, correct solution. It is clear that q ≥ p linear equations are sufficient to insure that the solution is unique, in this case, all other (¸, u) solving (3) are complex. However, the minimum value of q needed to insure a unique solution has not been established. This is an important consideration because using a large value of q, which would guarantee a unique solution, also implies computing more high-order autocorrelation lag estimates which can reduce the solution accuracy since these tend to have a larger estimation variance. Hence one would like to choose the smallest value of q that still guarantees a unique solution (Friedman, 2001). One might expect that since there are a total of p q equations in p 1 unknowns, fewer then q = p linear equations are needed. In other words, if only one linear equation were used, q = 1, this would still give p 1equations in p 1 unknowns, hence a unique solution could still exist. In this correspondence, we show that this is not the case and q ≥ p is also a necessary condition for there to exist a unique solution (Friedman, 2001). Conclusion The coalition proof of the Nash equilibrium concept applies to specify non cooperative surroundings where by players can freely share and discuss their game strategies but cannot make any changes or even binding commitments. The concept emphasizes the self enforcing immunization to deviations. The best response in the game in Nash equilibrium is therefore necessary for self-enforceability. This is not sufficient generally when players can deviate jointly in a way that is beneficial mutually. The proof Nash equilibrium refines the concept via a stronger conception of the self-enforceability that gives room for the multilateral deviations (Freund, 2006). Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally. To describe a standard ARMA equation we will use the example below which further breaks down the equations used in the autoregressive models. The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated (Freund, 2006). A number of authors have observed that solving the p nonlinear equations, in addition to the q linear equations can improve the parameter estimates [2, 3, 4]. In [5], a matrix pencil method based on the Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations was presented which was found to out-perform several other methods for AR-in noise parameter estimation. None of these papers have established the minimum number of linear equations that are required for the solution of the NCYW equations to be the unique, correct solution. It is clear that q ≥ p linear equations are sufficient to insure that the solution is unique, in this case, all other (¸, u) solving (3) are complex. In summary, Nash equilibrium is challenge that has acquired many increasing applications in both the internet and economics. It is evident from the internet that is hard to count all the Nash equilibrium of a two player game. This is so even if the entry of the matrix is 0 or even 1. Nevertheless, the complexity involved in finding the Nash equilibrium is open and has been actually opposed as one of the most significant wide open problems in the complexity theory today. There is a new polynomial reduction given in finding the Nash equilibrium in the general bi-matrix games in finding Nash equilibrium in the games where all the playoffs are either 1 or 0. In complexity theory, once a given problem is shown intractable, the research for the same shifts towards the directions of polynomial algorithms for approximation or modest goals, exponential bounds which are lower for the restricted algorithm classes (Friedman, 2001). References Freund, S. (2006). Adaptive game playing using multiplicative weights. New York: Prentice Hall. Friedman, S.(2001). Learning and implementation on the Internet. London: Springer. Kim, C. (2000). Fixed Point Theorems with Applications to Economics and Game Theory. London: Cambridge University Press. Kim, C. (2004). Infinite Dimensional Analysis: London, Springer