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What is Liposuction?

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Liposuction – a way of getting rid of that extra fat on the body! In the busy world of today, managing time in our daily routine has become the most difficult thing to do! Because of which, people barely get time to exercise and keep themselves fit. And to add on to it, canned food exists in opulence! In a world which is ideal, Liposuction (Fat removal) would not be needed. Everyone would eat moderately, in the appropriate quantities and would exercise. But the world is far from ideal! And hence, with each passing year, Plastic Surgery for unwanted fat removal or Liposuction is becoming more and more favourite among the people! Everybody wants to look fit and healthy. Being overweight can be a factor of embarrassment and may be a social stigma. Obese (overweight) people when stigmatized, may even feel a bit low on confidence! Hence, to get rid of this embarrassment and in order to look presentable, such people seek for Liposuction/ Fat Removal treatment. Let’s find out more about this ‘Liposuction’ treatment: What exactly is Liposuction? The literary meaning of the term “Liposuction” is removal of fat from the body with help of suction. At the time of this procedure, thin, small, blunt-tipped tubes (cannula) are inserted through small incisions (cuts) in the skin. The doctor moves the tubes around under the skin to direct at specific fat deposits. The fat is thus suctioned out through these tubes. Non-surgical Liposuction: A substitute to surgical liposuction wherein different technologies are used to liquefy fat using non-invasive methods like lasers, ultrasonics and injections of chemical agents. With the advent of newer modern and improved techniques/ methods, Liposuction has become much easier, safer and less painful. These modern techniques are as following: Tumescent Liposuction: The area where the tube is to be inserted, a local anesthetic is used for numbing that particular area from where the fat is to be suctioned out. After that, a large amount of an anesthetic solution consisting of epinephrine and lidocaine is injected into the fatty tissue before suctioning out the fat. General anesthesia may not be required in this kind of procedure. Ultrasound-assisted Liposuction: In this method, ultrasound is used for liquefying the fat, thus making the fat removal easier. This kind of technique may prove beneficial in case of removing fat from the sides, upper abdomen and back. Laser-assisted Liposuction: In this method, low-energy waves are utilized for liquification of the fat, which is then removed with the help of a small cannula. The procedure is generally carried out as an outpatient procedure in a properly equipped Doctor’s office, surgical center or a hospital. Only when a large amount of fat is required to be removed from the body, an overnight hospital stay would be needed. In such a case, a deep sedation or general anesthesia with a local anesthetic may be administered. Why is it done? The chief motive behind Liposuction is to re-shape one or more regions in your body and NOT to reduce body weight. The “problem” areas which do not react to diet and exercise, are tackled by carrying out Liposuction. These areas are namely – the outer thighs and hips in case of female and the waist and the back in case of men. Also, the areas that are generally treated using Liposuction are – the face, neck, back, abdomen, upper arms, legs and buttocks. Liposuction may at times be carried out along with certain other Cosmetic Surgery procedures viz. “Tummy tuck” (Abdominoplasty), Face-Lift or Breast Reduction. A few clinical conditions may be treated with the help of Liposuction, which include the following: Abnormal enlargement of the male breasts (Gynecomastia or Pseudogynecomastia) Benign fatty tumours (Lipomas) Excessive sweating in the armpits (Axillary hyperhidrosis) Problems with fat metabolism in the body (Lipodystrophy) Liposuction is not used to get rid of Obesity. It will NOT help to clear out cellulite or stretch marks. What to anticipate after the treatment? After the procedure has been carried out, the treated area is tightly wrapped in order to diminish swelling, pain and bruising. Elastic bandages and tape, a special girdle or some type of fitting garment may be used, based on the area that has been treated. The patient may need to wear the compression garment for about 3-4 weeks. At least for the first 7-10 days, a lot of bruising and swelling is expected to occur. The fluid may evacuate from the site of incision for a few days. The patient may be prescribed antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection. After the procedure has finished, and the effect of anesthesia and sedation has been subsided, most of the patients may resume their daily activities as and when they feel comfortable. In case of larger areas undergoing liposuction, recovery may take a bit longer. Outcomes of the Surgery: When carried out in small regions on the body, Liposuction may give out the best desired results. But in case where a person regains weight after undergoing the procedure, the fatty bulges that were removed earlier are most likely to reappear or appear in another place. There may be quite notable changes observed in the body contour immediately after the surgery. It may take several months to a year for the full effects of the surgery to show up. Liposuction does not necessarily tighten the skin around the treated region. After the fat removal has been done, the skin around that region may become a bit loose. For the skin to tighten, it may take up to 6 months. In case of young people, skin retraction is faster. Every surgical procedure has its own advantages and disadvantages. And when it comes to Cosmetic Surgery, it’s no different! There are some risks that are involved with the procedure of Liposuction. Let’s have a look as to what complications may arise after the Fat Removal Surgery: If Liposuction is carried out by an experienced Cosmetic Surgeon in a well equipped surgical setup, it is usually safe. In cases, where a larger amount of area or more than one area have undergone the surgery, the chances of complications arising are more. Bruising, swelling (which is temporary), numbness and soreness in and around the region treated Minor scarring and irritation at the site of insertion of cannula Rippling or baggy skin Certain less common risks include: Uneven skin surface over the region treated Permanent change in colour of the skin Damage to the skin and the nerves, particularly in case of Ultrasound-assisted Liposuction It is very important for people to be careful and not gain extra weight after the surgery. As it may result in fat deposition in certain other parts which are deep inside the body, such as the internal organs like heart, liver etc. Such type of fat deposition can be more fatal. Dangerous risks include: Blood clots or fat clots, which may travel to the lungs (Pulmonary embolism) Excessive blood or fluid loss which may result in Shock Pulmonary edema – fluid accumulation in the lungs Toxic reaction to injected solution, particularly in cases when larger areas are treated. People who have severe heart problems, or blood clotting disorders or pregnant females should NOT undergo Liposuction procedure. Things to note: Liposuction is NOT a mean for reducing weight and it is never an alternative to exercise and a balanced diet. As a matter of fact, most of the Cosmetic Surgeons are of the opinion that the best candidates to undergo Liposuction would be healthy people who are at or very close to a healthy weight but who have stubborn fat deposit which does not respond well to exercise. Liposuction should be carried out only by an experienced Cosmetic Surgeon who is well-trained in Liposuction and knows well how to tackle the complications during surgery. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

To apply concepts you have learned about health promotion concepts and strategies, enhance your written
communication skills, and demonstrate a beginning understanding of cultural competency.
COURSE OUTCOMES This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes.
CO #1 Discuss the professional nurse’s role in health promotion activities. (PO #1 & 2)
CO #3 Discuss health promotion, illness prevention, health maintenance, health restoration, and
rehabilitation in relation to the nurse’s role in working with various populations. (PO #1 & 2)
CO #7 Identify health promotion strategiesthroughout the life span. (PO #1 & 2)
The Health Promotion Project (RUA) is due in Unit 5. However, refer to the Course Calendar for variations in
campus requirements and details. The Late Assignment Policy applies to this assignment.
1. Identify a health problem or need for health promotion for a particularstage in the life span of a population
from a specific culture in your area (this might include age and gender population as well). Choose one of the
Leading Health Indicators(LHI) priorities from Healthy People 2020 (see the Healthy 2020 Leading
Health Indicators website link in the Assignment section for Unit 2 under “Web Links). Studentsin a cultural
concentration will use that specific cultural focus to complete this assignment.
2. Research a topic related to health and wellness associated with one of the Healthy People 2020 topic areas.
Studentsin a cultural concentration will use that specific cultural focus to complete this assignment.
3. Submit your topic to the instructor for approval at least 2 weeks prior to the assignment (during Unit 3) but
earlier if desired. All topics must be approved.
4. You will develop an educational health promotion project addressing the population/culture in your area. For
or example, if you are in the Hispanic concentration, your project might be educational interventionsto
address how food choices are related to the high rates of diabetes among Latinos; or, a community project
that addressesthe statistic that Hispanics experience new HIV infections at more than twice the rate of whites;
or, finding opportunitiesto intervene with Puerto Ricans, a Hispanic subculture, who suffer asthma at twice
the rate of the general population (2020 LHI Topic Three: Environmental Quality: (see the Healthy
2020 Leading Health Indicators website link in the Assignmentsection for Unit 2 under “Web Links).
5. General expectations
 All articles must be from nursing or scholarly journals and should include health promotion and wellness
content. Articles must be published within the last five (5) years. If you are unsure whether the article is
appropriate, ask your instructor. You could lose significant points if the article is not from a scholarly
source and/or appropriate to the topic.
 Please ask questionsif you need clarification.
NR222 RUA Health Promotion Project Guidelines.docx Revised 06/2016 psb 2
1. Writing the Paper: You will explore the topic and explain the information in writing a 3‐4 page APA formatted
a. Select a minimum of three (3) scholarly nursing or research article (published within the last 5 years) related
to your topic that include health promotion and wellness content. Studentsin a cultural concentration will
select at least one article specifically related to the cultural focus for this assignment. You may need to
evaluate several articles before you find appropriate selections. For more information on how to choose a
scholarly article, open the “Course Resources” tab under the “Course Home” Menu to the left of your
Learning Studio (eCollege) course page and open “What Is a Scholarly Source.”
b. Write a 3‐4 page paper (excluding the title and reference pages) using the following guidelines:
 Write brief introduction of the topic and describe why it is important to health promotion in the
specific cultural population in your area.
 Include a description of the topic and the targeted sub culture or population (include statistics).
 Explain how the project relates to the Healthy People 2020 topic area you have chosen.
 Summarize the articles; include key points or findings from the articles.
 Discuss how you used the information from the articles for your Health Promotion Project. Provide
specific examples.
 Describe the approach/approaches you developed to educate the target population about the topic.
Include specific ways to promote lifestyle changes within the specified population relative to your
specific culture. The approach should be appropriate for your cultural concentration.
 Write your conclusion and summary.
c. Your paper must follow APA format. Include a title page and a reference page. Use 12‐point Times New
Roman font and include in‐text citations (use citations whenever paraphrasing, using statistics, or quoting
from the article). Please refer to your APA manual as a guide for in‐text citations and sample reference
d. Use TurnItIn in time to make any edits that might be necessary based on the Similarity Index prior to
submitting your paper to your instructor. Consult with your instructor about the acceptable Similarity
Index for this paper

Mechanisms Utilized within the Field of Microscopy: Studying Microbes. Mechanisms Utilized within the Field of Microscopy: Studying Microbes A microorganism, or microbe, is a form of life (organism) that is too small to be seen with the naked eye (microscopic) (New World Encyclopedia, 2017). Microscopy is a tool used to visualize microbes. There are many different types of microscopes and techniques that can be used to see the structure of a cell (Pommerville, 2018). Microscopes A microscope is an instrument used to see microbes. There are two main branches of microscopes, light microscopes and electron microscopes. Light microscopes are the most basic microscopes used in microbiology labs. Light microscopes use a simple system where visible light passes straight through the lenses and through the specimen. This optical design is known as bright-field microscopy. In order for image formation to occur with the light microscope, the light is projected through a lens called the condenser lens, which causes the light to focus into a sharp cone. Next the light moves through the stage opening, and hits the glass slide that contains the specimen. As the light passes through the glass slide and specimen, it will reflect or refract. The light must then pass through an objective lens, which will cause an intermediate magnified image to form. The magnified intermediate image presents as an object for the ocular lens, which then magnifies the image further and creates the final image the eye distinguishes. The light microscope can be equipped with several different optical systems that serve to improve the contrast of microbes, whether the cells are stained or not. Some examples of these commonly used optical systems are phase-contrast microscopy, dark-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy Differences Between Light and Electron Microscopes The respect for persons is one of the three basic principles outlined in the Belmont Report. Respect for persons is an ethical principal that states an individual’s autonomy should be respected and those whose autonomy is diminished have a legal right to protection. In other words there is a requirement to recognize autonomy and protect individuals that have a diminished autonomy. An autonomous person is defined as a person that is capable of deliberating and acting on his or her own interests and values. Those with diminished autonomy are incapable of this. Diminished autonomy can be due to age, maturity, cultural barriers, illness, mental disability, and other circumstances that limit liberty. In order to respect autonomy, the individual must have the opportunity to consider their choices and options without any influence that could impact their decisions. Disregarding respect for an individuals autonomy is denying an individual their individual rights and freedoms (U.S. Department of HealthMechanisms Utilized within the Field of Microscopy: Studying Microbes

Behavioral Economics and Standard Economic Model

The main question of this paper concerns the comparison of behavioral and mainstream economics. The concept follows a straight line from different approaches and ideas of various authors stating their opinion on behavioral economics as well as mainstream economics. Mainstream economics is defined as the maximization of an individual’s utility function, whereby the utility is a function of quantity of goods or services (McDonald, 2008), the basis of this concept tries to explain human behavior on the fact that people’s consumption is important to them. In comparison to mainstream economics, behavioral economics focuses on psychological foundations trying to explain people’s behavior on the marketplace (Camerer, 2002). Some benefits and challenges of behavioral economics: such as the fact that it tries to explain behavior not only rationally but includes psychological aspects or the challenge of various approaches of practitioners of behavioral economics will be discussed as well. For the final comparison seven principles of Dawnay and Hetan (2005) will be used, which is the most understandable and easy applying criteria. These are as follows: Behavior of other people matters, meaning that we are influenced by other people; habits, which are hard to change; doing the right thing, namely, if we fail we are disappointed; expectations, including perceptions of how others should behave; loss aversion, involving the fact that humans try to avoid losses; computation problems, meaning that probabilities are hard to calculate by hand; and involvement and effectiveness, refereeing to the fact that people who are involved in different activities are more motivated. These seven principles help to compare mainstream and behavioral economics. Nevertheless a lot of different approaches and considerations of theories heavily influence the final comparison as it does not simplify the result. As there are no major publications on behavioral economics in comparison to the conventional or standard economic model this paper should identify the main differences of the two approaches. The idea of presenting the results of the comparison is to apply all mentioned theories and create a comparison of many strands. Therefore it was decided that simple principles will be used for the final comparison of behavioral economics and mainstream economics. Presentation of the Problem The main questions of this paper which will be answered, are: What is behavioral economics? What are the benefits and challenges of behavioral economics? What can be understood by the standard economic model? What other concepts or ideas are involved in behavioral economics? What are the similarities and differences between behavioral and conventional economics? Concept In order to understand how the work was carried out a short introduction of the concept will be given in the following paragraphs. First, different definitions of authors will be presented so as to give a brief access to the field of BE. This includes history and basic concepts as well as what BE tries to do. Methods, benefits and challenges will be discussed in the subsequent chapters. In the section of approach of comparison, theories are explained with which a comparison between ME and BE is possible. As in the previous chapter it was discussed that BE and ME differs this will be shown in the chapter of differentiation. Seven principles will be stated which will be used for the final comparison. The next episode will be focusing on the comparison itself as well as the research results including the seven principles mentioned in the previous chapter. The last section is concerning the final conclusion and limitations and restrictions of the work. In the appendix two main questions about the topic including short answers can be found. Review of Literature In the following paragraphs a short summary will be given, on what can be understood by conventional, mainstream or standard economics and behavioral economics. Furthermore the question on what are the main aspects and principles of these approaches will be answered. Conventional, Mainstream or Standard Economics Conventional Economics, Mainstream or Standard Economic Model is defined as the principle of an individual who tries to maximize a utility function, in which utility is a function of the quantity of goods and services consumed by that individual (McDonald, 2008). It provides explanations of behavior and is based on the fact that people’s own consumption is very important for them. The standard or also called neoclassical economic analysis assumes that humans are rational and behave in a way to maximize their individual self-interest (Dawnay and Shah, 2005). As this rational assumptions leads to powerful analysis it also has its shortcomings which can end up in an unrealistic analysis or policy-making. Therefore it is important to include behavioral concepts which will be discussed in the next sessions. Behavioral Economics Behavioral Economics (BE) increases the explanatory power of economics by providing it with more realistic psychological foundations (Camerer, 2002). According to Mullainathan and Thaler (2000) it is a combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. As can be seen from both given definitions behavioral economics is concerned about the human aspect in decision making as well as economic issues which are relevant. History and Evolution of Behavioral Economics Adam Smith was one of the first supporters of the idea of including human behavior in economic models (Upson, 2010); whereas in the 18th century it was disregarded, due to the fact that a more rational approach was taken. However in the mid of nineteen hundred a deeper and clearer understanding of psychology impacts was recognized. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, which has been written in 1759 by Adam Smith, who is known for the concept of the invisible hand and his book the wealth of nations, examines “psychological principles of individual behavior that are arguably as profound as his economic observations” (Camerer and Loewenstein, 2002). The reason why economists are now more focused on behavioral economics, in contrast to the standard economic model, is that they have realized that conventional models are dogmatic and might not be realistic (Rubinstein, 2005). It also could be a result of the new research focus and the search of new directions in research in order to explain human’s behavior. Basic Concepts Upson (2010) mentioned three basic ideas in behavioral economics: First the rule of thumb principle, second the framing problem, and third market inefficiencies. These principles will be explained below. Rule of Thumb People refuse rational thoughts and behave according to the rules of thumb meaning that they act according to the principle that you get what you paid for. Nevertheless, even cheaper products can sometimes be as good as more expensive ones but people perceive it as superior and buy the more expensive goods. Framing Problem When people face a problem their thoughts are affected by the presentation of the problem. This means that if stores advertise a product differently people will act in diverse ways. For example, most humans perceive a 75% discount of the original price more generous than a discount of $3, 00 when not knowing the original price. Therefore the presentation of this discount can affect the decision of where to buy which product. Market Inefficiencies The third idea in behavioral economics according to Upson (2010) is that outcomes can be explained if they differ to the prior expectations. Market efficiency is defined as prices which reflect all information available about a stock. Therefore every investor has the same knowledge. In contrast, market inefficiency is concerned about happenings that doubt the idea of market efficiency. Therefore investors could sell overvalued stocks, buy undervalued stocks and can gain a lot of money in a non-rational way. What Behavioral Economics tries to do Predictions and useful theoretical frameworks which can be applied by economists can be used in different kinds of economic or even non-economic behaviors which the neoclassical approach describes. The main target of BE is persuasion which increases the fortification of economic analysis improving theoretical insights, indicating better policies and providing appropriate predictions of field phenomena (Camerer and Loewenstein, 2002). Methods of Behavioral Economics Generally the methods used in BE are similar or even the same as in other areas of economic. Initially experiments were used in order to distinguish certain behaviors from standard ones due to the fact that the experimenter has enough control. Nowadays behavioral economists introduce other methods which are already employed by economists. A number of new contributions and new aspects of BE relies on field data and field experiments (Gneezy and Rustichini, 2002), brain scans (McCabe et al., 2001) and computer simulations (Angeletos et al., 2001). Benefits of Behavioral Economics BE tries to involve more aspects of human behavior in order to predict outcomes as well as to explain different kind of behaviors (Camerer, 2002). Moreover it relies on ME analysis and thus generates theoretical insights which are valid throughout a long time. Therefore it can be seen from the paragraphs involving various disciplines, concepts and approaches that some challenges might occur due to the fact that a large number of differing ideas come into play. Challenges of Behavioral Economics As already discussed in previous sections it is difficult to define BE or even find one prefect way of application. This is for the reason that different minds have different attitudes and viewpoints. Hence there are some challenges witch results from these facts. According to Prelec and Levy (2006) BE is not perceived as a standalone theory, meaning an alternative psychology theory. To a greater extend it is seen as a rejection of the known model of “if” conditions which is concerned about the fact that the only criteria of evaluating an economic model is the marketplace itself. Moreover the two authors state that behavioral economists depart from the “as-if” approach by using psychological plausibility. Approach to Comparison The aim of this section is to define different parameters in order to compare BE and mainstream economics (ME). Therefore the key dimensions which are related to its approach of science have to be identified. According to Tomer (2007) the most important dimension to distinguish BE and ME are as follows: Narrowness, rigidity, intolerance, mechanicalness, separateness and individualism. These will be explained in the following paragraphs. Narrowness As narrowness is important for the comparison dimensions it will be discussed first. If a method or its scope of substantive inquiry is restricted by an economic discipline one can say that the economic discipline is narrow or high in narrowness if it is severe. If the questions that are investigated are limited in terms of socio-economic issues, or if historical or institutional aspects are involved, are excluded, narrowness might be high. Rigidity An economic discipline is high in rigidity, which differs from narrowness in terms of flexibility, if it has a strong attachment to a particular form of narrowness. This embraces that the ability of flexibility, concerning methods which are used, is lacking. Intolerance Intolerance is defined as the unwillingness to recognize and respect differences in opinions or beliefs (Princeton, 2010). Under this aspect one can see that intolerance in terms of methods used would, lead to a non open minded approach towards other economic sciences. Mechanicalness The degree of mechanicalness refers to the extend someone leads his principles, meaning that disciplines are high in mechanicalness if they behave as machines. On the other hand, meaning that the lower the mechanicalness is, the more practitioners try to see the economy as an “organic, holistic, evolving, human entity” (Tomer, 2007). Separateness Separateness appoints to the fact that the discipline can stand alone and is not related or dependent on other disciplines. Individualism If a concept is seen as a result of behavior and events of individuals it is high in individualism. On the contrary, low individualism implies that the aspect is laid on individuals which are part of a collectivity or social group which behavior and motivators differ from an individual one. Comparison Dimensions in Use When using these six comparison dimensions a widespread map can be drawn in order to locate the discipline between others. In the next session mainstream economics will be examined by using the prior mentioned characteristics. Comparison Dimensions in Mainstream Economics Colander (1991) examined that mainstream economics apply different forms of mathematical modeling to the elimination of empirical analysis and ideas as well as history, institutions and policy. There it can be seen that different authors focus on narrowness associated with mainstream economics on a formal mathematical model. According to Thaler (1996) rationality, self-interest and self-control should be included when dealing with economic aspects which are not discussed in mainstream economics. Therefore mainstream economics’ narrowness is an unquestioning acceptance of these three assumptions. Rabin (2002) noted that mainstream economics does not include findings of BE and is therefore inflexible or rigid. Scientists should be tolerant to other scientists’ views and opinions (McCloskey, 1994). McCloskey stated on the matter of intolerance that mainstream economics is even more arrogant than physicists. The mechanicalness of mainstream economics is discussed by Veblen (1898) who stated that perspectives which are human and evolutionary in mainstream economics are lacking. According to Hausmann (1992) mainstream economics has a high degree of separateness from other social science disciplines, i.e. the methodological commitment is in progress. The last point which concerns individualism is described by Hausmann (1992) by little attention which is given to social and group behavior and motivators, mainstream economics is therefore more concerned with self-interested individuals. Behavioral Economics and its strands As BE is part of theories which are bounded together (Camerer, 2007), different works of individual practitioners should be considered before a comparison between BE and ME can be formulated. Eight different theories of BE will be shortly discussed. Herbert Simon Simon’s approach is “low in narrowness, not rigid, tolerant, low in mechanicalness, very low in separateness and much less individualistic than ME” (Tomer, 2007). This means that he researches the degree of how rational and self-interested decisions are taken. Simon was tolerant regarding the use of other models. In his opinion economics should not be separated from other sciences. Georg Katona Psychology is the most important part in this approach. Interviews and surveys were used to gather data in order to gain knowledge about behaviors and attitudes. Therefore no mathematical model was used. Psychological economics (PE) Camerer, Fehr, Kahnemann, Laibson, Loewenstein, Rabin and Thaler are the main practitioners of PE. It includes cognitive psychology and according to Camerer and Lowenstein (2002) its research follows four principles. Namely, first the identification of ME’s models, second identification of contradictions of the model, third use these contradictions in order to identify alternative solutions in terms of theories, fourth construction of models of economic behavior applying these new assumptions, afterwards test them and branch new implications. ME uses more mathematical models than PE, the latter is more flexible and pragmatic, more tolerant and less mechanical than ME. Harvey Leibenstein and X-Efficiency (XE) Theory The theory was first introduced in an article in 1966 by Harvey Leibenstein. One of the main followers who did a lot of research on this approach as well is John Tomer. The main idea of XE theory is to question the rationality assumption, namely the idea of people maximizing. No mathematical model is used to describe the theory. It cannot be seen as completely separate approach due to the fact that it is laid on different assumptions of ME. Leibenstein’s achievements rely on individuals who are self-interested but not rational. George Akerlof and behavioral macroeconomics This approach is based on behavioral macroeconomics in terms of psychology and sociology. ME is more narrow than Akerlof’s attitude to economics. He is open to research questions and no formal mathematical model is used. His work is not mechanical due to the fact that sociology and psychology aspects of behavior matter. Richard Nelson, Sidney Winter and the Evolutionary Theory (ET) Winter and Nelson have been pioneers in this kind of field of studies. The approach is based on biology, namely Darwin’s notion of natural selection in order to survive. This is then applied to firms. ET is low in narrowness and open to other research methods, not using any mathematical models. Behavioral Finance (BF) BF is concerned with approaches of psychology which tries to explain variations in stock markets. Therefore it can be seen as a strand of BE. Outcomes of markets and investment decisions of individuals can be influenced by the structure of information and the characteristics of the market participants. This concept includes mathematical methods in terms of finance but is pragmatic and flexible by using other models. Because of that, the degree of rigidity is low and tolerance is important due to the fact that social science approaches are used. Vernon Smith and Experimental Economics (EE) As the term EE already indicates in this concept laboratory experiments are included. The findings of these tests show that outcomes of markets are more rational than we would have expected by the lack of rationality of individuals. This theory is less narrow than ME and does not involve mathematical models. Its rigidity is relatively low due to the style of the experiments which are flexible and pragmatic. Mechanicalness is low by reason that humans are involved in these tests which cannot be compared with machines. Comparisons of Theories As can be seen on the table below, a short summary is given by Tomer (2007) including all above mentioned criteria and theories. The author mentions that ME is high in every of the six dimensions of comparison. On the contrary, the strands of BE are more located on the right side meaning that they are more tolerant in many aspects. Moreover Tomer emphasized that BE is “distinctly different from ME” (2007). Figure 1: Comparison of ME and BE strands Behavioral Economics differs from Mainstream Economics Mainstream economics is traditionally conceptualizes by calculating and ignoring the behavior which was studied by social psychologists. Thaler and Mullainathan (2010) argued that the standard model is more relevant and easier to formulate. BE modifies three traits of the standard economic model which are unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower and unbounded selfishness. Already in 1955 Simon criticized the idea of people having unlimited information available. He invented the concept of “bounded rationality” meaning concept formation of how people’s ability to solve problems look like. Loss aversion and mental accounting are two other important aspects concerning BE according to Thaler and Mullainathan (2010). A suitable example of these two phenomena is given by Camerer et al (1997). A study of New York’s taxi drivers explains the dilemma of paying fees for the car and leaving the choice of how long to work to the drivers themselves. The authors of the study found out that in contrast to theory which would expect that drivers would quit working on bad days and work longer on good days; in reality it is the other way round. The second vulnerable principle of mainstream economics is that self-control is often missing even if people know what is best for them. The last matter concerns selfishness of people, namely self-interest is people’s primary motive. Individuals are not willing to contribute to public goods if their private welfare is not improved (Thaler and Mullainathan, 2010). Comparison and Research Results After evaluating all above mentioned strands, theories, approaches and concepts it is really difficult to select the appropriate and most useful ones in order to be able to implement a comparison. Therefore it was decided on the most comprehensive and easiest understandable concept and ideas of Dawnay and Hetan (2005), which have implemented and applied a concept of seven principles. Moreover this approach is relatively new and thus most relevant. Seven Principles used for the Final Comparison Seven principles of Dawnay and Hetan (2005) will be used for the final comparison of behavioral and mainstream economics. These criteria seem to be the easiest to understand by an audience which is not familiar with the definitions and dimensions of behavioral or mainstream economics. Therefore these seven aspects will be covered in more detail in the next paragraphs. Principle 1: Other people’s behavior matters This first principle refers to the esteem or belonging need of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) where he stated that people need to respect themselves as well as to be accepted by others and gain recognition. Therefore people’s behavior is influenced by other behaviors due to the fact that they want to belong to a group as well as they ask themselves how would a person of my social group react on a certain event. Moreover according to Dawnay and Hetan (2005) social learning is a process of learning how to behave by taking other’s behavior as a role model. If the person is an authority or a person people trust or respect, they are even more open for influence. As ME is not concerned about behavior of other people this principle has no effect on ME. Contrary for BE, who’s motivator are behavior of others. Theories which are related to psychology include social learning (learn by observing what others do), social proof (look at others to see how to behave), social identity theory (social identity comes from groups we associate with), and key influencers (open to influence from authority people, or people we like). Principle 2: Habits No cognitive effort is needed if we do something out of habit. Daily routines can quickly become habits such as what to have for breakfast. But even if we think about changing our behavior we do not change. This is because of potential barriers of changing habits and hassles which are associated with that changing. The old habit can even be reinforced if people get a rewarded feeling, e.g. of traveling to work by car, just because it is more comfortable and easier than going by public transportation. According to ME people try to maximize their utility rationally. Thus this principle is not valid for the neoclassical economic approach. In terms of social norms, psychologists have agreed on the concept of past behavior frequencies influence current behavior. Therefore habits are hard to change when it has been repeated very often, there are strong related rewards and if the reward comes soon after the action was taken. On the other hand human think consciously about something if the action is complex, the consequences of the actions are important and there is enough time and knowledge to do so. Also visualizations can help to change behavior, e.g. cues such as visible recycling facilities which make it easier to recycle in comparison to throwing things away. Principle 3: Do the Right Thing The third principle states that people are motivated to do the right thing. Moreover people feel bad if they try to do the right thing and fail. An offset can be induced by a punishment, e.g. a fine, because after this punishment the feeling of payoff and a peace of conscience is given. On the other hand, we may accept a fee or punishment while continuing with the bad behavior. Also the fairness factor should be mentioned here, because the sense of fairness leads us to punishment of others if their behavior is not what we expect it to be. According to neoclassical economics or ME, financial costs and benefits would be added up in order to expect encourage after rewards and discourage after financial fines. On the other hand, BE accepts that particular motivators, which let us do actions or activities for our own reward, and external motivators which let us do things for extrinsic reasons. Also fairness is important for behavioral economists. Humans will contribute to any activity more if they perceive a higher fairness. Principle 4: Expectations Behavior is influenced by people’s self-expectations. They have perceptions about expectations and about other people’s behavior as well. If the behavior does not fit to beliefs, attitudes and values, people might adjust these before changing their behavior. Moreover it is more important who states values, attitudes and beliefs. If it is a whole group with high levels of social capital makeing a commitment, the influence will be much larger. As preferences are given in the analysis of ME, neoclassical practitioners would not include any concept of self-expectation or commitments. Contrary to ME, BE relies on the fact that our behavior is influenced by others. Namely, we will change our behavior if it does not fit to our attitudes. Moreover Dawnay and Hetan (2005) stated that humans have three views of themselves: actual, ideal and ought-self, meaning the duty how we have to be. Also three views of what others think of us, adding up to a number of six distinct types of self-concept. Principle 5: Loss-Aversion Two biases are known, when speaking about loss aversion. First, people will try to avoid losses which can be attached to high risks but at the same time, in order to gain something, only small risks are taken. The second bias concerns the concept of ownership. If people understand something as their own it will gain some extra value. ME expects people to have a preference for risks rather than for loss or gain. Human’s willingness to pay is assumed as being the same as willingness to accept, meaning that selling something which they own, for the same price as they would buy it. BE practitioners include the fact that people will put more effort into preventing a loss than willing to gain. Moreover they discovered the effect that willingness to pay is not the same as willingness to accept which they call the endowment effect. Principle 6: Computation Problems Probabilities are hard to be computed by hand and therefore can influence the decision on a problem. Seven biases are mentioned by Dawnay and Hetan (2005). Salience: overestimation of likelihood of events, e.g. something which can be imagined easily; something with a short-lived extreme experience; something recently experienced. Therefore things that happen often are also underestimated. Discounting: underestimation of relevance of distant future events. Choosing short-term rewards over long-term rewards. Framing: influence of presentation of outcomes when deciding between two actions. Often combined with loss aversion. Defaults: Influence of defaults set by authorities Intuition: Intuitive answers, which are more likely to be wrong, will be used instead of thinking about it with a simple mathematical question. Nevertheless, if the outcome has an importance value, deliberate thinking will be engaged in order to evaluate the situation or event. Fundamental attribution error: The feeling of having control over a situation is very important for humans. Therefore if something happens to someone else, it must be their fault. Price can signal value: if something is offered for free, people will not value it the same as the same product or service which has a monetary price. For ME computation problems are not relevant as it is assumed that people have enough information and are capable of calculations and complex choices to be done. In general, it can be said that people act on the principle of calculating on the rule of thumb basis, meaning that they are affected by the above mentioned biases. Principle 7: Involvement and Effectiveness When people have the feeling of control, they are highly motivated to shift things to the better. Nevertheless, if there is too much information they get the impression of helplessness and inaction. On the other hand, if there are too many choices which can be taken, an overwhelming feeling will arise and people do not know what to choose. As ME expects people to act rationally, more information will be considered as optimal in order to make the best choice possible. More Information and choices can lead to overwhelming feelings or reduce self-effectiveness. Moreover a research stated that in Swiss cantons people were happier if they had an increased ability to participate in different activities. Conclusion After briefing all these theories, concepts, ideas and approaches and comparing the standard or ME model and BE, it must be said that there are still some restrictions and limitations on definitions and determining factors concerning the main idea of BE. Nevertheless a few authors tried to overcome these problems and created their own theories and conception of what they understand under BE. Some of the limitations and restrictions will be discussed below before a final conclusion on how to compare ME and BE will be carried out. Limitations and Restrictions First of all, the outcome of the paper as well as the whole comparison was limited in terms of simplicity due to the fact that BE is not yet very well researched and explored. Therefore many different authors define it differently as well as they emphasize on completely different aspects and ideas. This can also be seen in the part of literature review, where it was tried to summarize the major concepts of the main practitioners of BE. Furthermore the seven principles which were used for the final comparison of ME and BE can be interplaying and therefore interact with each other. Moreover it would be necessary to research on this phenomenon in order to detect any interplay between these principles. Regarding the limitations of the work, it must be said that BE is a very complex field of study which tries to find its way throughout ideas and concepts as well as approa

Lone Star College Germany Legal Environment Analysis Review

essay writing service free Lone Star College Germany Legal Environment Analysis Review.

1. Describe the legal environment of Germany, making specific references to: – the rule of law (to what extent is the country governed by law as opposed to arbitrary decisions of individual government officials) – laws that govern foreign direct investment (for example, are there provisions to attract foreign direct investment, such as tax incentives, most-favored-nation treatment, dispute resolution fora; or provisions that restrict foreign direct investors such as high local content requirements or currency exchange restrictions). 2. Discuss challenges and opportunities for American investors posed by the legal environment. 3. Based on the challenges and opportunities you have identified through your research, formulate two recommendations, with your supporting arguments, to an American investor to successfully navigate the country’s legal environment.It needs to be 3 pages long, double-spaced, Times New Roman 12, 1.25 margins. discussing the rule of law, i.e. accurately identifying the extent to which the country is governed by law as opposed to arbitrary decisions of individual government officials, backed up by evidence from primary sources and/or cited findings from secondary sources – identifying laws that govern foreign direct investment and discussing whether they are favorable or unfavorable for foreign investors (as specified in the prompts for the assignment, examples of relevant laws would be laws designed to attract foreign direct investment, such as tax incentives, most-favored-nation treatment, dispute resolution fora; or laws designed to restrict foreign direct investors such as high local content requirements or currency exchange restrictions); identifying 1 relevant law ; identifying 2 relevant laws , the paper should identify at least 2 relevant laws (typically more) and identify overall trends in the country’s legal environment – for example, are most laws favorable or unfavorable to foreign direct investment/ do the laws favor foreign investors from a particular country of origin or from a particular sector of the economy/ is there an ongoing tendency to modify existing laws to make them more or less favorable to foreign investors.identifying challenges for American investors posed by the legal environment -r identifying opportunities for American investors posed by the legal environment – for formulating 2 recommendations (1 point for each recommendation) to an American investor to successfully navigate the country’s legal environment (the recommendations have to be actionable items; to get the full points, each recommendation has to be supported with arguments).THE COUNTRY NEED TO WRITE IS GERMANY.It will turn to TURNITI so please be careful.
Lone Star College Germany Legal Environment Analysis Review

Westcliff University Media Plan of Walt Disney Business Discussion Paper

Westcliff University Media Plan of Walt Disney Business Discussion Paper.

Write an APA 6th ed. formatted paper, of 10 to 15 pages in length not counting the title page, references list or appendix. This paper is to be a reflection of what you have learned during the course. Please edit and include a synopsis of a plan you developed in the PA and CLA assignments for the marketing of this product. Using the CLA 2 GUIDE TO THE MEDIA PLAN develop an integrated marketing communications plan for your product/service.Develop a three page, (this is part of the 10 to 15 pages), media plan for this section that examines the identification of the target market, clearly states the communication message and how you will relate the message through your selection of specific modes of communication. Your media plan will look at four of the major modes of communication elements, such as advertising (traditional or new media), sales promotion, personal selling if applicable, public relations, direct marketing and/or you may use trade shows, outdoor signage if a strong fit in an IMC program. You are to develop a promotion mix budget and describe how you will secure the funds and allocate to the marketing communication activities. The final paper should include the Executive Summary to present the plan.● The table of contents for the final CLA 2 assignment includes: ● brief introduction of project company/product/service, ● situation analysis including PESTEL and SWOT analysis, ● product/service features, benefits and brand identity, ● marketing plan objectives, ● competition analysis including differentiation and positioning, ● target market profile, ● distribution plan, ● media plan, ● how the marketing mix (the 4 Ps or 7 Ps) will work together to reinforce the plan objectives, and the marketing communication budget. ● The Executive Summary of the marketing plan is the conclusion. ● References page is the last slide before questions. There is no abstract or other summary. ***** COMPANY WALT DISNEY *****
Westcliff University Media Plan of Walt Disney Business Discussion Paper

Social Picture of US Southern Society: “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner Research Paper

The short story “A Rose for Emily” was written by William Faulkner in 1930. This story reflects the social life and morals of people at the beginning of the XX century. The remarkable features of this time were education at all levels dominated by Christian teaching, new labor relations, and new production modes. The short story is unique because the author depicts events, experience, memories through different frames which are connected with each other. In the short story, Faulkner portrays that the beginning of the 1900s was marked by great social and economic changes but many people fail to accommodate their life to new social relations and a new economic system. The beginning of the XX century was marked by new social changes and increased productivity, new values, and norms. Economic relations transformed society and influenced all spheres of life. A major concern of social thinking was to identify the nature of industrialization and to trace its social and political effects. The main feature of industrial society was taken to be its dedication to material produc­tion. Classes existed in society to the extent that there were significant links between these three levels of social life: if economically determined posi­tions correlate significantly with people’s lived experience and consciousness, and if both of these have a significant bearing on how they behave as workers or citizens – on how they live. Because of the labor movement, women were active in the social sphere. Because of the suffrage movement, more women were attaining positions of power in public life. Although progress was gradual it appears to be a fairly consistent trend, supported by continuing campaigning efforts by women’s groups and the expectations of a younger generation of women. Complex racial relations and inequality were the main problems that affected American society and class relations (Barkun and Cohen 34-35). The background of the work is an industrial society, which had a major impact on all social processes. The society depicted in the work is distinguished by its characteristic modes of production and economic life. In the short story, Faulkner depicts economic relations between the federal agencies and an individual. Miss Emily responds: ‘I have no taxes in Jefferson. Colonel Sartoris explained it to me. Perhaps one of you can gain access to the city records and satisfy yourselves” (Faulkner 25). The idea of class conflict runs through the story as a remarkable feature showing the real value of old and new views, gender traditions, and class confrontation. “The Negro led them into the parlor, … then the Negro opened the blinds of one window, they could see that the leather was cracked; and when they sat down” (Faulkner 25). In spite of the fact that slavery had been abolished many decades ago, black people obtained low social position and class location. They represented cheap labor deprived equal rights and opportunity to become independent. This episode shows that the author considers a marginalized voice of the time portraying class distinctions and racial relations. “The Negro delivery boy brought her the package” (Faulkner 26). Faulkner underlines that the black population obtained the lowest class position in society. Government interventions were still justified, how­ever, if only to clear away other obstacles to economic growth, including the effects of governmental interventions (Barkun and Cohen 34-35). Faulkner vividly portrays the political situation and changing racial relations affected by new social order and laws. “In 1894 when Colonel Sartoris, the mayor-he who fathered the edict that no Negro woman should appear on the streets without an apron– remitted her taxes” (Faulkner 25). It is possible to say that the society depicted by Faulkner was in transition: people fought against social prejudices trying to achieve social mobility and enter a higher social class. Low-class location prevented many people to obtain social respect and opportunities available for middle and high-class citizens. “When the next generation, with its more modem ideas, became mayors and aldermen, this arrangement created some little dissatisfaction” (Faulkner 25). The short story reflects that people protested not only at the injustice they themselves have suffered but at the deterioration in services provided as a result of cost-cutting. In this situation, classes not only were the links be­tween levels rather tight; they were unidirec­tional, the causal flow going from economic structure through consciousness to action. Faulkner portrays that over time the two great classes directly facing each other defined by how they stand to the relations of production, gradually conso­lidate under capitalism, absorbing other classes within them, developing class consciousness and industrial and political organizations, and in due course fight out a conflict. The other element of the economic relations is the theme of money vividly portrayed in the novel and played an important role in the life of the main character. “Miss Emily’s father had loaned money to the town, which the town, as a matter of business, preferred this way of repaying” (Faulkner 25). Nevertheless, as the readers see, Faulkner has taken up the idea of a society inhabited by individuals who choose their way to be free from political priorities and social prejudices. The isolation and loneliness of Miss Emily can be explained by the inability of her society to accommodate to changing conditions and modernize. On the one hand, society cannot accept new social order and economic relations affected all sphere of life. Faulkner depicts that townspeople could not accept new social and family relations accusing Miss Emily of immoral behavior: “Then some of the ladies began to say that it was a disgrace to the town and a bad example to the young people” (Faulkner 27). On the other hand, Miss Emily is limited by her memories and inability to change her life. “The town had just let the contracts for paving the sidewalks, and in the summer after her father’s death, they began the work” (Faulkner 26). It is not depicted to what extent the words influenced social opinion, but the result was apparent: social values were a powerful tool changing attitudes of people and their morals. World perception of the main hero had not changed through the story. Miss Emily is depicted as a stable character. Miss Emily opposes herself to all social norms and isolated herself from these things. She refused to accept social involvement and her family afraid of a change. t was as if she demanded more than ever the recognition of her dignity as the last Grierson; as if it had wanted that touch of earthiness to re her imperviousness” (Faulkner 26). It is possible to say that Miss Emily rejects innovations and new orders but seeks security in the past. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Faulkner portrays an amazing and vivid social picture of Southern society at the beginning of the XX century. He shows that class had a crucial impact on the life of people determining their destinies. Faulkner creates a unique mixture of personal and social values. This short story unveils that an understanding of the individual and the society in which she lived plays a crucial role. Without an understanding of the influence of work and new social order and economic relations on the characters, the readers would not be able to perceive the motives of their behavior and their decisions. It means that social values were influenced by the impact of class relations on society. In this way, class power affected the thoughts and desires of its victims without them being aware of it. This view of civil society also suggests that morality in a class society should be regarded as a matter of class struggle. As the most important, the society had been changed but Miss Emily could not accommodate herself to new economic conditions and market relations. Works Cited Faulkner, W. ‘A rose for Emily’ in Literature: Pocket Reader. A Prentice Hall, by M.M. Balkun. Prentice Hall, 2004. 25-31 Barkun, M. Cohen, E. Popular Culture and Political Change in Modern America: State University of New York Press. Albany, NY, 1991.

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