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What Is English As A Lingua Franca?

Over the last few decades, with global spread and use of English, some researchers have shown an increased interest in English as a Lingua Franca. The issue of ELF has eventually become an important focus of research in applied Linguistics. McKay (2003) emphasizes that local context and learners’ needs should play an important role in the teaching of English. Kirkpatrick (2007) claims that we, as English language teachers, should reconsider which model of English should be adopted for the language classroom in countries where English is used mainly for international communication. This paper seeks to the following things. Firstly, the paper will explore what is meant by English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and followed by the discussion the importance of relevant issues, such as choosing the right teaching model, cross-cultural intelligibility and strategies, accommodation and open-minded attitudes towards different English varieties. Secondly, with respect to Chinese context, the author will discuss the choice of appropriate teaching models. As an English language teacher in China, the author claims that the choosing of teaching models should be based on the local context and learners’ needs. Finally, the author will discuss the development of ‘China English’ in Chinese context. 2. What is English as a Lingua Franca? 2.1 The Spread of English Nowadays, there is no doubt that English is an international Language. It is widely used as a communication medium in the fields of politics, economics, culture, technology etc. Crystal (2003) points out that the number of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English is far more than native speakers (NSs) and claims that roughly only one of every four users of English in the world is an English native speaker. 2.2 World Englishes With the spread of English in the world, there are now many varieties. Jenkins (2004) refers to these as world Englishes. In other words, English no longer has one single base of authority, prestige and normativity (Mesthrie
Training and Development the Skills of Employees Proposal. Olaniyan and Ojom (2008) opine that growth in organizations can be achieved by training and developing the skills of employees. They continue to explain that training provides employees with skills which are necessary to perform their duties. This is achieved by improving the skills of employees, and shaping the skills of new recruits to match the needs of the organization. In addition, it is worth mentioning that training and development improves the efficiency and effectiveness of employees when performing various tasks in an organization. It has also been noted that the work of managers is reduced when employees are trained because the employees require no supervision (OlaniyanTraining and Development the Skills of Employees Proposal
Table of Contents Introduction Hypothesis Theoretical Literature Methodology and Data Results Conclusions Introduction Effective leadership sets the pace of development and growth in an organization. In this regard political leadership is not an exemption. Good political leadership influences the development of a nation or region. The political leaders in a country play an important role in the society since they control the resources in a region and determine how the resources are utilized for the benefit of all people. Political leaders use their power and authority to influence how various activities and operations are handled in a country. Therefore, to ensure the success of a country or a region there is a need to institute good political leadership. It is in this light that this proposal will look at the issue of political leadership and organization. The proposal will compare Bill Clinton and John Kennedy as the good leaders. The paper will also look at whether the two individuals were leaders before they started politics. On the other hand, the paper will also compare the great leaders and bad leaders in this regard, the New York mayor Mr. Michael Bloomberg will be compared to Mr. Rob Ford, the mayor of Toronto. Hypothesis Based on the topic of political leadership, the hypothesis of this study will highlight what made the aforementioned leaders to be regarded as good leaders, great leaders, and bad leaders. For instance, comparing Bill Clinton and John Kennedy both were good leaders that played a greater role in transforming the U.S. Specific elements that made Bill Clinton a good leader included economic policies that greatly changed America. On the other hand, John Kennedy is mainly celebrated as a good leader that ruled the U.S. due to his policies, which have enabled America to attain success in various areas. For instance, John Kennedy created the famous Peace Corps, which has enabled many Americans to volunteer in various programs around the world to ensure peace and sustainability. When comparing great leaders against the bad leaders, New York mayor Mr. Michael Bloomberg will be compared with the Toronto Mayor Mr. Rob Ford. The New York mayor played a cardinal role in ensuring environmental protection. The mayor initiated strict regulations on the usage of plastic and non-degradable materials in the environment. However, the Toronto mayor has been accused of various offenses such as misuse of resources, acting in conflict of interest, and has abused alcohol and drugs in his office. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical Literature Theoretical literature for the term paper will highlight various issues on the topic of political leadership. The section will give attention to the historical aspect of the topic, the current issues on the topic, and develop a critical analysis. The theoretical literature will also discuss the issues and create unity between historical facts, the gaps in previous studies, and current aspects on the topic. Theoretical literature will also give information on the background of the leaders in the study. Methodology and Data This study will employ a qualitative research method. The data will be collected from various respondents that will be selected by the researcher. The researcher targets to collect the information from various institutions of leadership such as government offices and schools. The justification for the respondents is based on the fact that government offices have good historical information about the leaders. Results The results of the study will be communicated to the targeted audience and other individuals who will be interested in the outcome of the research. The research will analyze the results before presentation to the targeted audience. Conclusions The term paper will contain conclusions on all facts under study. This part will also provide recommendations for further study and opportunities, which may facilitate future research. The section will also contain the normative implications of the study.
MGT 4478 The Company Manufactures Products and Materials Research Paper.

Section One; Country Study: Assume your company has decided to expand their US business into an international business. You have been asked by your company to research potential countries to determine which country they should expand their business to as their first overseas venture.Assignment Criteria:IntroductionPick a real organization to use as your template organization for this project. The organization can be a large multinational organization, a large domestic organization, a small organization, or your current (or previous) employer. State whether your organization will be selling a product (state product type), selling a service (state service), or set-up a manufacturing facility (state type of manufacturing). Research and determine a country that you would recommend to your CEO for international expansion. State the name of the country you will be recommending for international expansion. Perform a country study to help determine the any potential issues, costs, and the benefits of doing business in a particular country. At the end of your study, write a brief summary (250 words or more) that concludes your findings highlighting some of the challenges, benefits, costs, etc associated with entering this country.Below is a list of the environmental factors you need to study and discuss in your study.Economic/Geographic:GDPGDP –real growth rateGDP – per capitaLabor By occupationTotal ExportsExports – commoditiesExports – partnersTotal ImportsImport – commoditiesImport – partnersInfrastructure – physical (transportation) & informational (communication)UnemploymentIndustries Industries growth rateGeographic: Natural resourcesAccess to resources and raw materialsClimateLand useCurrent environmental issuesNatural HazardsPolitical-Legal:Type of governmentPolitical stability Foreign investment and approval procedures Regulatory requirements Labor and employment laws Governmental assistance programs for foreign businessesTax laws and applicable treaties Under External Links in our course I have provided you with a link to the CIA factbook, this is a great resource to find out many of the above facts about a country. I do require that you use at least two additional sources to complete this assignment. PLEASE remember to cite all your sources; proper citation of your sources is a requirement for this course. This assignment is to be a minimum of 2 – 4 pages typed, font 12, double-spaced. Cite all your sources using APA style.
MGT 4478 The Company Manufactures Products and Materials Research Paper

“The Snows of Kilimanjaro” a Story by Ernest Hemingway Report (Assessment)

Harry’s wound had festered to an extent that it had graduated to gangrene. As usual, for a man who had gone through immense physical and emotional suffering, Harry had lost his ability to think. As a result, Harry had resigned to the fact that he would die in a remote jungle far away from home. Helen urges him not to give up as help could be on the way but he is too tired to care what will happen to him. His mental and physical condition is affecting her negatively, especially after he declares that he has never loved her. Harry actually blames Helen for his predicament claiming that it is her money that brought all his current suffering upon him. This hurts Helen so much that she cries bitterly. In a monologue Harry wonders a lot about his present predicament. He blames Helen for destroying his writing career, since it is her money that brought him closer to her, the same money that was now threatening to take him far away from his writing. But he still thinks that he is still too strong a man to be destroyed by women and concludes that he brought all his present tribulations upon himself by the choices he made. Upon his return from the hunting trip Helen notices that Harry’s condition had improved, much to her relief. She even promises him a delicious supper from the Tommy she had shot. Helen further begs Harry not to hurt her again since she had previously been destroyed by men in her life. He promises to stop the habit and make amends with her in bed, much to her appreciation. In her mood of appreciation, Helen promises Harry that the help they need would arrive the following day in the form of an Aeroplane. But Harry has suffered too much to care for help. They opt to while-away the evening drinking whiskey, which they order from one of the boys. After a while, it occurred to him that death was imminent. His wound now smelled too much, a smell that was symbolic of death. After taking a bath, she wants to serve him supper which he refuses, claiming that there was no need to eat since he would die that night. Out of her abundant care for him, she urges him to take a little food to give him strength to write. After all the emotional suffering he had taken her through, Harry is touched by the fact that she manages to remain loving and friendly. He acknowledges this and assures her that she is a fine woman. He refuses to eat more and slowly falls into a deep slumber that he would never wake from. After he is fallen asleep she asks the boys to take him into the tent. The next morning the plane arrives but it is already too late. Harry is already dead. Helen takes awhile to notice and after she does she is too shaken. In this narrative, Hemingway presents himself as both melodramatic and emotional, while still remaining uncaring to Helen’s plight. His adventurous spirit brings him to Africa, along with Helen, a woman he loves but does not wish to admit this fact. He fails to acknowledge that Helen had abandoned her life to be with him. He goes on to hurt her emotions and blame her for his present condition. Suffice to say that in his own words, Harry agrees that his drinking and love for women were the reasons for his death; he had brought it all this upon himself.

write a research paper outline for 2 page plus reference and title page about gerontology

order essay cheap write a research paper outline for 2 page plus reference and title page about gerontology. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

this outline will be presented in short paragraphs, including a point form summary outlining your final research paper (Assignment #2).You are to select 2 – 3 prominent social issues on aging that are highlighted by the course Modules (see course syllabus). The Research Paper will contain a summary of the current (within the last 10-15 years) research from academic journals regarding your chosen social issues and an analysis of the impact of these issues on older adults and/or their families using the Critical Ecological Model
Length is to be 2 pages, this does not include your title page and reference list of four academic journal articles, plus any additional books and/or media source(s) on your topics.Paper format is to be written in American Psychological Association (APA) style, including double line spacing, 1” margins, page numbers and Times New Roman 12pt font.
Examples of social issues: ageism, immigration, multi-culturalism and aging, “successful aging”, quality of life, older adult mental health, loss of competency, elder abuse, cost of healthcare, healthcare models, long-term care versus community care, sexuality and aging, challenges faced by family caregivers.
Academic journals are peer-reviewed sources that introduce new research and/or a critique of existing research.One method to find academic journals is the use of should select ‘gerontology’ as the subject and ‘articles’ as the type, you will find the recommended databases for this type of research.Some commonly used databases are AgeLine, CINAHL, PsycINFO and SocINDEX.
Steps to complete Assignment #1:

Choose 2-3 topics you are interested in.Start searching for resources relevant to your topics to see if there is ample information to write your paper.Ensure your topics are inter-related, this makes it easier for you to conduct research and to write your paper.
Create a title page.Please include assignment name, your name and student I.D. number, course name/number, instructor’s name and due date.
Write an introduction, which includes an overview of the assignment.This should include the purpose of the paper (see the opening paragraph), what your chosen 2-3 social issues are and their significance to aging.
Use the next couple of paragraphs to provide a brief picture of the current research you have found thus far regarding your chosen social issues. (HINT: you may want to write one paragraph per social issue).
Conclude Assignment #1 with a point form outline of how you will present your research paper.The point form summary outline should follow the APA format. (See
On a separate page, complete the Reference List according to APA style.Please include references used in the research paper outline (with in-text citations) as well as additional potential resources.
Review your assignment for any spelling or grammatical errors.HINT: reading a paper aloud allows you to check for grammatical errors and readability.
write a research paper outline for 2 page plus reference and title page about gerontology

Purdue University Global Conceptual Framework Orems Model Paper

Purdue University Global Conceptual Framework Orems Model Paper.

What is a conceptual framework?A conceptual framework is “a set of relatively abstract and general concepts that address the phenomena of central interest to a discipline, the propositions that broadly describe those concepts, and the propositions that state relatively abstract and general relations between two or more of the concepts” (Butts & Rich, 2018, p. 96).Conceptual frameworks have a practical value because they guide research and practice. Each conceptual framework of nursing gives the disciple a unique perspective of the metaparadigm concept and provides a path for concrete theories.DirectionsIn this assignment, you are going to locate a conceptual framework that you could use in advanced nursing practice. Explain how your chosen conceptual framework of nursing relates to the unique perspective of the metaparadigm concept of person/client, nurse, health, and environment and apply the value of a conceptual framework to advanced nursing roles. Keep in mind, that the conceptual framework is used to allow for practical applications of the metaparadigm concept that will lead to a concrete theory.Assignment DetailsFor this Assignment, your paper must be 2 to 3 pages, not including the title and reference pages. Minimum requirement of at least five sources of support.To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources. Assignment RequirementsBefore finalizing your work, you should:Minimum requirement of at least five sources of supportbe sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; andutilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.Your writing Assignment should:follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; anduse APA 6th Edition
Purdue University Global Conceptual Framework Orems Model Paper

Resilience discussion question

Resilience discussion question. I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better.

Scales and Measurements of Resiliency
The importance of measuring resiliency and its cultural focus is central to understanding a population’s sensitivity to interventions that may support growth in resiliency. Thus, understanding the options available will be important when identifying a specific population that is being studied.
The research has spawned different measures of resilience, including qualitative interviews and self-tests, as well as questionnaires provided by specialists. Today’s focus on using statistical methods in resilience measurement impacts the information we have concerning resilience as well as the depth of research we may conduct.
For this discussion, use the journal articles you located (they are attched to this page) that utilize scales and measurements of resilience to address the following:

Identify what scales and measurements are utilized to effectively demonstrate resilience.
Highlight the components of at least two of these measurement scales, identifying their method of measurement, reliability, or validity.
Analyze their use with the specific population you are going to examine for the Resilience Terminology assignment in Unit 2.

Write a 250-word minimum initial post to this discussion. Include two scholarly resources (not including the textbook). Be sure to include relevant, required information, adequate explanations, and alternative viewpoints.

Measurement of Resilience
Address the following for this discussion:

Briefly identify and discuss the level of resilience displayed by diverse populations in the video you chose from NBC Learn (in the first study for this unit).
Based on your viewing of the first 38 minutes and 30 seconds of the video, Happy, identify how relationships contribute to resilience and happiness.( Transcript is attached)

Write a 250-word minimum initial post to this discussion. Include two scholarly resources (not including the textbook). Be sure to include relevant, required information, adequate explanations, and alternative viewpoints.
Resilience discussion question

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