What is coaching? learning specific skills. Coaching is about learning specific skills, to improve performance or to prepare for advancement. To an outsider, coaching situations may look similar. All are based on an ongoing, confidential, one-on-one relationship between coach and learner. Yet each teaching situation can be quite diverse and some of these distinctions are important to recognise, if only to foster informed choice by everyone involved. Therefore this essay defines and explores key distinguishing features amongst coaching. Furthermore taking account of these factors, this essay will discuss and suggests different coaching roles. Any instructional strategy should be based on learning theory because without an understanding of how athletes learn, one cannot expect to achieve intended learning goals (Griffin et al, 2005). The use of student and athlete has been used interchangeable throughout this essay to reflect its meaning. So focusing on this I will look from a behaviourist perspective on how people learn best and what certain influences can facilitate learning, by briefly discussing the place of feedback will identify influential factors this can make to a pupils education and overall learning experience. Watkins and Mortimer define pedagogy as ‘any conscious activity by one person designed to enhance learning in another’ (1999; 3). With coaching being recently reconceptualised as a pedagogy (Cassidy et al., 2004), it is imperative for a coach/teachers to ensure learners are facilitating in their learning, so rather than just teaching a certain skill, they also teach when this skill should be used. By being a coach, in other words, implies being a ‘certain kind of teacher’ (Hacking, 1986; Gee, 2001), but exactly what such being entails remains covered in uncertainty (Richardson, 2002). The role for the coach or teacher has been very directive, instructional or prescriptive (Cassidy et al. 2004, Kidman, 2001). For instance, the coach or teacher deciding when and how athletes/students should perform specified skills or movements. This has led to the coach being regarded as the sole source of knowledge, transmitting this in a unidirectional way with learners having a passive role in the learning process (Potrac and Cassidy 2006). Furthermore, this occupies a position of centrality and influence in the sporting environment (Cushion et al. 2006, Smith and Smoll 2007). Therefore, Lyle’s (2002) research suggests there is a strong belief that the quality of coaching is one of the most important environmental factors in determining performance improvement with success. Signifying not only the behaviour of the coach being an influential socialising agent but might also impact on performance, learning, and a range of many other psycho-social outcomes. Coaches and teachers can be implicitly or explicitly, by their beliefs about learning. By practicing and behaving according to their own beliefs, directly impacting on how the coach’s role is perceived and enacted within the coaching process, such as tradition of the sport taught, socialisation experiences etc. Research suggests knowledge and practice, remains largely based on experiences and the interpretation of those experiences (Cushion, Armour, and Jones 2003; Cushion 2006; Gilbert and Trudel 2006). This however, is regardless of the implementation and availability of education programmes and courses. Furthermore, Douge and Hastie (1993) believe that the accumulating years of involvement doesn’t necessarily guarantee that an agent will become an effective coach. Chelladurai also expands suggests that “future research could focus on generating items based on the experiences and insights of both coaches and athletes” (1990; 340). Indicating that there is no single behaviour, role or approach that is either a defining or essential component to an athlete’s/student’s centeredness (Popkewitz, 1998; Cain, 1989). In fact, the amount that a coach feels compelled to act in a single way; the more likely they are to impose limits on their athletes because their own behaviour is constrained (Daniels 2001, Cain 1989) not only implementing interventions but could interfere with coaching preparations. There are many different ‘building blocks’ which aid coaches in the effectiveness of their coaching and improve their coaching practice, although there are a number of reflective cycles to assist coaches, Gibbs (1988) offers a model of coaching effectiveness ideal for the beginner coach involving the following six elements: 1) Description – Describe as a matter of fact just what happened during your critical incident or chosen episode for reflection. 2) Feelings – What were you thinking and feeling at the time? 3) Evaluation – List points or tell the story about what was GOOD and what was BAD about the experience. 4) Analysis – What sense can you make out of the situation. What does it mean? 5) Conclusion – What else could you have done? What should you perhaps not have done? 6) Action Plan – If it arose again, what would you do differently? How will you adapt your practice in the light of this new understanding? This framework is an ideal excellent starting point for coaches/teachers in their investigations of the coaching process itself, not only this but Bandura states “People not only gain understanding through reflection, they evaluate and alter their own thinking” (1986; 62) enticing coaches to un-earth their theory in use, inevitably extending learning in both coach and athletes. Paradoxically focusing on this, coaches and teachers have varied roles to consider, whereby they can aid the need for the following specific knowledge and skills: Interpersonal skills. Communicating and establishing trusting relationships with whom they are trying to change their practices. Coaches must be able to observe accurately and provide appropriate feedback. Content knowledge. Having an understanding of their subject matter, this includes how knowledge of a discipline is developed through curricula and learning materials. Experience with others coaches at the different level indicates that a certain level of content-area expertise is necessary to be a subject area coach. However, expertise also may create tension when coaches are labelled experts. Most important is for a coach to establish a collaborative, reflective relationship. Pedagogical knowledge. To lead, coaches need to understand how students and athletes learn, including knowledge of the tasks, questioning strategies, and structures that can help students/athletes develop their own ideas. Knowledge of the curriculum. Familiarity with the structures and experiences offered by a curriculum is important, including understanding the fundamental ideas behind a curriculum and how those ideas connect across different ability levels. Awareness of coaching resources. Aware of specific knowledge of professional development materials, literature, and resources that can be used to support development of subject or pedagogical knowledge and better understanding how to teach. Knowledge of the practice of coaching. Coaching strategies and structures, such as how to use pre and post observations or on-the-spot coaching; the role of questioning and effective strategies; how to use resources of teaching practice (curriculum materials, student work, scripts of classroom dialogue, etc.); and the pro’s and con’s of demonstration lessons and coaching sessions. All specify a requirement of the coach/teacher, however, athletes have been shown to have different preferences and different responses to coach behaviour (Reiman, 2007) and in complex social and interpersonal settings, individual differences are sure to play an important role (Smith and Smoll, 2007). However, not all people are the same, nor are circumstances and contexts, and consequently a ‘one size fits all’ approach will not work for all learners and in all situations (Amorose, 2007). Moreover, Jonassen (1999; 235) suggests possible ideas “by starting the learners with the tasks they know how to perform and gradually add task difficulty until they are able to perform” therefore facilitates learning in both coach and learner encouraging decision making roles. There are four components which influence: the coach, the athlete, knowledge and the learning environment. Focusing on these statements further and the literature researched indicate many influential factors one in particular being feedback which the following section discusses. Indeed, all coaching is based upon some theory about how we learn with behaviourism strongly informs coaching, resulting in an instructional approach that emphasises the use of feedback and rewarding behaviour. Feedback from coaches is an essential aspect of learning. Whereby coaches use feedback to encourage pupils to respond to their own learning by discovering where they are now in relation to where they would like to be, and to determine how to do better next time (Hargreaves, 2005). Fundamentally feedback can be used as a tool to support and enhance learning (Ofsted, 2008) in both education and coaching practice. More recently, it has become the source of heated debates and has seen a dramatic increase in the amount of literature relating to feedback and in particular operant conditioning approach (Skinner, 1958) which is based on the well established principles of individual learning that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Although some citations are dated in this section however; it is still relevant today as there are many expectations and implications which are placed on coaches and teachers to provide meaningful support and feedback to enhance learning. It’s believed by Smoll and Smith (1989) that coaches must have extensive task knowledge so that they can issue proper instruction about desired behaviours and reinforce individuals when they do well. However, findings by Komaki et al (1989) illustrate the need for consistency in verbal reinforcement and feedback to initiate an increase in the frequency of desirable behaviours and decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviours. Thus, according to Mayer (1983) can elaborate and expand on learners knowledge, building on existing cognitive schema (Mayer, 1983), this can be reinforced by way of feedback. There are, however further expectations placed on teachers. Piaget’s work is concerned with the expansion of knowledge and understanding, with ways in which new information is dealt with by learners. However, Pritchard (2009) has identified concern in the amount of time coaches have available to give sufficient feedback, more so with coaching and teaching in groups rather than one on one. Although Boud (1999) suggests that when pupils take responsibility of their own learning this will allow them to deepen their understanding. Not only does insufficient time have implications but a message (feedback) can also have the potential to be misinterpreted. It is generally accepted that certain feedback might be taken personally by pupils, and lead to defensiveness and loss in confidence. ‘We judge too much and too powerfully, not realising the extent to which pupils experience our power over them’ (Boud, 1999; 43). Self-esteem, it is believed, is affected by receiving negative or unexpected feedback. Research by Young (2000) suggests, however, considerations should be made from the opposite perspective: it is the student’s level of self-esteem that affects the messages they receive—both positive and negative. Those with low self-esteem tend to view all feedback as a judgement of ability, whilst those with high self-esteem do not. Indicating certain implications which could severe interpersonal problems Certainly, teachers and coaches if they are truly person centered should be continually open to learning and how their athletes/students learn and achieve effectively as shown throughout this essay, however there are so many areas and this essay has only covered a few. It might be valuable that by creating the best possible atmosphere for learning and performance, coaches and teachers can and would be less concerned about a certain coaching style or behaviour and more concerned about whether whatever they do impairs or facilitates learning. In this sense, receptivity, flexibility and differentiated responses in coaches and teachers are likely to maximize the outcome (Cain, 1989). In reality, the teacher or coach has a role to play in identifying and addressing certain problems and assisting, deconstruct knowledge relating to aspects of sporting performance (Potrac and Cassidy, 2006). Finally, this then provides the learner with the personal and informational resources for learning (Cain 1989), giving a unique opportunity to make significant changes in a person life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reflection and example of such a structured session using an approach whereby learners work out solutions to tactical problems themselves with the coach facilitating their learning. In the UK there are thousands of individuals who are qualified coaches because of the availability of coaching courses. However, research into coaching have shown that coaching courses only act as a starting point, with coaches in Jones et al.’s (2004) review points to the fact that the immensity of learning actually occurs through experience. Thus this alone does not guarantee capability this is elaborated in these words: ‘It is not enough just to do, and neither is it enough just to think … Learning from experience must involve linking the doing and the thinking’ Gibbs (1988; 9). The process of reflection is linked between doing and thinking (Martens, 1997; Gibbs, 1988) moreover, Bandura believes “People not only gain understanding through reflection, they evaluate and alter their own thinking” (1986; 62). Reflection has its origins in Schön’s (1983) work, where he defined a reflective conversation as the following cycle: appreciation; experimentation and evaluation. Later, other reflective models were put forward. Johns’ (1995) model consists of 26 questions that the coach must ask themselves, whereas Gibbs’ (1988) model consists of six. This reflection will use the Gibbs’ model to reflect upon a situation that arose during one of my coaching practices. The basis for this is because it’s uncomplicated and allows a beginner coach like myself to follow, whereas Johns’ tends to be more complex decision-making (Johns, 1995). Before moving on to the process of reflection, it’s important to note that this paper will take a pedagogical approach. Watkins and Mortimer describe pedagogy as ‘any conscious activity by one person designed to improve learning in another’ (1999; 3). With coaching being recently reconceptualised as a pedagogy (Cassidy et al., 2004), it is important for coaches to ensure learners are facilitating in their learning, so rather than just coaching a certain method, they also teach when this skill should be applied. Therefore, I will reflect upon a coaching experience of my own, using Gibbs’ (1988) model, to access whether learners were given the possibility to progress in their learning. Description I decided to coach a basketball session, focusing on shooting techniques and positioning. The games for understanding (TGfU) approach (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982) was used opposed to the more traditional coaching/teaching model. Teachers in the traditional model teach skills first and tactics later. As Light and Fawns (2003) have articulated, ‘knowing the game’ is to play it and demonstrate knowledge-in-action (Schön , 1983). Advocates of the TGfU model endorse tactics first, while skills are introduced afterwards (Bradley, 2004; Turner et al, 2001). So basically, what to do comes before how to do it. A mini game was introduced at the beginning of the session along with a brief explanation of certain rules required to give shape to the game and determine the variety of tactics and skills required for a successful performance. The session was going well with players participating with enthusiasm by contributing to certain questions then furthering their decisions. However, after a while I ran out of certain ideas for further progressions. Feelings Having sensed with apprehension that some learners were getting uninterested and even slowed down and eventually stopped playing. Research has suggested this is because players can lack challenges and so therefore their intrinsic motivation to participate decreases (RyanWhat is coaching? learning specific skills
USF The Testing from Joelle Charbonneau Article Questions
USF The Testing from Joelle Charbonneau Article Questions.
For this week’s discussion, Answer 1 of the following 2 Questions regarding The Testing. Each of these “questions” is a thesis that you could argue. In order to answer the questions write 1 page, or half of the first 2 page essay assignment, as practice supporting an argument. With that in mind, please use at least 3 quotes from the text to support the answer.1. In Joelle Charbonneau’s The Testing, the environment, including mutated animals and plants, is shown to be the most lethal adversary to the survival of the candidates.2. In Joelle Charbonneau’s The Testing, the environment is shown to be a secondary threat to other humans, both candidates and testing officials.
USF The Testing from Joelle Charbonneau Article Questions
Panic of the US patriarchal society in response to female Hookup culture
essay writer free I will choose Option 2 and possibly use the title “The Moral Panic of the US patriarchal society in response to female Hookup culture and sexual promiscuity.” The main object of analysis is the US hookup culture, female promiscuity, and why the US society develops moral panic. Males, who engage in hookups and promiscuous sex, are viewed positively, while women are viewed negatively. The paper explores if the growing hookup culture among US females is their way of asserting themselves and achieving equality with males. And whether moral panic related to such changing sexual scriipts is an attempt of the patriarchal society to maintain the gender roles and power balance. The first theoretical framework is the works of Gagnon and Simon on Sexual Scripts and sexual conduct. I will explore the layered three dimensions: ‘cultural scenarios,’ ‘interpersonal scenarios,’ and ‘intra-psychic scenarios.’ I will investigate what genders the existing sexual scriipts benefit the most and infer what scriipts the US society considers appropriate for both genders. Another theoretical framework is moral panic and the works of Stanley Cohen. I will explore the stages of moral panic and agents of moral panic. I will investigate why the US society panics that woman use various hookups and dating apps/websites and freely engage in promiscuous sex. Also, I intend to use the ideas of Erich Goode and Nachman Ben-Yehuda in the book “Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance” to investigate why female promiscuity and hookups are viewed as deviant and inappropriate by US society. The paper will also include the concepts of sexual norms, social norms regarding sexuality, deviance and restrictive behavior, sexual desire, symbolic interactionism, and sexual behavior. It will incorporate the works of Gagnon (2004), Gagnon
Florida National Medical Errors Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care Discussion
Florida National Medical Errors Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care Discussion.
A nurse manager is reviewing occurrence reports of medical errors over the last six months. The nurse manager knows that medical errors are not the only indicator of quality of care. They are, however, a pervasive problem in the current health care system and one of the greatest threats to quality health care. The nurse manager is putting together a list of possible solutions to decrease the number of occurrences of medication errors.1. Recognizing that health care errors affect at least one in every 10 patients around the world, the World Health Organization’s World Alliance for Patient Safety and the Collaborating Centre identified priority program areas related to patient safety. What are the patient safety program areas the nurse manager should consider for implementation?2. Describe the Joint Commission 2017 National Patient Safety Goals for Hospitals.3. Discuss the Institute of Medicine’s four-pronged approach to reducing medical mistakes? Please be certain to answer all questions on this week DQ and to provide a well-developed and complete answer to receive credit. Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per DQ, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph. All answers or discussions comments submitted must be in APA format Minimum of two references, not older than 2015.
Florida National Medical Errors Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care Discussion
Flight Sharing Business Idea Memorandum
Flight Sharing Business Idea Memorandum.
MEMORANDOM FROM: President and CEO, RoomShare TO: VP of Operations, RoomShare DATE: July 21, 2020 RE: New Business Model Needed (as a result of COVID-19) As you know, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, revenue and number of individuals booking through our room sharing platform has decreased over 80% since February. We need to find new opportunities in the property sharing industry. I’ve been reading about how individually owned small aircraft, known as “general aviation,” are now operating almost back to normal levels compared to the airlines. Many of these types of aircraft can hold 4-6 people and can fly all over the country to the over 5,000 public use airports. That’s a lot of airports! This got me thinking, to make just like Uber and Lyft, why can’t we develop a smart phone app platform for these “general aviation” aircraft owners to advertise available seats in their aircraft to others?Here’s specifically my idea: this app would act like an exclusive “bulletin board,” but with push notifications to those who desire to travel on the same route as the aircraft owner/pilot. This app would only allow up to 200 individuals to join (i.e., pay a fee) at a time per airport base. Keeping it as a small group allows all the users to know each other better. When an aircraft owner/pilot has an extra seat to share on a proposed flight, that individual will enter that in the app, which will then notify through push notifications and/or email to those individuals in the same airport base who might be interested based on their profile. We could set up these bases at regional airports all over the country, and project to get well over $1,000,000 in revenues in the first year alone. I’ve done a little bit of research already. Apparently, several companies, such as Open Airplane, Flytenow and Blackbird have formed to offer similar air transportation programs using privately owned, non-commercially operated aircraft on an expense-sharing basis under 14 CFR 61.113(b) (formerly 61.118(b)). For some reason, the FAA has some sort of authority on this, and apparently, they don’t like these ideas. So, I need you to write up a formal memo responding to the following questions, because our general counsel is not knowledgeable about aviation.1. Does the FAA have authority over issues like this? If so, who or what says they have authority, what does the authority say, and what does it mean for us? A. Hint: You’ll need to do some legal research and apply those rules to the facts here to answer the question. 2. Assuming the FAA has authority, determine the FAA’s current position on the legality of what we propose and the reasoning behind that position (i.e., what is the FAA’s current legal and/or policy position on the matter, and why, i.e., what is the rationale) A. Hint: Same thing here, you’ll need to do some legal research, which will include court cases, FAA legal interpretations, and FAA policy (e.g., Advisory Circulars). 3. Based on our business model and what you found in your research, do you think we will be exposed to enforcement or civil penalties from the FAA? A. Hint: This is the analysis/application section. You will need to take all of the rules you found above and apply them to this scenario. 4. Finally, what is your recommendation? (e.g., should we move forward with this business plan, change it, or abandon it? Why?) Please respond with a memo answering these questions with an analysis based on your research that supports your conclusions. Additional Instructions: The memo must be between 3-5 pages long of substantive material (e.g. a reference page is not counted), double spaced, reasonable margins, reasonable font type and size. This memo should answer the questions above in a logical and coherent way, supported by appropriate and relevant sources of information. You may use MLA for citing Include some background about how COVID-19 has impacted the Aviation industry
Flight Sharing Business Idea Memorandum