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What Factors Affect the Rate of Evaporation of Water?

Hubert Galan and Zafira Smith Introduction: Our testable question for this experiment is what factors affect the rate of evaporation of water. This testable question regards the different factors, such as the temperature surrounding the water being evaporation, the temperature of the water being evaporated, the temperature of the air surrounding the water being evaporated, the humidity of the air surrounding the water being evaporated. In order to test our question we will use a bowl of water and expose the bowl and the water inside of it, which would begin at a temperature of 30 degrees celsius, to many different conditions, such as heat lamps, and fans. In doing so we will exposing our bowl of water and water itself to the variety of different factors that we can assume are capable of affecting the rate of evaporation of our water, and by testing the each of these factors we will be able to determine which ones are actually influential to the rate of evaporation of the water being tested. Evaporation: Evaporation is when water changes form into gas. “Evaporation is the main pathway that water moves from the liquid back into the water cycle as water vapor,”(The Water Cycle: Evaporation). What this means is that gas or water vapor’s main way back into the water cycle is through evaporation, which shows the significance of it. More important information on evaporation is that energy is needed for evaporation to occur. The use of energy in evaporation is that energy breaks the bonds that hold water molecules together and which keeps the water in it’s liquid phase. Which is why water easily evaporates at a high temperature, because there is enough energy or heat needed to break those bonds. Evaporation is arguably the most important part of the water cycle. No evaporation would result in no rain, no rain equals no water for forest which provided the most essential gas for humans, oxygen. Overall without evaporation the effects would be destructive (Water and Global Change). What this shows is how important evaporation is in our world, and that without it we won’t survive. For this reason my colleague and I are trying to answer the question what factors affect the rate of evaporation of water. Temperature: Water molecules are always moving, some molecules are hit by other molecules which cause them to gain speed. These molecules hitting each other cause the energy and the temperature to raise. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Slower moving molecules have a lower temperature(colder) while faster moving molecules have a higher temperature (hotter). The increasing temperature causes the water molecule bonds to break, which causes water molecules to turn into gas. The breaking of bonds of molecules is evaporation, it involves a change of state, from liquid to gas. The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of evaporation. When the temperature of water increases the water molecules gain more energy. When the water molecules’ temperature rises the water molecules start to move faster and thus evaporate faster. Basically the higher the temperature the higher the rate of evaporation (Factors Affecting the Rate of Evaporation). This is the most notable factor that affects rates of evaporation. The way we will test this is by having two bowls of water. One bowl will be exposed to normal conditions, while the other bowl will be exposed to a heat lamp. After twenty-four hours we will compare the mass of both bowls, and see if they change. After this we will conclude based on the data we received. Wind: Wind is the natural movement of air in any given direction. In order to test the effect of wind on the rate of evaporation of the bowl of water in our experiment we will use a fan and turn it onto the bowl of water being used. When evaporation occurs the water vapor from our bowl will be sitting just above the surface of the water in our bowl that has not yet been evaporated. When wind is added to the environment in which a body of water is in, the molecules of water vapor are rapidly moved from their resting position above the surface of the remaining water to the direction which the wind is facing. This rapid removal of molecules allows for rapid evaporation to occur because there is an increased amount space on the surface area of the remaining water which allow the water molecules to evaporate up. (How Does Wind Affect Evaporation?) This also means that with an increased speed of wind there will be an increased rate of evaporation, as the molecules sitting on the surface of a body of water will be removed and replaced and a quicker rate. Humidity: Humidity is that amount of water vapor in the surrounding atmosphere of a body of water, in our case the cup being used in our experiment. In order to test the effect that humidity has on water vapor in our experiment, we will put a lid over the the bowl of water we will be using for testing. Evaporation in an airtight container increases the amount of water vapor that is present in the air above the water in said container. When the amount of water vapor in the air above our water increases, there is more humidity because humidity is the amount of water in the surrounding atmosphere in a body of water. When humidity is high in the air, it is harder for water to evaporate, because the air is filled with water vapor. The air can not absorb an unlimited amount of water molecules, meaning that there will be a slower rate of evaporation. If the space that is located above the water becomes filled with water vapor, then a condensations happens to cause a balance. (Factors Affecting the Rate of Evaporation). Condensation which is the opposite process of evaporation, is when water vapor converts to liquid, meaning that the evaporation taking place in our experiment would be countered by the condensation already occurring to the vapor within our closed cup of water. Hypothesis: If wind affects the rate of evaporation then our water will evaporate faster because wind increases the evaporation rate of water through removing the water vapor particles that will be resting above the rest of our remaining water( that has not yet been evaporated), making room for new molecules to rest in the same place. If humidity affects the rate of evaporation then our water will evaporate slower because when humidity is high, it becomes more difficult for water vapor molecules to enter their atmosphere, therefore leaving no space for more molecules and slowing the rate of evaporation of water. If temperature affects the rate of evaporation then our water will evaporate faster because when water’s temperature is increased the water molecules gain more energy, which causes the molecules to move faster, break bonds faster and thus evaporate faster.*we have three hypothesis because we are trying to accurately test our questions with multiple factors in order to answer our testable question Work Cited “The Water Cycle: Evaporation.” Evaporation, The Water Cycle, from USGS Water-Science —–School. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016. “Factors Affecting the Rate of Evaporation.” Factors Affecting the Rate of Evaporation. N.p., —–n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2016. “How Does Wind Affect Evaporation?” Bright Hub. N.p., 18 Mar. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2016. “Intermediate-Level Science Projects.” Intermediate-Level Science Projects: What Factors Most —–Affect Evaporation? N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016. “Water and Global Change.” RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
read and watch the videos on youtube that i uploaded and linked and answer the questions. doesn’t have to be long 5-10 sentencer or so. Write an essay answering the following prompts: 1. Using what you learned from Simmel, Latane, and Darley, define the following terms: dyad, triad, and social loafing. Provide an example of how each term impacts communication. (10 points out of a total of 50) 2. Discuss Mead’s idea of social identity, using the terms I, Me, and Generalized Other to explain the concept. (10 points out of a total of 50) 3. Discuss how the looking-glass self and dramatology contribute to developing social identity. (10 points out of a total of 50) 4. According to Turkle, why is it hard to be alone? Why do people need to learn to be alone in order to have healthy social interaction? (10 points out of a total of 50) 5. Susan Cain explains that humans interact differently. Identify and explain three important learnings from her TED talk. (10 points out of a total of 50)
University of Nebraska Cybersecurity Awareness and Education Strategy Summary.

I’m working on a cyber security project and need support to help me learn.

PART 4: Annual Security Awareness Plan, Roadmap and Materials (3-4 pages, 25 POINTS)In this section your team will create a Security Awareness plan that includes:Cybersecurity awareness and education strategy summary (1-2 pages, 15 points) Your Cybersecurity Awareness and Education Strategy should include information that describes:Scope: Who the awareness and education program applies to within your client company (e.g. managers, basic users, legal, HR, software developers)Purpose/Goal: Why are you designing the program and what behaviors are you trying to addressMetrics: Define two metrics you will use to measure the success of your awareness programDelivery Method: What mode of communication will you use?ContentWhat information should be conveyed to the chosen group of people at the company?Think about your audience, specifically what is their knowledge level and skillset.Try to give them enough information to be aware of the policy without overloading them.Learning Objectives: What skill or skills should individuals walk away with after awareness program? What do they do now and how can they change their behavior to be more secure.A visual of a yearlong roadmap that covers the supply chain risk management control area in Part 2. (10 points)This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePart 4 | Your Cybersecurity Awareness and Education Strategy should include information that describes scope/purpose/goal.5 ptsFull Marks0 ptsNo Marks5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePart 4 | Describes the learning objectives and two metrics5 ptsFull Marks0 ptsNo Marks5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePart 4 | Describes the content and delivery method.5 ptsFull Marks0 ptsNo Marks5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePart 4 | Provides a yearlong roadmap10 ptsFull Marks0 ptsNo Marks10 pts
University of Nebraska Cybersecurity Awareness and Education Strategy Summary

Research paper

Research paper. Paper details Research Assignment Guidelines Length: 4-5 pages of text (not including images, Works Cited page or notes) Topic: Artwork that shows the influence of colonization or the intersection of European and non-European cultures, examined from a post-colonial studies viewpoint. This topic will be narrowed further based upon the article you choose, but should be one of the following: 1. Chinoiserie 2. Orientalism 3. African art that shows European influence 4. Latin-American colonial artwork/architecture Based on that topic, you need to find ONE scholarly article and apply its information to one artwork of any medium. Make sure the artwork is from the time periods this course covers (nothing later than 1850). This is not a biography so do not stray far from your discussion of the object itself. You may use other sources to amplify your discussion, but your thesis will be primarily dependent upon one scholarly article. Don’t forget to include your Works Cited page at the end and to submit in PDF format.Research paper

describe in 250 words what soft skills would you like to improve or develop and why you want to improve those soft skills.

python assignment help describe in 250 words what soft skills would you like to improve or develop and why you want to improve those soft skills.. I need an explanation for this Management question to help me study.

Directions: Based upon your reading of the 55 Soft Skills book, describe in 250 words what soft skills would you like to improve or develop and why you want to improve those soft skills.
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describe in 250 words what soft skills would you like to improve or develop and why you want to improve those soft skills.

Cultural, Political, Economic and Legal Aspects of Doing Business in France Case Study

Table of Contents Introduction External Business Environment of France PESTEL Analysis of the French Business Environment Political Aspects Economic Aspects The Socio-Cultural Environment Legal Aspects Conclusion Works Cited Introduction France is one of the developed economies in Europe. This country is one of the most attractive markets in the world. Officially known as French Republic, this country is located in West Europe, but has overseas territories. It is the largest country in West Europe, and is considered to have the second biggest economic zone in the world. France has been one of the world’s leading powers economically, politically, culturally and even in military. This country was one of the leading colonial powers between 18th and 20th century. The economy of this country is very strong, considered as the second largest in Europe, and fifth largest in the world. It is the ninth largest economy based on the purchasing power of its populace. According to the report by Kurtz (94), this country is the wealthiest nation in the entire Europe in cumulative household wealth. The living standard in the country is comparatively high, with good education and health facilities. According to Shovlin (67), the French are known for their love for flashy goods, especially those that show status. These are some of the factors that make this country an interesting business environment. This study is focused on understanding cultural, political, economic and legal aspects of doing business in France. External Business Environment of France Cultural, political, economic and legal aspects of a business make up the external environment of a business. External business environment is very important because it will always determine success or failure of a business. A firm cannot survive in a business environment that is hostile. According to Kurtz (12), external business environment always dictates growth and development of a business. In order to understand business environment of France, a PESTEL analysis will be important. This economic analysis tool will help us understand France as a business region, and its viability in supporting growth and development of firms. PESTEL Analysis of the French Business Environment Environmental scanning can be done using PESTEL Analysis. This involves the analysis of political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal environments. Political Aspects France is one of the leading democracies in the world. This country became a republic in 1792, after being Kingdom of France since 843. The country is headed by the president as the head of State, and a prime minister who is responsible for running cabinet affairs. Politically, France has a very stable government. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations. According to Schaffer (29), the political environment of France has been very supportive of business operations. This scholar says that the political class has created a clear distinction between politics and business environments. The transitions from one regime to another have been very peaceful, and none has ever had a serious negative effect on the business fraternity for almost the last five decades. Lack of political stability would mean that various businesses are not in a position to conduct business normally. Some firms may even be forced out of the market with huge losses in case the instability is accompanied by looting and arson. The government has also developed goodwill in helping develop the private sector. The government has liberalized the economy, a fact that has allowed other firms to enter into this market from other countries globally. In order to encourage entrepreneurship in the country, the government has developed a number of incentives, including reduced taxation, or tax grace periods for the entrepreneurs. The government has also created a good environment for foreign investors by removing bottlenecks, especially during the registrations process. Economic Aspects As was stated above, France has the second largest economy in Europe on the basis of Gross Domestic Product. Although the GDP is always very important when analyzing the attractiveness of a country in sustaining a business, the most important factor is always the wealth held by individual citizen. This country is the wealthiest nation in Europe in average house hold wealth. This means that its citizens are the strongest, in terms of purchasing power. This makes the country a very attractive market for firms interested in venturing into it. The report by Fortin (94) also shows that this country is ranked ninth in purchasing power parity by GDP. This means that wealth of the nation is not held by a few clicks of individuals. This increases the purchasing power of the country. The French are considered to be one of the highest spenders. The French do appreciate the need to spend, but they also spend a good part of their income. It is important though, to appreciate the fact that this country has also been experiencing economic recession that has been affecting the world from time to time. The country was affected by the 2008/2009 that hit the United States and European economies. Firms in this country were faced with economic recession that hit various countries in the world. This had serious negative effects on the firms’ revenues as many customers would consider some of the products as non-basic. When the economy of a country is on a decline, the purchasing power is reduced, and this reduces the viability of various businesses. We will write a custom Case Study on Cultural, Political, Economic and Legal Aspects of Doing Business in France specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They will be forced to cut down their operation levels, as the market will have a reduced capacity to sustain them. During such times, weak firms are always faced out of the market. The government has however, worked very hard to ensure that the economy of this country is maintained at a stable rate. The French government came up with various policies immediately the 2008/2009 economic recession was ended. The government has endeavored to ensure that the economy of the country do not experience difficulties it faced. The Socio-Cultural Environment It is not possible to analyze the cultural environment without looking at the political environment of the country. France has one of the richest socio-cultural environments in the world. Kurtz (39) says that France has a very rich cultural heritage that makes it stand out among many other countries. The socio-cultural environment of this country is diversified. This is because this country has people from all over the world. There are those countries that cherish equality, and women have equal economic strength just as men. In such countries, the firm does not segment the market based on sex, but age. France is one such country. The country has been known for its ideals and declarations of rights of man. This strange socio-cultural belief of the French was seen even during the colonization period. They embraced assimilation as their policy. In this policy, the government of France and the society in general accepted the colonized people who accepted to transform themselves into Frenchmen to become French citizens with equal rights as other French citizens. It is one of the few western countries where discrimination on the basis of race was at its lowest even when such powerful states such as the United States discriminated against some of its citizens. On the basis of religion, this country has several believers who are from different religions. The leading religion is Christianity. However, there are Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Pagans among other religions. All these religions have been co-existing peacefully and without any form of friction. However, each group has its own beliefs that make them unique in the market. For instance, the Muslims do not eat pork. Although their population is not very high in this country, they have an impact in the market. A business unit must therefore, be careful when segmenting the market. According to Hardwick (112), there is a unique character that makes the French market different from others. The French generally love leisure. They also like attractive products that symbolize love for life and for others. This is the reason why it is one of the leading markets for flowers. The country is also the most sensitive when it comes to issues about colors. They have cultural beliefs about some specific colors. Each color has a specific attachment, and is therefore, suitable for different occasions. A firm must take a keen consideration when choosing colors for its products. This society is also very careful about diction. Every word has a special meaning. As a marketer, one would need to be very careful with the choice of word used during the promotional campaigns. Any wrong usage of word may cost a firm its market share. Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultural, Political, Economic and Legal Aspects of Doing Business in France by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The technological environment in this country is very dynamic. Technology inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication have been the main challenge and strength of various firms at the same time. While these firms is left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with overnight, some have used this technology to emerge as the leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms out of the market. Legal Aspects According to Campbell (96), no firm can operate in an industry that has no clear laws and regulations to help in general governance. Laws and regulations are always enacted to help define the relationship between a firm and the government, a firm and the public, and a firm and other firms. This law should be clear on various operational issues in order to ensure that operations of one firm do not affect that of another firm. Some governments always enact laws that may discourage growth of one industry, while impeding the growth of another country. Other laws may also be enacted to discourage foreign firms from investing in the country. The government of France has enacted laws that liberalize the economy. The laws have encouraged growth of the private sector through public-private partnership. Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in France have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations. Of importance to note is that this country is largely a Christian state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the morals and beliefs of Christianity. For this reason therefore, there are some businesses practices that are not allowed in this country. Failure to follow the industry and national laws and regulation may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm, but even a total closure of the firm. The government has clearly defined how firms should relate amongst themselves. Such issues as advertisements are closely regulated, with various agencies keenly monitoring content of the adverts. This is specifically so due to two main reasons. The first reason is to ensure that an advert for company A does not have a direct negative effect on products for company B. This is to create a healthy competitive environment where firms have respect for one another. Another reason for this regulation is because of viewers of the adverts who are below the age of majority. There is a standard language that should be used when advertising in order to ensure that children’s mind do not get polluted with contents meant for adults. The law is also strict on advertisement of alcohol and cigarettes. Advertisements of such products as cigarettes must be followed with warnings to the users about their health. The country has illegalized trade in hard drugs such as cocaine, heroin among other hard drugs. There are some environmental concerns that have legal implications. France is one of the developed nations in Europe. There are environmental agencies that have come out strongly to defend nature. Firms operating in this country should be aware of the laws that are enacted to protect the environment. Contravening these laws may result in litigation against the firm. This can cause serious financial consequences. Conclusion France is one of the developed nations in the world. It is one of the leading economies in Europe. Business environment of this country is unique. In order to have a comprehensive analysis of this market, PESTEL analysis is very vital. Politically, this country has had a long period of stability. Different regimes come to power and leave, but with a lot of peace. The nation has had a long period of peace, without any serious civil strife that could affect business units adversely. Economically, this country has one of the largest economies in the world. The purchasing power of the French is very high because the wealth of the nation is not held by a single individual, but spread among many. This means that most of the citizens of this country have the capacity to make purchase of their desired products. The socio-cultural background of this country is diversified. The country is home to various people from different cultures and religious beliefs. They have co-existed peacefully, but with each practicing beliefs that they believe in. This rich culture has seen this firm rated as the highest visited country by tourists in the world. The country has legal systems that help ensure that there is sanity in the business environment. Works Cited Campbell, Dennis. Legal Aspects of Doing Business in Europe. Salzburg: Yorkville Law Publishers, 2007. Print. Fortin, Yvonne. Contracting in the New Public Management: From Economics to Law and Citizenship. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2000. Print. Hardwick, Julie. Family Business: Litigation and the Political Economies of Daily Life in Early Modern France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print. Kurtz, David. Contemporary Business. Hoboken: Wiley, 2011. Print. Schaffer, Richard. International Business Law and Its Environment. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Shovlin, John. The Political Economy of Virtue: Luxury, Patriotism, and the Origins of the French Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. Print.

Analysing Fedex’s Historical Performance

FedEx stands for Federal Express Corporation, was founded by 28-year-old Memphis, Tennessee, native Frederick W. Smith in 1971. Smith, who was a former Marine pilot, developed his idea for an overnight delivery service through a term paper that he wrote for Yale University in an economics class. Smith felt that air freight would provide another form of employment opportunity in the aviation sector of the economy instead of making it an added service to the passengers. In his views, a company should specialize in air freight rather than making it an add-on to passenger service which would make it a more lucrative business niche. Speed was more important than cost, in Smith’s view, and access to smaller cities was essential. His strategies included shipping all packages through a single hub and building a private fleet of aircraft. Company-owned planes would free the service from commercial-airline schedules and shipping regulations, while a single hub would permit the tight control that got packages to their destinations overnight. In making his dream a reality, Smith selected Memphis as his hub: it was centrally located and despite inclement weather its modern airport rarely closed. FedEx began its operation in 1973 with a $4 million inheritance that Smith got from his father and with a $91 million in venture capital. Service was provided in 25 cities with a fleet of 14 small Dassault Falcon aircraft and 389 employees. At this time, FedEx’s operations basically involved collection of packages from airports every night and taking them to Memphis, where they were immediately sorted. They were then flown to airports close to their destination and delivered by FedEx trucks the following morning. Like every normal start-up ventures, FedEx had a lot to contend with ranking from the high cost of operation and the expensive advertisement that Smith proposed. This led to a financial loss of $29 million in its first 26 months of operation thereby prompting Smith’s investors to consider removing him from the helm of the fledgling company, which was rejected by the company’s president Arthur Bass. Bass helped the company to improve its delivery schedules thereby made FedEx’s delivery volume to climb up to a point where it was profitable. Company’s profit hit $8 million on sales of $110 million by 1977. This was due to the fact that FedEx had 31,000 regular customers, including giants such as IBM and the U.S. Air Force, which used it to ship spare parts. It also shipped blood, organs for transplant, drugs, and other items requiring swift transport. Expanding FedEx’s operation to 75 airports and 130 small cities was the major strategy effected by Smith and Bass that sparked up the company’s growth. While the major airlines gave the company stiff competition on heavily traveled passenger routes, there was virtually no competition on routes between smaller cities. Its principal competitor, Emery Air Freight, used commercial airlines to ship packages, giving FedEx an important time advantage. Airline deregulation gave FedEx the much needed growth in its operations which resulted from the Smith’s led legislative fight to end regulation, and a bill doing so was passed in 1977. Deregulation meant the company could fly anywhere in the United States anytime, and use larger aircraft like 727s, and using its Falcons to expand into small- and medium-sized markets. Prior to the enactment of this bill, FedEx had to fly up to eight small Falcon jets side-by-side to bigger markets when as the use of one larger jet would have saved money. Because payloads for airline operators were less than 7,500 pounds which was a major set-back for FedEx at that time but with the deregulation FedEx’s operational cost would reduce. The enactment of the bill prompted FedEx to go Public through the New York Stock Exchange. This move raised needed capital and gave FedEx the chance to gain back a portion of their initial investment. The raised capital was used to acquire its fleet 32 Falcons, 15 727s, and five 737s and operations was expanded. Profits for 1979 were $21.4 million on sales of $258.5 million. By late 1980 FedEx was well established and growing at about 40 percent a year. It had 6,700 employees and flew 65,000 packages a night to 89 cities across the United States. During 1980, FedEx gain more market share based on the fact that there was a decline in the reliability of the U.S. Postal Service that caused even more companies to switch to FedEx for important packages. This prompted FedEx to announce a new product that would bring it into direct competition with the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) which was the introduction of the overnight letter. This document-size cardboard envelope, which could contain up to two ounces, would be delivered overnight for $9.50 at that time. This further resulted to FedEx having the largest sales of any U.S. air freight company, unseating competitors like Emery, Airborne Freight, and Purolator Courier, which had gone into business about two decades earlier. Most companies shipped packages of all sizes using regularly scheduled airlines, and their services was not speed oriented which was the bargain power for FedEx. FedEx offered speed-oriented service and thereby won over many of the market’s customers. This self led action forced other operations in the industry to copy FedEx operational strategy. Emery copied FedEx’s strategy, buying its own planes, opening a small-package sorting center, and pushing overnight delivery. Airborne also entered the small-package air express business. United Parcel Service of America (UPS), the leading package-shipper by truck, moved into the air-express business in 1981. The USPS began heavily marketing its own overnight-mail service after FedEx’s Courier-Pak began eating into its revenues. FedEx, the market leader in the America overnight package-delivery industry would be strict competitor of DHL Worldwide Courier Express Network with its entry into overseas services. To this effect FedEx made its first acquisition, Gelco Express, a Minneapolis-based package courier that served 84 countries in 1984. Hoping to recreate its U.S. market dominance overseas, the company made further acquisitions in Britain, the Netherlands, and the United Arab Emirates. Also UPS also began building a competing overseas system. Price control was the major strategic interplay in the 1990’s between key industrial players.UPS are key player in the U.S. market introduce volume discount, a strategy that its previously resisted. In response to this, FedEx began company-wide cost-containment policies to reduce waste and overhead, as well as gain increased efficiency in meeting the needs of its customers.. Even with its cost-cutting measures, employee-related expenses rose when FedEx became mired in over two years of contract negotiations with the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA). The huge salaries and benefit packages were not enough to keep the threat of unionization at bay, which ultimately resulted in the 1996 unionization of FedEx’s 3,100 pilots. National Labor Mediation Board resolves this because leading analysts doubted ALPA’s continued influence over FedEx budgetary policy. Aggressive international expansion was deployed by FedEx through acquisition of some companies in the same line of business operations. This aggressive expansion was witnessed throughout 1999 till date. 2.2 FEDEX’S PROFILE 2.2.1 FEDEX’S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE The above diagram shows the top management position within the FedEx Corporation. Each of this above list management position functions as a separate entity based on the fact that FedEx corporation has three different basic line of businesses and in that regard the presidents of FedEx freight, FedEx ground and FedEx express have additional personals in charge various operations. A more detail descriptions of these lines of businesses shall be covered in the following sections. 2.2.2 MAJOR LINES OF BUSINESS. FedEx Corporation has undergone different stage of development which involves change of name, acquisitions of different companies before finally being name as FedEx. It was through these developmental stages with strategic acquisition that actually helped FedEx to develop it lines of businesses. FedEx Corporation includes the following business segments which functions as a separate entity of its own; FedEx Express, FedEx Ground, FedEx Freight, FedEx Office, FedEx Custom Critical, FedEx Trade Networks and FedEx Services But all these business segments function as a whole under the FedEx Corporation. FedEx Express was the first and solely lines of business operation that FedEx Corporation ventured into when it started operations. FedEx Express was then over seeing all the operation of the corporation as whole. In order to function as a market leader in the globe market, FedEx Express acquired various companies. Some of FedEx Express acquired companies from 1999 are as follows [2] , 1999 FedEx Marketplace launches on, providing easy access to online merchants that offer fast, reliable FedEx express shipping. Federal Express launches its EuroOne Network, opening a hub at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle airport. FedEx Corp. acquires Caribbean Transportation Services. 2001 FedEx Express and the U.S. Postal Service forge a public-private alliance. FedEx Express provides air transportation of some U.S. mail and places FedEx Drop Boxes at post offices nationwide. 2007 FedEx Express builds its service capabilities in Europe by acquiring UK domestic express company ANC (later re-branded FedEx UK) and Flying-Cargo Hungary Kft, now a wholly-owned operation in one of Eastern Europe’s most dynamic markets. FedEx Express expands its presence in India with the acquisition of Prakash Air Freight Pvt. Ltd. (PAFEX). FedEx Ground began operation in 1985 which was then registered with the name Roadway Package System (RPS). This later became Caliber System Incorporation in 1996. The company was the first in the ground shipping business to use bar coding and automated sorting system and tracking system to help customers get relevant information about their packages. FedEx ground was formed as a subsidiary company to handle the ground delivery operation of FedEx Corporation which became effective through launching of FedEx Home delivery and a business-to-consumer service which was designed to help catalog and online retailers meet their markets [3] . FedEx Freight is the leading U.S. provider of next- and second-day regional, less-than-truckload (LTL) freight services. FedEx Freight is known for exceptional service, reliability and on-time performance. In 1966, Viking Freight opened its doors in 1966 as a courier service within selected areas of California and rapidly grew to be the state’s leading intrastate trucking carrier. By 1986, Viking’s service area covered 10 western states, including Alaska and Hawaii. In 1988, Viking became a subsidiary of Caliber System Inc. During the next ten years, Viking solidified its position as the market leader in the West and periodically expanded its reach beyond its western regional territory. In January 1998, Federal Express Corp. acquired Caliber System and created FedEx Corporation, a global provider of transportation, e-commerce and supply chain management services. Meanwhile, American Freightways (AF) was founded in 1982 by Sheridan Garrison. Despite regulatory and economic obstacles, AF quickly became the fastest-growing, independently-owned regional LTL carrier in the nation. In 1989, AF became a publicly-held corporation and by 2001 had developed a wide network of customer centers – providing 100 percent direct coverage to 40 contiguous U.S. states. American Freightways was acquired by FedEx Corporation in 2001. By combining Viking and AF, FedEx Corp. created FedEx Freight to offer one-stop shopping for LTL customers who require top-quality, highly reliable regional freight service. In June 2002, FedEx re-branded AF and Viking as FedEx Freight to accelerate growth of regional LTL freight business through a common branding system. Through a comprehensive network of service centers and with timely, accurate information systems, FedEx Freight is committed to delivering reliable, responsive LTL service throughout the U.S. and beyond. In 2003, Caribbean Transportation Services-acquired by FedEx Corp. in 1999 and aligned to FedEx Trade Networks in 2001-was realigned as a freight-forwarding subsidiary of FedEx Freight. Caribbean Transportation Services is the leading provider of airfreight forwarding services between the United States and Puerto Rico. It provides door-to-door and airport-to-airport shipping with services ranging from next-day delivery to four-to-five-day delivery. Today, these companies make FedEx Freight the less-than-truckload shipping industry leader in the U.S. In 2006, FedEx Corp. acquired Watkins Motor Lines, a leading provider of long-haul LTL services. Watkins was rebranded FedEx National LTL and now operates as a seperate network within the FedEx Freight segment.

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