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What does it mean to summarize information, and why is that an important skill at work? What is a report,

What does it mean to summarize information, and why is that an important skill at work? What is a report, what is the purpose of a report, and what are some sections that need to be in a report? Are all reports the same? What areas might be similar from report to report and what areas might be different? What approach have you used (or would you use) to make a connection with a workplace audience (in a presentation or meeting) and why? What approaches have you seen others use? Were they effective? Why or why not? (If you have no workplace experience, describe what you think might be effective.) Have you ever written any of the types of reports mentioned in the chapter? If yes, describe your process and how it went. If not, which types of reports do you think you might encounter in your workplace or future workplace?
Transgenic Plants and Their Applications. Aim of study Rice is one of the main staple foods in this world. It is particular interesting that studies be done on enhancing the rice production. There are biotic and abiotic factors that can reduce the production of rice but the aim for this study is to examine further into genes that can enhance rice tolerance towards drought as drought one of the main factors that decreases the annual production of rice in the world. In addition, genes conferring tolerance to transgenic rice will also lead to other positive phenotype effect such as salt tolerance (Hu et al., 2006), disease tolerance (Chen and Guo, 2008) and many more. The research of transgenic plants is still in its infant stage as technology progress to further extend. As this transgenic research is still new, there is a lot problem surrounding this new research and it is particularly important for one to know every aspect in transgenic rice. Aspect such as benefits and setbacks should be provided so that the aspects can be reviewed and to find a balance point. Balance point is where the benefit will overweight the setbacks. Furthermore, review would be more wholesome and informative and the information provided will lead to invoking thought of scientists that are interested to study further in the transgenic field. Rice Production According to Food and Argriculture Association (FAO) of United Nation, rice is the second largest produced cereal in the world. Around 350 million tons of rice was produced in the early 1990s and by the end of the century it had reached 410 million tons. Asia countries are the major rice producer in the world (90%) with China and India producing one-third of global population supply (ref?). Currently, rice is grown and harvested on every continent except Antarctica, where conditions are not suitable for rice growth. Other major rice producer includes India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philipine, and Bangladesh. Currently, more than 550 million tons of rice is produced annually around the globe. Few thousands of new strains of rice are produced till today. That includes those grown in the wild and those which are cultivated as a crop. Globally, more than 3 billion people from Asia and other countries depend on rice (Oryza sativa) as their staple food, and by 2025 at least 60% more rice must be produced to meet the demands of the growing human population (Yarasi et al., 2008). Currently, rice yield around the world are just barely enough to support the people that depend on rice as food (Karaba et al., 2007). This problem has become worrying because food shortage related to rice may escalate out of control and sends billions into starvation. Factors affecting rice production This shortage may be caused by biotic and abiotic factor (Capell et al., 2004). Plants had to face periodic or unpredictable biotic and abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, cold, pests, and disease. The most significant abiotic stresses faced by plant are high salt environment and drought. These stresses inhibit crop growth and development and usually result in plant death. As crops fail, the production of food will decrease accordingly. Biotic Interference Production of rice is negatively impacted by numerous biotic factors includes insect infestation and microorganism invasion. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which around 21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests (Brookes and Barfoot, 2003). Insects belonging to plant hopper (Delphacidae) and leaf hopper (Cicadellidae) are hard to control and monitor. So, a lot of rice yield are lost due to insect infestation. Insects not only cause direct losses to the agricultural produce but also act as vectors for various plant pathogens that causes disease (Dahal et al., 1997; Foissac et al., 2000)The most known pests of rice are viz, brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens, GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH) are known to cause severe damage. They have a hugh appetite for plant sap, and in large numbers, they can suck the sap of plants to the point where plants will lose important nutrient in sap and die. They also act as vectors for major viral diseases (Yarasi et al., 2008). Abiotic Interference Plants are non motile organism and needs to find suitable environment to continue on growing. Sometimes the environmental conditions are not suitable for them. So the challenge is the plants had to adapt to its environment by some biological mechanisms that are able to help plants to flourish in stressful environment. They manage to do so by series of event. First sensing a stress, and then signaling the stress through a series of components, leading to activation of a large number of stress-related genes and synthesis of a variety of functional proteins. This includes transcription factors, enzymes, molecular chaperones, ion channels, and transporters (Zhou et al., 2009). Functional proteins helps the plant can change in their physiological and metabolic reaction according to the stress endured. This ensure the plant continue to triumph in stressful abiotic environment (Bray, 1997). Counter Measures There are numerous physical ways to counter these problems. For example, pesticides can be use for the prevention of insect infestation. However, this counter measures are not without any negative consequences. Chemical control of insect pests is an effective method but not efficient. Pesticides cause a lot more today and the usage depends mainly on the weather conditions. Uncontrolled usage of chemical pesticides will not only build up resistance in insect pests but also affect other beneficial organisms such as pollinators, nutrient cyclers and natural pest-controlling predators (Yarasi et al., 2008). They can pollute the environment and as well as depleting other natural minerals of soil. As to solve drought problems on plants’ growth, government had tried counter measure such as cloud seeding. Cloud seeding Cloud seeding works by the use of airplanes to spray expensive chemicals such as silver salt into the sky in hope for rain. Cloud seeding is not preferred method to reduce the effect of drought on food production because the silver salt used are very expensive and success percentage of seeding clouds are very low. Now scientists are looking forward in finding the best solution to increase the production of rice. The most interesting and the most widely studied is the t ransgenic method. Transgenic Approach Transgenic comes from the word “trans-gene”, which means introduction of foreign gene that is consider beneficial to the wild type species. Any foreign genes that are considered a help to confer stability of rice to environmental stress are being studied. Genetic enhancement of rice through conventional methods is often constrained by narrow gene pools. So, transgenic technology can be used as better alternative approach for hybridization of wild species genes with foreign gene to produce a better rice species in term of survivability in nature (Yarasi et al., 2008). With current advancement in biotechnology, we can look forward to produce transgenic rice that can have higher survival chance from biotic and abiotic interference. Beneficial Transgenic Effect In Rice Through transgenic method, rice will be more resistant to diseases and insects when foreign genes are introduced into the wild type rice gene to express certain proteins that repel insects (Yarasi et al., 2008). For example, is the introduction of Tobacco OPBP1 gene into rice may improve the disease resistance of rice (Chen and Guo, 2008) and the introduction of Allium sativum leaf lectin gene into rice to repel sap-sucking insect (Yarasi et al., 2008). Besides that, rice will become more likely to survive abiotic catastrophe such as drought and high salinity condition as introduction of new genes confers the ability of rice to mediate metabolic ways to react to these stresses. For example, insertion of Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by improving photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration (Karaba et al., 2007). There is also the insertion of Triticum aestivum salt tolerance-related gene (TaSTRG) derived from salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 enhances salt and drought tolerance of rice (Zhou et al., 2009). Other than that, transgenic process can be used to insert a bacterial chlorocatechol dioxygenase gene into rice so that rice plants are able to degrade pesticides (chlorinated compounds) to less harmful form. Several herbicides and pesticides containing chlorinated compounds have been used and have spread in the environment. They will destroy the delicate balance of nature by many ways. If left unattended, the environment will have some non reversible consequences. Therefore, bio-remediation of these chemical compounds will be a powerful technique to degrade chlorinated pollutants in soil. Transgenic rice plants that express foreign genes encoding enzymes to degrade chlorinated chemical compounds would enable farmers to remove these harmful chemical compounds from soil and water surrounding the fields (Alexander, 1981). By applying transgenic research, rice plant can be further enhanced to be able to survive stresses and as well to help remediate the environment. Indirectly, the rice production will also increase so that food crisis will not happen. The Super Green Rice Project Currently, scientific community are on the verge to produce transgenic rice called Super Green Rice which possesses numerous beneficial properties such as resistances to multiple insects and diseases, high nutrient efficiency, and drought resistance (Zhang, 2009). So this new kind of hybrid rice are hoped to reduce the consumption of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and water. Super Green Rice also needs to have high yield quality regardless of multiple stress environments (Zhang, 2009). For this production of Super Green rice to realized, they are undergoing enormous efforts to focus on identifying allthe hereditarymaterialin a single species and discovering genes for resistance to diseases and insects, nitrogen and potassium use efficiency, drought resistance, grain quality, and yield. The steps adopted include screening of germplasm collections and mutant libraries, gene discovery and identification, microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes under stressed conditions, and functional test of candidate genes by transgenic test (Zhang, 2009). Genes that are considered beneficial to the production of rice are now been isolated and are gradually incorporated into wild type rice gene. It is anticipated that such strategies and efforts would eventually lead to the development of Green Super Rice (Zhang, 2007). Problem of transgenic plant in food Transgenic research seems to have a bright and brilliant prospect ahead to help solve the world food crisis problems, but, the introduction of foreign genes into wild type rice does not come without any major public concern (Yarasi et al., 2008). In all new scientific projects worldwide, there will be problems because of the technologies and knowledge is yet to be fully explored. There are some worries that the lack of transgenic effect on food crop may have negative consequences. For example, effect of the transferred foreign toxic gene such as the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insect-resistance gene to other species other than rice (Yarasi et al., 2008). This induces the rice to produces endotoxin to repel insect from eating the crops. This Bt gene inserted into food crop can help to reduce insect destruction and increase the food yield, but, there are concerns that the inserted gene into food crops will have adverse effect on the nutrient quality of crops produced (Yarasi et al., 2008). The gene may induce the plant to undergo different metabolic process and produces toxic substances as by-product. Although with the insertion of Bt gene into rice will increase its yield, but the rice produced are not suitable for human consumption. This may cause the crops produced not fit to be consumed. Transgenic Plant and Environment Concerns Through the introduction of transgenic plant in our environment, scientist began to think about the consequences that might occur. There is concern about the consequences of transgene escape to wild type relatives. Transgenic plants have genes that are different from the wild type gene but both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are still able to communicate and transfer genes (Lu and Yang, 2009). Communicate in this term means the ability to interbreed with each other. So, the transgene can flow to the wild type species. There are three pathways for gene flow to occur which is pollen-mediated, seed-mediated and vegetative propagule-mediated gene flow (Lu and Yang, 2009). Transgenes can escape from a genetically modified (GM) crop to its wild relative species via pollen-mediated gene flow. There are many factors that can affect the pollen-mediated gene flow such as wind, animal, water current and other factors. Moreover, types of vectors for pollination and environmental conditions, such as the strength, and direction of wind, temperature, light intensity, and air humidity, will also influence pollen-mediated greatly (Lu and Yang, 2009). It is natural to have pollen-mediated gene flow because it helps in plant evolution. However, the movement of transgenes from genetically modified plant to wild type species may have adverse effect. This is because wild or weedy plants that acquire transgenes will continue to evolve, subject to natural and artificial selection in the agricultural ecosystem and beyond, posing potential ecological consequences (Lu and Yang, 2009). Once transgenes have moved into populations of wild or weedy species, it is nearly impossible to remove them from the environments if the transgenes can persist and spread in the populations. Different consequences will arise if the wild type relatives acquire transgene from genetically modified plant relative. If the transgene is able to confer favorable traits such as pest resistance, drought tolerance, and enhanced growth ability, the transgene followed by gene flow would persist to and quickly spread in the populations of wild relatives through introgression. Then individual plants which contain the transgene are out surviving the individuals without the transgene in natural selection. This will indirectly increase the invasiveness of transgenic plant and sooner or later, the habitat will be filled with transgenic species rather than the wild type species (Lu and Yang, 2009). On the other side, if the transgene reduces the survivability of wild relatives, the frequencies of individuals that contain the disadvantageous transgene will decrease gradually. This process will cause the extinction of local populations by the so-called swarm effect (Ellstrand and Elam, 1993). Therefore, transgenes escape via pollen-mediated gene flow from a GM crop to populations of wild relatives and its ecological impacts have been a major concern. Another concern over transgene escape from GM rice to its wild relatives is for the consequences of genetic diversity. The presence of transgenes in the germplasm of wild rice relatives may represent a form of pollution. It is theoretically possible that strong selection for fitness enhancing transgenes could generate selective sweeps, in which portions of the crop genome that are linked to these transgenes displace corresponding portions of wild genomes (Lu and Yang, 2009). This can be particular dangerous as the transgenic plant displaces its wild type relatives, the gene pool will be less diverse. So, if there is a new disease caused by new type of bacteria or viruses, and coincidently the transgenic plants lack of gene to fight off the disease, the whole population of the plant species are endangered of being wipe out and becomes extinct. Besides that, with the reduction of gene variety, there will be surely affect the plants natural evolution. As gene pool decreases, the evolution of transgenic plant in the future will not be as vary and diverse as the plants of wild type gene. The newly introduced transgenic rice may alter the soil composition and its microbes community due to its different physiological need compared to its native species. These might render the soil useless and unsuitable for other plants to grow in. Transgenic plant and health concerns Majority of people are starting to get worried about the consequences of the transgenic genomes transferred into the native species and other major complication caused. Those complications include health concerns where foreign genes are transferred into the rice gene may cause health complication. Some scientists have argued that protein products are not the only potential source of toxicity in transgenic plants (Connor and Jacobs, 1999). An experiment had been conducted when researchers fed rats either wild-type, wild-type containing lectin or transgenic potatoes expressing the lectin protein. Lectins are of commercial interest because of their pesticidal properties. The result shows that only the transgenic potato-fed group experienced physiological changes such as intestinal damage and they concluded that the genetic transformation process itself caused the observed complications. By getting the result from the rats, we can subsequently predict the analogous effect of unsuitable transgene on human health. Humans’ health is in great danger if they consume such transgenic crop. Other than that, people around the world are more alerted to the food safety of GM food that introduces allergens into the food supply. The allergenicity of the GM food is determined by the allergenicity of the substance. This means that gene products that are not allergenic normally will not become allergenic when expressed in a transgenic plant. For example, plant ferritin has no allergy cases reported, so, transgenic iron-enriched rice that contains the plant ferritin gene (Goto et al., 1999) poses no allergenicity risk. On the other side, if the gene product is a known allergen, then it will also be an allergen in a transgenic plant. As an example, when a Brazil nut albumin was expressed in soybean to boost methionine content, it resulted in nut-allergic individual reacted to the transgenic soybean(Nordlee et al., 1996). Therefore, people with an allergy to Brazil nuts would now also be allergic to those GM soybeans, even though they were not allergic to native soybean before. However, allergenicity of food is much more complicated when the allergenicity of a transgenic protein is unknown. For example, if a substance is not tested for allergenicity before, then the question may be asked if people started to consume food with the unknown substance, will they develop food allergy. There are more than 200 food allergens have been identified and sequenced (Gendel, 1998), but there is no definite sequence of protein are determined to be the source of allergenicity. Most known food allergens are stable to digestion (Ashwood et al., 1996). Therefore, protein’s digestion stability test in the digestive process environment is one way to identify potential allergens. It is unlikely to reach immune cells to cause a hypersensitivity response if a protein is degraded in the stomach and small intestines. Stable proteins should be examined further. These experiments can be coupled with a comparison of sequence similarity to known allergens. Novel proteins with a significant sequence similarity can be tested for reactivity with serum from subjects who are allergic to the homologous allergen. Although these tests may not be comprehensive in identifying potential allergenicity, the limited variety of source foods suggests that the vast majority of transgene proteins will be safe for consumption (Lehrer et al., 1996). More than 90% of the people who have food allergies are allergic to one or more of either cow’s milk, wheat, nuts, legumes, eggs or seafood. Transgenic plant and effect on non target species Transgenic crops that express insecticidal transgenes to control agricultural pests may also affect non-target organisms (Hilbeck et al., 1998; Losey et al., 1999; Saxena et al., 1999). Studies using corn transformed with a Bt-insecticidal transgene have non-target effects. For example, Lacewings (Chrystoperla carnea), an insect predator, suffered from higher death rates by feeding on corn destructive insect, European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) reared on Bt corn. The result shows lower and more significant less death rate using corn borers raised on non-Bt-transformed plants (Hilbeck et al., 1998). However, this was a laboratory study. It would seem a low probability for lacewings to be exposed to European corn borers that have ingested Bt toxin in the field. In another study, Monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus) that consumed milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) leaves dusted with Bt-containing corn pollen had decreased feeding, growth and survival rates, compared to larvae that consumed leaves with non-transgenic corn pollen (Losey et al., 1999). This result may indicate that the usefulness of some genes to deter some destructive insect may have some adverse and unwanted consequences of other species within the food chain. This indirectly will cause some species to be greatly in danger by this newly introduced transgenic plant. If the problem persisted, some species affect maybe extinct and then it will generate cascade of negative effect on the fragile natural food chain. Transgenic plant and resistance issue There is also the issue of insect developing resistance to the transgenic plant and thus render the transgenic plants useless. For example, the diamondback moth, an important pest to Brassica crops worldwide, was the first documented pest to develop resistance to Bt toxins applied as microbial formulations in open-field populations (Tabashnik, 1994). Until now, there is no dominantly inherited Bt resistance genes have been documented. Using this information, various resistance management strategies have been proposed to delay the resistance building by insect, with plantation of a high expressing transgenic plant coupled with a non-transgenic plant (Shelton et al., 2000). The non-transgenic plant allows Bt-susceptible pests to survive on the field population and mate with Bt-resistant individuals. The goal of this strategy is to keep the recessive Bt resistance genes at low levels in the target populations and thus limit the rate at which the entire population will acquire Bt resistance. The effectiveness of this strategy depends on the population size (Shelton et al., 2000). Transgenic plant and ethical issue Besides that, there are also some ethical issues where transgenic rice contains foreign genes that cannot be consumed. For example, the vegetarian will think twice before consuming the transgenic rice containing animal genes inside the transgenic rice. There is a strong sense of consumerism where consumers want to know what is in their food. Transgenic plant and its economic issue Economically, there are also a few setbacks regarding the production cost and the research cost for the transgenic rice. It is true that the transgenic rice will give us more yields but there are some worries that the money needed for the production and research of transgenic rice may overcome the benefit. As commercial crops are the main applicator for transgenic research, it may be hindered to progress in poor nation. So indirectly, the transgenic rice project might be not economically feasible. However, there is still no exact amount that can be taken into account but there is a bright prospect that the benefit of higher yield will overcome the cost needed. Transgenic rice is something to look forward to in the future because it may put a stop to the world food crisis. By mastering transgenic technology, there is a hope where the ‘perfec’t rice plants can be produced greatly without much interference abiotically or biotically. It also have good prospect for better future study of alteration of rice nutritional value to suit the ever more demanding human population. Transgenic Plants and Their Applications
Is it possible for an autonomous automated system to make ethical decisions? Introduction: *Analyze the question in Topic* Is it possible for AI to make ethical decisions? It may be possible at some stage in the future but a lot of work is to Pre-empt AI making ethical decisions. Ethics: Definition Putting Ethics into a machine: Humans programming set of variables, questions, limits etc. Vs AI having a set of principles and coming up with the conclusion of whether an action is ethical or not. Are there any examples of ethics in AI out there at the minute? – Testing Driverless cars how were they tested? (Any AI examples in construction) Is it possible for autonomous automated systems to make ethical decisions? This question requires a lot of introverted analysis as well as review and research into the advances in technology happening around the world today. There are so many advances taking place around the world today, it is hard to know where to stop the research and reviews, from books to scholarly articles, to newspaper articles, to TED talks, and podcasts etc. I feel this question could or should be split in two, is it possible right now? No, I don’t believe an AI is truly ethically motivated at this moment in time. And the second question; will it ever be possible? Yes, I believe an ethically motivated AAS/AI system will evolve into our world at some stage, when or where I could not pinpoint but I do believe it will. A large amount of research and analysis will have to go into practical ethics. We could further break this down into how the autonomous automated system would become ethical? By computer scientists inputting directly our own human ethical standards which are Implicit ethical agent(Anderson and Anderson, 2011) vs inputting a set of ethical principles and having the AA system come up with its own choice Explicit ethical agents(Anderson and Anderson, 2011) through what it does best, machine learning. We have numerous ethical dilemmas in which we try to figure out the answer to based on specific AA systems, such as the driverless car. If said car cannot stop and has to either go straight on into a 4-year-old child or if it should swerve and hit three 75-year-old persons? Who wins out? Ultimately the choice depends on which lives are worth more to society? Which is to each person a different answer as it depends on their values. If human beings cannot answer this question with a relative agreement amongst a large group of people, who we deem to have “good” ethics, how could we expect a machine too? As AI/AA systems get their learnings from humans, if we do not have the data to input, what happens with the output? A lot of areas in ethics are to be determined prior to the inputting of ethical principles to autonomous automated systems. For an AA system to become ethical even if as stated above they are acting as implicit ethical agents, ethical boundaries would have to be in place. The universal ethical principles would generally be thought to be the first codes to be inputted such as human lives are to be protected above any damage occurring to the AA Systems. These principles are seen as a given, but what about when we dive further into ethical principles around the world? As we have seen in the USA, some bias may be introduced to these systems, which may have occurred accidentally but nonetheless these biases have occurred and an understanding of the potential outcomes of a bias based system would have to be thought out and potentially overcome, maybe a form of decoding or further coding to remove the bias, Additional ethical principles perhaps to counteract this bias. If we further delve into the potential possibility of ethical principles becoming encoded to AA Systems, a look at what these principles should be would be of detriment. How would the morality of a machine come about? As AA Systems learn from humans, would it be an idea for a moral database cloud to come about, if so who should input to it and how would this be tracked. As we know M.I.T. has generated an online platform denominated “Moral Machine” whereby you play a “game”. Ultimately you are playing “God” by making the choice between who should live and who should not if a car accident was to occur. I don’t necessarily believe AA Systems should be based on such a whimsical website where people are disconnected to the lives in which they are choosing which gets to live or die. As humans are a self-interested group, if it was their mother, or daughter etc. in the car or on the pedestrian crossing the decision would generate a different response than one in which you are clicking through not applying real cognitive thought of the real consequences of how a driverless car should respond. Section A: Is ethics advanced enough to put into practice? We see an example of practical ethics in the biomedical field but this is when research is determining the best outcome in the future for humans, but what about when it is based around businesses where making money is the goal? *Give an example of questionable ethics surrounding biomedical field* Compas system in the USA where inmates were analyzed on who would be more likely to re-offend. Contrast** Is AI advanced enough to use ethics as programming can sometimes be seen to have a bias based on the software engineers inputting the coding. Is ethics developed enough to be deployed in the commercial world? As ethics is of a theoretical basis, how can we then make ethics practical? The main example of practical ethics is based on the health system of biomedical advances. As a community, we have the utilitarian view when it comes to the biomedical field that its effects/ outcomes are of value to human beings and therefore we deem these ethically viable. However, how can we input ethical rules into an Autonomous automated system if we cannot say there are for a fact working to a globally acceptable ethical rule. Culturally there will be ethical differences from one culture to the next. For example, which member of a society is decided upon to be more deserving of protection? If we go back to the driverless car example and the decision which was made between the child or the elderly that gets to survive based on which direction the car would inevitably go, this would differ going from one culture to the next, and in turn the input to the AA System would have to be suited to each culture in order to work in the country it is disposed to. Ethics may not be developed enough to be deployed into the commercial world as it cannot be standardized into black and white, right and wrong, it is naturally ingrained in humans as we grow up having learned intuitively what decisions are permissible and what simply is immoral. A large number of people may have utilitarianism theoretical values, as they will choose the outcome which has the general overall positive value for the greater amount of people. However if we have a theoretical utilitarian view when It comes to an AA system making a decision based on these values, say a healthy person who did not appear to have the happiest of lives was murdered by an AA System to harvest their organs to save 5 people by giving them the healthy organs so they could go live a happy life, A general agreement would be that this is an immoral act but would have been justified by the utilitarian theory. How would the AA System know any different if solely based on utilitarian ethics? Then we have the deontological theory in which the rightness and wrongness depend on the act itself but seems to ignore the consequences. Then we have Prima Facia duty which isn’t a single absolute duty to which we must adhere to rather a number of duties some deontological and some utilitarian. None of which are absolute, this is when ethics becomes quite messy and not a standardized set of rules to follow and in turn makes it very difficult to expect a non-sentient, non-intuitive body to come up with a reasonable ethical view or outcome as it may. Ethical Consistency Employees of an organisation are constrained by a set of ethical principles set out by the company along with their own personal ethical views, this is further embedded by the law in countries where industries are expected to conduct their businesses in an ethical manner which ineptly helps a business have ethical consistency. Ethical principles are not hard-wired into individuals and due to this people can act out against these principles but they face the consequences if acting in a wrong manner. (Machine Ethics Book) Hardwiring of ethical laws (Implicitly) into an AI may make us more confident to the fact these machines will act in an ethical way, but as we know AI are learning machines, can we ever be fully confident they won’t change the laws over time. Furthermore, if a system is explicitly expected to decide on ethical outcomes how do we predetermine that these outcomes are ethically consistent with our own morals. If an AI machine cannot be held directly accountable for unethical acts either by the legal system or by other means of facing consequences, what is to say it will abide by the ethical principles to which they were expected to base their explicit decisions on? How could we be certain that AI will always work with us for the benefit of humans and not eventually for their own benefit, although human beings are noted to be self-interested and this would be more likely an outcome if AI had all of the sentient abilities of a human, therefore this would not be the expected outcome. It could occur as a “black swan” event. (Michaels EBook) If an AA system was in use in hospitals or caring for the elderly and their main goal was to keep the person under their care safe from harm, what happens if a patient refuses treatment that would save their life, for example, a tracheotomy procedure had to be done and the patient refuses the treatment or say a do not resuscitate request form was filled out, will the AA system respect the patients autonomy? The AA System will require to have consent ethical rules inputted to ensure it is morally withstanding. We also have to look at the principle of consent being stuck with and no intervening outside of the patients control changing the decision for them unless conducted through the legal proceedings. The European Commission has mandated a draft of guidelines for ethical guidelines for trustworthy AI. This seems to be a good starting point as to what principles AI should follow, it lists beneficence, non-maleficence, respecting the autonomy of humans, justice and explicability. The AA System also has to be human-centric, have governance of the AI autonomy, Auditability – through logs of decisions made, traceability, has to go through an assessment list which is non-exhaustive, has to fall in line with the businesses deontology of charters and code of conduct. The ethical purpose has to respect the fundamental rights, principles, and values. Under the fundamental rights enlisted in this draft it states “Equality, non-discrimination and solidarity including the rights of persons belonging to minorities” We see an example of AI discrimination in the USA judicial system where the use of a risk assessment algorithm “Compas” was used to assess which offenders would be most likely to re-offend. This algorithm was used in sentencing and parole hearings. It was shown to be twice as likely to state an African American was the most likely to re-offend than a Caucasian. A bias was obvious in this AI’s determinations. Bias may also be an assessment to pass prior to being rolled out in Europe. Although how this may be predetermined may be an issue. In reality with deep learning Artificial intelligence, due to the fact of it always learning from intake of information, processing and concluding, and producing an output from what it has processed, we can not be sure of what the output will be and therefore cannot ensure that each output will be ethical due to the tendency of a learning machine straying from a previously programmed instruction. An example of this may be a driverless car that is always learning from its environment, which may be beneficial in times of bad weather such as snow or frost, or a change in the weather from a heat wave to a storm causing the road to have treacherous road conditions but where it is taking information in from other road users, with the likes of speeding, or tailgating etc. it will make the environment more precarious. What about where an AA System is utilized by a multinational business, how can we control the ethical dimensions when the main goal of every business is to turn out a profit margin? Another difficulty with ethics is it is a feature of human beings who are self-interested bodies. When challenged with the moral dilemmas of the car having to swerve save either the passenger or the pedestrian, It would depend on where that individual was, if they were not in the area it may be a dilemma for them as to who to pick, but If the individual was in the car or crossing the street, the individual would ultimately automatically choose to save themselves. It is a primitive reflex. This leads us to the conclusion that when faced directly in the midst of an accident one does not act with morals, simply a reflex to live. If moral agents cannot make a moral judgement during these situations, how can we expect a non-intuitive agent to make a moral decision? Section B: If we prevent ethical testing within AI/AAS will this be an impediment to innovation? We should look towards the Nazi concentration camp “Medical” experiments carried out by Nazi doctors. There were many atrocities carried out in these camps including the horrific and unethical experiments carried out there which were based on 3 types of experiments “Military Preventing the ethical testing of AI would most likely be an impediment to innovation. Most AA Systems in use today are of benefit to humans, such as the Roomba hoover, Google Search, The Alexa etc. these all help us save time and energy. If AI was so controlled that it was not granted the use of its own “machine learning” how advanced is AI likely to get? Testing is required to be carried out but this would need to be in a controlled environment. AI robots which are created to care for the elderly are already in production and use. However, AI robots should not be granted full autonomy due to the fact that humans need to be able to overrule their decisions in case this is impeding on a humans autonomy. It is hard to fathom if it will ever be possible to have a fully autonomous automated system in use in any kind of situation in which will have these systems interacting with humans, animals or the environment unless its features are fully scaled back to minimal outcomes when working on any one feature. When we look to Hanson Robotics they unveiled Sophia the Human-like Robot that can read facial expressions, decipher between tones of voice etc. they have the ultimate goal of having a robot that is sentient. However, if we have robotics which are sentient, Will this not determine that the robots themselves will work under human rights laws? AA Systems throughout the world are generally in play for the benefit to humans, but ultimately would it be ethical to in all essence rule a robot if it is sentient? It would generally be seen to be an advantage if a sentient robot was caring for an elderly person as it would be able to converse and ultimately care for the person better than if it was non-sentient. Here we skip back to the matter of consent while working with AI. If AI ultimately becomes sentient do we then have to worry about consent from the AI, how would rights come into play with sentient beings, or would a sense of self be what is required to give a robot rights? A lot of research is in process but we have a long way to go before we can ultimately roll out fully Autonomous Automated Systems for use with people let alone who we consider being our most vulnerable such as the elderly. AI research is clearly seen to be a great benefit to mankind due to the leaps and bounds in detecting different diseases, which in turn will increase early prevention of illnesses becoming terminal. An accident occurred in Arizona, USA where a driverless car fatally injured a pedestrian, although there was a driver in the Uber car at the time and it is noted the driver is supposed to be paying attention and take over control of the car when required, is this an example of putting less onus on the driver and put them in a situation where they think it is “safe” to not be fully concentrated on the task in hand. How do we determine the testing has gone through a rigorous and robust evaluation prior to rolling out, and when would it be an impediment not to roll out the AI worldwide. We can contrast and compare with that of the experiments carried out in Nazi concentration camps, ultimately these “Experiments” are looked upon as bad data due to the unethical ways in which the data was gathered. A large number of experiments carried out are of no benefit to the general population due to the advances in science, but where the data could be used such as in the experiments in exposing people to the extremes of cold temperatures which was completely unethical in the way it was gathered, could be of use to researchers today especially for the likes of coast guard teams who undergo training on resuscitation and attempts of re-warming victims exposed to hypothermia. The non-use of this data may really be a serious impediment to saving lives, as there was data gathered on the rapid re-warming of victims noted as the best outcome of the re-warming techniques which were tested. The dilemma here is if it is ethical to use data which has been gathered in an unethical way. Many scientists and doctors argued that is served no purpose to science to ignore data that could help people. Dr Hayward was one of the doctors that had this view as he had used the data gathered in his own research into the planning of naval rescue missions but due to the data’s unethical background, this research could not be published. Dr Hayward considered this to be criminal not to use the data if it saves lives. When the data may be critical to saving lives could it be considered ignorant not to use it? The premise of analysis may be when the medical crisis is real and the benefit to society is great, the data should be used. When the medical problem is not pressing and the benefit to society is relatively marginal, the need to preserve the integrity of the medical profession and the victim’s memory outweighs the potential benefit to society. Another argument against the use of the data was the validity of the data, as the experiments could not be repeated how does one know this data is valid. Deep Learning of AI is the intake of large amounts of data, processing it, and creating a conclusion which leads to an output. If AI is ever to be made fully autonomous, the way in which AI comes to a conclusion needs to be understood. As of today, there is no understanding of this output. Deterring from testing the ethics of an autonomous automated system would be an impediment to innovation that’s to say if we all were under the agreement that innovation would halt due to the averting of testing. None the less this is unlikely to be the case as artificial intelligence is advancing each day around the world at a speed that is unfathomable. Merely deterring of the testing would put more of an impediment to the ethicality of autonomous automated systems. When we talk about the testing of AA systems, the testing would be one of the main challenges to innovation how do we test a system which is ever changing? How do we ensure it does not stray from the ethics which it may have prominently shown during the evaluation and subsequent passing of the test? Conclusion: Summary of Main Points

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Assignment Questions:

1) Highlight the major Training and skill Development Programmes initiated by Saudi Aramco for Human Resource Development.
2) Describe Human Resource Strategies of Saudi Aramco. {Marks: 2}

3) As per the article “Saudi Arabia is facing several challenges in its economy and human resource development (HRD) programmes” What are those main challenges? Identify them and also give your own suggestions to combat these challenges.
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IASP 530 Mercy College Dobbs Ferry Intellectual Property Theft Lab Report

write my term paper IASP 530 Mercy College Dobbs Ferry Intellectual Property Theft Lab Report.

Question attached as Assignment 7-Lab.pdfAssignment 7 – You should investigate a possible intellectual property theft by a contract employee of Exotic Mountain Tour
Service (EMTS).
We did “AC(2756)” in the class or by the EMTS recording, so you should have to do “4AB(1195)” and
“7D4(2004)” that generate the following figures.
However, Bob Aspen, a suspect of selling intellectual property in EMTS, intentionally fragments the original
image file into a piece of files. Then you should reconstruct the original image file.
Submission: 1) screenshots the first two fragments (without it, you will receive a partial grade), and the
complete picture for 4AB (1195) with the fragmented txt file.
2) screenshots the first two fragments (without it, you will receive a partial grade), and the complete picture
for the 7D4 (2004) with the fragmented txt file.
So there are four screenshots with a single Word or pdf.
Reference book: Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations, Fifth Edition, page 339.
IASP 530 Mercy College Dobbs Ferry Intellectual Property Theft Lab Report

Fordham University Classroom Inclusion Literature Review Research Paper

Fordham University Classroom Inclusion Literature Review Research Paper.

Chapter 2: Literature Review  
A literature review provides a scholarly context for the argument you propose and support in your paper.  It helps readers perceive how your argument fits into past and present scholarly discussion of your subject.  Most often, a literature review is formatted to appear as a separate section of your paper, preceding the body.Unlike an annotated bibliography, which provides information on one source at a time, a literature review offers a generalized picture of what scholars have thought and written about your topic.  To arrive at this overview, you need to:
•   Survey important representative samples of the scholarly literature on the topic
•   Summarize the contents of those works•   Group those works in a purposeful manner (perhaps according to the extent of coverage of the topic, date of publication or age, purpose, or point of view)
STEPS IN PREPARING A LITERATURE REVIEW:
1.  Determine which scholarly writings are generally deemed to be significant and acquire access to them.
2.  As you read each of these works, take notes on: 
•  the author’s field of expertise and credentials•  the types of evidence the author relies on (e.g., case studies, narratives, statistics, primary sources) and the reliability of this evidence•  the author’s point of view
•  the author’s arguments (indicating which are most convincing and which are less so)
•  the author’s contributions to scholarly discussion of the topic
3.  Once you are sufficiently familiar with the individual works you have examined, look for patterns among them.  Determine how they compare and contrast.  Hint: constructing a chart to organize your findings visually often makes it easier to discern various kinds and degrees of similarity and difference.
ORGANIZING YOUR  LITERATURE REVIEW:
The introduction establishes the significance of your topic and gives a brief preview of the trends you have identified in the scholarship of the subject.
The body contains more extensive information about notable similarities and differences, points of agreement and disagreement, patterns, trends you have discovered.  Use topic sentences to introduce and clarify these relationships among the separate scholarly works you have examined.
The conclusion provides an overview of what is known and thought about the topic and what is left to explore.
Fordham University Classroom Inclusion Literature Review Research Paper

Haematopoiesis Located In Bone Marrow Section Biology Essay

Haematopoiesis Located In Bone Marrow Section Biology Essay. Haemopoiesis also known as haematopoiesis located in bone marrow section of an adults and lymphatic tissue is the process of production of blood cells and platelets which continues throughout life, replacing aged cells which are removed from the circulation by which immature precursor cells expand to mature blood cells. This process thesis and how it works is known as monophyletic theory. The cellular blood components are precursor to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that forms blood cells and immune cells. Blood cells (BC) are significant in maintenance of immune system in all types of cells in the body which prompt the BC to constantly maintain self renewal. Haemapoiesis stem cells therefore can proliferate, differentiate and even undergo cell death called apoptosis in various types of specialized cells in the body. The morphology and growth of BC sometimes occurs outside the bone marrow cells called extramedullary haemopoiesis. This is abnormal condition associated with Myelofibrosis caused by disorder in the bone marrow due to abnormal stem cell results or replacement by collagenous connective tissues. The sources of HSC are bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, Foetal Hematopoietic, Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Germ Cells. The vascular compartment of bone marrow is used to supplied nutrient artery and open into sinuses. The sinus carries the blood from the bone marrow to the body. HSCs have two kinds and include long term stem cells which incorporate transplantation of a new marrow cells to lethally cancerous patients and restore its haemopoietic system for longer periods and short term progenitor which are unable to renew themselves for longer period but immediately regenerate all types of blood cells. The success of been able to inject healthy cells from compatible donor to patients receiving chemotherapy successfully and recipient recover by regaining full functioning healthy blood cells is deemed to have completed stem cells. Large amount of new blood cells are constantly been produced in the blood circulation ensuring steady flow in the peripheral circulation. This type of stem cells is known as pluripotential stem cell (PSC). Pluripotent stem cell however differentiates into other stem cells known as unipotential stem cells: erythropoiesis, monocytes, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis and lymphopoiesis are specially multiplied into precursor specifically to individual mature blood cells. Erythropoiesis is the process used to describe red blood cells (erythrocytes) formation exclusively in the red bone marrow involving matured nucleated precursor into erythrocytes. The yellow bone marrow initially composed of fats and subsequently changed to red bone marrow from greater affinity of red blood cells needs. Haemocytoblasts is the precursor of erythrocytes lasting for few days and involved around four mitotic divisions of cells given rise to 8 to 16 more cells. The kidney initiates RBC production in mature cell by responding to lack of oxygen in the blood and secret special hormone called erythropoietin. This hormone is then transferred to red bone marrow and begins production of red blood cell. The RBC fills up the blood capillaries for distribution in the body. After few days the RBC is strong enough to serve oxygen to the body and consequently subsided after few months and loses its affinity to continue oxygen distribution and rupture. The ruptured RBC is then taken up by the spleen for recycled to form new RBC. Monocytes is a type of white blood cells that mature to much larger cells called macrophages and plays major role in immune system of the body that destroy dead cells or tissues damaged and cancer cells. Produced in the bone marrow and develop from nucleated precursors, the monoblast and promonocyte and then goes through the bloodstream for circulation to the spleen, lymph nodes, liver,bone marrow and lungs. Mature cells in monocytes life span is around 3-8 hours with full antigenic stimulation of T and B lymphocytes. Thrombopoiesis is a Platelets formed in the cytoplasm cell called megakaryocyte inside bone marrow with maturity within 10 days from much larger stem cells, megakaryoblast . The platelets formation penetrates into the blood vessels to prevent bleeding, assist clots formation to prevent bleeding and repair damages to blood vessels. Macrophages eventually destroy the platelets in the spleen and liver. Granulopoiesis are formed in the red bone marrow (RBM) called granulocytes and subdivided into three types of white blood cells (WBC); eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils and are grouped in the same stem cells called myeloblast. Granulocytes are produced by the continuous lobulation and condensation of the nucleus, loss of RNA cytoplasmic granules development. A developed cell goes through sinus endothelium where half of the granulocytes circulate to the internal surface of blood vessels and the other half circulates in the blood vessels for exchange. Half of the granulocytes eventually disperse from the circulation in response to requirement in the tissues. Lymphopoieses are precursor to lymphoblasts and prolymphocytes produced in bone marrow. Immature cells are transferred to the lymphoid tissues and thymus, with further division with similar antigens to T cells, B cells and NK cells. They mediate composite and immune effectors. Blood cells (BC) are significant in maintenance of immune system in all types of cells in the body which prompt the BC to constantly maintain self renewal. Haemapoiesis stem cells therefore can proliferate, differentiate and even undergo cell death called apoptosis in various types of specialized cells in the body. The morphology and growth of BC sometimes occurs outside the bone marrow cells called extramedullary haemopoiesis. This is abnormal condition associated with Myelofibrosis caused by disorder in the bone marrow due to abnormal stem cell results or replacement by collagenous connective tissues. The sources of HSC are bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, Foetal Hematopoietic, Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Germ Cells. The vascular compartment of bone marrow is used to supplied nutrient artery and open into sinuses. The sinus carries the blood from the bone marrow to the body. HSCs have two kinds and include long term stem cells which incorporate transplantation of a new marrow cells to lethally cancerous patients and restore its haemopoietic system for longer periods and short term progenitor which are unable to renew themselves for longer period but immediately regenerate all types of blood cells. The success of been able to inject healthy cells from compatible donor to patients receiving chemotherapy successfully and recipient recover by regaining full functioning healthy blood cells is deemed to have completed stem cells. Leukemia and Lymphoma are some of the cancer of the blood associated with treatment by HSCs. The process relates to the patient’s defective white blood cells causes by cancer having been destroyed using chemotherapy and replaced with bone marrow transplant matched with donor. Donor are usually from patients family with similar leukocytes antigens. Cancer of the blood are acute or chronic myeloblastics leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkins diseases. Name the systems used to classify acute lymphoblastic leukaemia(ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). (word limit: 20 words) (2 MARKS) French-American-British (FAB) classification and the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications are two subtypes used in classification of AML and ALL. Define leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia. (word limit: 75 words)(5 MARKS) Leucocytes is a conditions of an abnormal increase of white cells in the blood due to infections. Total white blood cells is approximately 4400 to 11,000 cells/microL. Excess to the value of 50,000/microL, attributed to leukemia is called leukemoid reaction. Thrombocytopenia is a condition where there is abnormal decrease in platelets counts, rendering inability for clot formation resulting in excessive bleeding. Causes can be due to low platelets in bone marrow, intravascular and extravascular. Define leukaemia and state the four main divisions of the disease. (word limit: 70 words) (10 MARKS) Leukaemia is a malignant (cancer) of the bone marrow characterized by uninhibited proliferation of abnormal white blood cells. Symptoms include enlargement of liver, lymph nodes and spleen, anaemia, blood clotting retardation. Four major types of leukaemia are; Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) classified as Lymphocytic or lymphoblastic, Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) classified as Myelogenous leukemia State the typical manifestation of someone presenting with acute leukaemia including the blood film morphology. (word limit: 200 words) (5 MARKS) Most common symptons includes abnormal bruising and bleeding (thrombocytopaenia), anemia, bleeding gums or irregularity in menstrual period and infections. Anaemia and hypermetabolic state are attributed to fatigue, malaise, weight loss, chest pain and tachycardia. Granulocytopenia can progressively lead to potential life threatening bacterial infections. Developing infection frequently in eyes, nose and mouth known as neutropaenia, trace of blood in urine, fine rash dark red spots called purpura. Sign of fever, abnormal heamostasis are mostly common. Patients may sometimes shows lesion in soft tissues, spina dura and cranial representing tumour of leukaemia cells called granulocytic sarcoma or chroma. Periosteal infiltration and bone marrow may initiate joint pain (Arthralgia) in children with ALL. Meningitis causing vomiting, seizure, papilledema and headache is rare. Blood film morphology diagnosis of AML shows presence of more than 20% myeloblasts in blood cell. Cells appear to be smudge with decrease in thrombocytes. Elevated count of leucocytes 135.3 x 109 /L and thrombocytopenia of 26 x 109 /L indicates signs of acute leukaemia. In AML, Auer rods appear smaller in size, absent of granules, lower RBC counts and appear smaller in morphology. Also ALL contains no granules State the typical manifestation of someone with chronic leukaemia including the blood film morphology. (word limit: 200 words) (5 MARKS) (word limit: 230 words) (15 MARKS) Chronic leukaemia from mature cells is a slow progressive symptom that goes unnoticed for months. Disease is normally notice during normal routine blood test. Immediate treatment is not imminent and may involve chemotherapy treatment in tablet from. Two types of chronic leukaemia: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), cancer of the myeloid cells, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), cancer of the lymphocytes. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common type characterised by an increased number of lymphocytes (WBC). The lymphocytes are unable to perform normal process of responding to infections by producing antibodies needed to destroy bacteria. Symptoms may be tiredness (anaemia) due to lack of RBC, continuous infections due to WBC’s healthy shortages in fighting infections, abnormal lymphocytes in lymph glands causing swelling in neck and arm pits or groin, also swelling in spleen, Low platelets in blood leading to bruising or bleeding without injury, weight loss, fevers and night sweat. Test in blood film morphology indicates nuclei appearance is rounded and condensed chromatin. High level of beta-2-macroglobulin protein in the blood indicates advance CLL. Appearance and large amount of lymphocytosis in the blood more than 10,000 lymphocytes/mm³ of blood shows presence of the disease. Patient with CLL often have low red blood cells and blood platelets in the body. Explain the following techniques and give one example for each, of application in the diagnosis or monitoring of leukaemia: (word limit: 230) (15 marks). Cytochemistry Is the staining methods use to study, identify and localization of various chemical compounds within living cells and activities of acute leukaemia. The most simplify cytochemistry method of diagnosing leukaemia is Myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining which can be completed within minutes. Its main function is to differentiate AML and ALL. Lysosomal enzyme stored azurophilic granules of neutrophils and monocytes. Used in basophils and eosinophils demonstration. A heme pigmentation react to its green colour secretion found in neutrophils. Immunophenotyping Immunophenotyping is use to analyze heterogeneous populations of cells based on the antigens phenotype according to their resemblance of interest. Example is leukocytes from peripheral blood extract from lymph nodes, leukaemia and lymphoma specific to differentiate cancer cells to normal of immune system. Immunophenotyping is used on a daily basis by pathologist from normal biopsies to bone marrow biopsies from various patients. Method mostly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens is flow cytometry techniques. Samples of cells are analyzed in a multi-well plate with aid of fluorescence or scatter laser light to sort out population by immunophenotypic markers type. Cytogenetics The branch of genetics specialized in the studies of relationships between the structure of cell division and chromosomes relating to variation in phenotype and genotype. Test are carried out in blood samples and bone marrow from leukaemia patients to analyse abnormalities in chromosomal link with certain disease. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is one of the methods use in routine analysis of cytogenetic band, molecular cytogenetic and G-Banded chromosomes in leukemia against normal chromosome. What is the Philadelphia chromosome? Give an example of where this is commonly found. (word limit: 120 words) (5 MARKS) Philadelphia chromosome (PH) or Philadelphia translocation is a specific chromosomal abnormality that causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is an abnormally chromosome 22 involved in an exchange with chromosome 9 which occur at the site of single bone marrow cell and can also be located in form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The clonal process expands to the leukaemia and was the first major mutant cell found in malignancy which led to the CML cells combination of BCR-ABL gene protein. These genes belong to chromosome 22 and 9 respectively. The activities of both PH chromosome fused together causing uncontrolled malignant in the cell is a strong indication of pathogenic disease. The drug mesylate (Gleevec) was introduced through understanding of this mechanism to aid in cancer treatment. State the difference between stem cell and bone marrow transplants. (word limit: 100 words) (4 MARKS) Stem cell transplantation is a method where the stem cells are obtained from the peripheral blood using aphaeresis method. Aphaeresis assists in stem cells filtrations and avoids unwanted blood. When stem cells are obtained from the outpatient donor from the blood stream, they are less invasive and patient can recover very quickly at home. Stem cell harvested from the bone marrow using fine needle inseted into the hip joint however required critical method from in patient to be hospitalized and put under general aneshesia for continue monitoring. Stem cells collected from the bone marrow are much richer in stems compare with stem collected from the peripheral blood. State the difference between autologous and allogenic transplants. (word limit: 50 words) (4 MARKS) Difference between an autologous transplant is when patient’s own blood forming cell are collected for use in transplataion later, while an allogenic transplant relies on cells collected from volunteer’s bone marrow. The donor’s tissue type must be compatible to the recipient to avoid miss match. Haematopoiesis Located In Bone Marrow Section Biology Essay

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