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What Change Would You Like to See in the World? Essay

Introduction The world as it is in the 21st Century is way better than it was in the 20th Century. Technological, medical, social, and economic advancements have made life better and easier. However, the developments have several cons that have resulted in the deterioration of the world about the environment, the state of the society, relationships, and human interactions. There are several changes that I would like to see in the world to make it a better place for the current and future generations. Equality among People/Races/Religions In contemporary society, inequality is one of the issues that hinder progress and cultural integration. Discrimination, intolerance, domestic violence, and unequal access to opportunities are examples of the effects of inequality in contemporary society. I would like to see people treated equally and given equal access to financial, political, and economic opportunities regardless of their age, sex, sexual orientation, gender, race, or ethnicity. Gender, racial, religious, and economic quality would promote peace among the countries of the world and create a more harmonious society. Also, it would uphold the idea that human life is invaluable and mutual respect and understanding are rights that every person should enjoy. Environmental Sustainability The rate of environmental degradation has been on the rise in the past two decades due to the high rate of industrialization, urbanization, pollution, population growth, increase in energy consumption, and intensification of agriculture. This has resulted in outcomes such as global warming, changing climate patterns, negative health outcomes, ozone layer depletion, pollution of water, loss of biodiversity, and loss for the tourism industry. I would like to see more initiatives and efforts aimed at environmental sustainability because of the increased danger of animal and plant species’ extinction, loss of biodiversity, and risks to the health of human beings. This generation is morally obligated to conserve the environment for future generations. Otherwise, the survival of humans will be at risk. I would also like to see increased exploitation of renewable energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass. World Poverty The high rate of poverty in the world can be attributed to ignorance and inequality. The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. For instance, a report released by Forbes revealed that the wealth of the eight richest men in the world is approximately equal to that of half of the world’s population. Poverty is an insidious global challenge because it affects other critical life aspects such as access to quality health care, food, shelter, and housing. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between poverty and the prevalence of diseases. Many people associate poverty with underdeveloped or developing countries. However, the problem is also present in developed countries. In the United States, many people are homeless and go for days without food. Many others survive through receiving shelter and food from non-for-profit organizations. I would like to see a world where homelessness is non-existent and every person has access to basic human needs including shelter, food, ad clothing. In continents such as Africa and Asia, starvation is a common phenomenon that can be attributed to poverty. War and Conflict One of the expectations of civilized countries is peace and harmony. However, war and conflict are common occurrences. Sovereign states fight with each other for the control of certain regions or political interests. The downside of war and conflict is that countries that have no business fighting become involved. For instance, the United States has been involved in several conflicts between warring countries. This involvement has resulted in the spending of billions of dollars, the destruction of countries, and the fall of regimes. I would like to see a world in which countries get along and handle their political and economic matters harmoniously. I would like to see the world in which conflicts are resolved through dialogue and diplomacy. War and conflict encourage poverty, destruction of property, and leads to the death and displacement of citizens. A country cannot develop if it engages in wars with other nations. On the other hand, a nation cannot progress if its people fight with each other due to racial, political, or religious differences. Gender Equality In the past decades, men were considered superior while women were considered inferior. In that regard, gender roles were assigned based on biological sex. Women were given easy tasks that did not necessitate the use of physical strength. For instance, they stayed at home and took care of the children. On the other hand, men were given the role of providing for their families. They were expected to provide their families with food, shelter, and clothing. In contemporary society, this approach to gender roles has changed significantly. Women are doing chores and tasks that were traditionally reserved for men. However, gender equality is still elusive. Certain professions, sports, and management positions are dominated by men because males are considered tougher and more intelligent than women. I would love to see a world in which both genders are treated equally and given access to similar social, political, and economic opportunities. The society would progress more if men and women were treated equally and allowed to tap their potential regardless of their gender and baseless societal stereotypes. Crime In many countries, crime is one of the challenges that interfere with economic, social, and political progress. It is a problem that both developed and developing societies encounter. In the United States, the rates of crime and incarceration are very high, and they can be attributed to a lack of access to economic opportunities and poverty. Crime breaks down families and destabilizes communities. I would like to see a world in which the rates of crime and incarceration are low, and a world in which crimes related to drug use and abuse are non-existent. Many young people fall victim to drug use and abuse because of peer pressure and broken families. They turn to drugs to drown their sorrows related to the challenges they encounter in their lives. The number of criminal cases related to drugs is very high. Therefore, it is necessary to fight drugs as a way of eradicating crime. I would like to see a world in which young people get access to innumerable economic opportunities so that they cannot indulge in illegal activities. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Medical Advances/Improved Health Access to quality health care is an important aspect of a great life. Everyone should have access to quality medical care because human vitality and wellbeing is the foundation of economic, social, and political development. Medical advances are important because of the prevalence of diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and cancer that are responsible for high mortality rates among women, children, and young people. Also, medical advances would aid in eliminating diseases and improve the process of healthcare delivery. Medical advances such as leukemia therapies, cancer therapies, advancements in Alzheimer’s treatment, and augmented reality would play a key role in eliminating diseases that are difficult to treat. For example, finding alternatives to chemotherapy would make the treatment of cancer more bearable. Innovations that can Change the World Innovation is one of the pillars of economic and social progress. For instance, the technological innovations experienced in the past two decades have improved the quality of life tremendously and created innumerable social and economic opportunities. For example, the development of the Internet improved communication across the world and made access to important information easy. Other innovations have led to the development of great infrastructure, elimination of diseases, reduction of reliance on fossil fuels, and improvement of education. For instance, innovations in the energy sector have enhanced environmental sustainability by reducing overreliance on fossil fuels. Environmental sustainability efforts are more successful because of reduced rates of pollution and increased investment in alternative energy sources. I would like to see a world in which innovations that can change the world are developed in the areas of technology, education, medicine, economics, and agriculture. Education The education systems of many countries have been criticized for focusing on school grades rather than on the attainment of knowledge and relevant life skills. I would like to see a world in which students are judged based on the knowledge and skills they possess rather than their grades. Basing academic success on grades undermines the importance of other learning aspects such as comprehension and creativity. Moreover, it ignores the differences that exist among learners who have varied learning needs and capabilities. A better approach would involve testing students’ levels of understanding and creativity based on their ability to generate ideas, make smart decisions, and solve problems. Grades encourage students to study for examinations and tests. This approach to education undermines the attainment of knowledge and skills as well as the improvement of cognitive faculties. Animal Abuse Animals play important roles in the lives of human beings. However, they are usually mistreated and subjected to acts of cruelty. Animal testing is one of how animals are mistreated. Rabbits, monkeys, mice, and guinea pigs are commonly used as test objects in medical research. They are used as test subjects to determine whether certain vaccines and medical remedies are safe for human beings. Animal testing is unethical because there are alternatives that can be used and therefore, protect animals from the pain and suffering. Animals are also subjected to cruelty in factory farms where they are reared in large numbers for commercial purposes. Other people mistreat their pets (cats and dogs) by denying them food and water or failing to provide veterinary services. Animals on farms should not be overcrowded and provide nutritious and adequate feed. Finally, puppy mills should place the well-being of the animals before financial gains. Conclusion The world has undergone significant changes in the last century. However, more could be done to improve living standards. I would like to see a world that promotes equality among people/races/religions, conserves the environment, fights poverty by ending economic inequality, and resolves conflicts through dialogue. It is important to treat men and women equally, encourage creativity and innovation, and increase access to quality health care. Poverty, ignorance, and diseases are common challenges around the world. These problems can be resolved by improving education systems, providing economic opportunities, and improving health systems. The aforementioned changes would make the world a better place.
Cross-cultural Differences in Moral Development and Prosocial/helping Tendencies. Cross-cultural Differences in Moral Development and Prosocial/helping Tendencies in Toddlerhood Abstract. The proposed study will examine whether children, especially toddler can connect moral reasoning to prosocial behavior and the difference among Vietnamese toddler and American toddler in helping tendencies. Helping behavior is a positive trait that has an essential role in children’s development. Children also unconsciously develop moral reasoning while interacting with people in their culture. Be able to understand the cross-culture difference in the effect of moral behavior in toddlers’ responsiveness in others’ need can help us understand children’s development in a different culture other than America. Also, Vietnamese toddlers may help the actor who produces harmful behavior equally to the actor who produces helpful behavior, while American toddlers will be more likely to help “helpful” actor than “harmful” actor. Keywords: Moral development, prosocial behavior, helping, toddler, culture, Viet Nam. Cross-cultural Differences in Moral Development and Prosocial/helping Tendencies in Toddlerhood Altruism and helping are common among toddler in both America and Viet Nam. Helpfulness is often seen as maturation and prosocial behavior that develop along with children’s life. Children will develop and become more likely to engage in prosocial behavior as they grow older and be able to detect cues if someone near them needs help (EisenbergCross-cultural Differences in Moral Development and Prosocial/helping Tendencies

MBA 540 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 1 Aerospace Industry Discussion

MBA 540 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 1 Aerospace Industry Discussion.

I’m working on a business discussion question and need guidance to help me study.

ScenarioYou are interviewing for a position as the director of strategic planning for a Fortune Global 500 company.
To prepare for the interview, you research the company to understand
its business and customer base. You want to be able to recommend
tangible strategies the company can use to improve its market share or
revenue. So, you decide to delve a little deeper into the company’s
vision and long-term strategic goals and identify some obstacles the
company may face in reaching these goals.PromptFirst, choose a Fortune Global 500 company from the following list.Sanofi S.A.Total SEDeutsche Bank AGToyota Motor Corp.Randstad N.V.Comcast Corp.Airbus SEUnited Parcel Service Inc.Use the Company & Industry Information section of the MBA Library Research Guide the company’s website, and other resources to learn more about your chosen company.Then, write a journal to describe the background and basic business
information related to the company. Specifically, you must address the
following rubric criteria:Provide a brief company overview. Identify the company’s global headquarters and the primary products and services it offers.Describe the company’s customer base. Does the company primarily serve businesses or individuals? Explain how.Using events from the past year, identify at least one obstacle the
company is currently facing or might face in the future that could
impact its success.Explain how this obstacle might impact its revenue or market share.Guidelines for SubmissionSubmit a 1- to 2-page Word document using double spacing, 12-point
Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Sources should be cited
according to APA style. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more information on citations.
MBA 540 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 1 Aerospace Industry Discussion

writing about film

essay writing help writing about film. I need support with this Film question so I can learn better.

#2 Film Response Due: This paper will focus on cultural/political/social reflection and influence films and actors have had. Students choose one of the following actors and their films listed, watch the film, do some brief research and write about the cultural/political/social impact the star and film had relevant to the film’s era. Why was the actor in this film important? What barriers did both the actor in this film break? Again, this is not entirely a research paper. It is important to see your own reaction to the performance and how you see the effect of the actor/film in regard to cultural/political or social influence. As with Response 1, it’s integral to see the actor in this film through your eyes! Minimum word requirement is 600 to 750 words but feel free to expand if needed. Cite all sources if you use research!

James Edwards: The Steel Helmet (1951)
Ava Gardner: Showboat (1951), The Night of the Iguana (1964)
Vivien Leigh: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
Marlon Brando: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), On the Waterfront (1954)
Ethel Waters A Member of the Wedding (1952)
Donna Reed, Burt Lancaster: From Here to Eternity (1953)
Audrey Hepburn: Roman Holiday (1953), Sabrina (1954)
Montgomery Clift: From Here to Eternity (1953), The Misfits (1961)James Stewart: Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Dorothy Dandridge Carmen Jones (1954)
Pearl Bailey: Carmen Jones (1954), Porgy and Bess (1959)
Judy Garland: A Star is Born (1954)
Grace Kelly: Rear Window (1954), Dial M for Murder (1955)
Ernest Borgnine: Marty (1955)
James Dean: Rebel Without a Cause (1955), East of Eden (1955), Giant (1956)
Robert Mitchum: The Night of the Hunter (1955)
Yul Brenner, Deborah Kerr: The King and I (1956)
Rita Moreno: The King and I (1956), West Side Story (1961)
Dorothy Malone, Robert Stack: Written on the Wind (1956)
Henry Fonda/Lee J. Cobb: 12 Angry Men (1957)
Rock Hudson: Giant (1956), Pillow Talk (1959), Seconds (1966)
Paul Newman: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958)
Elizabeth Taylor: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), Suddenly Last Summer (1959), Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)
Juanita Moore: Imitation of Life (1959)
Doris Day: Pillow Talk (1959)
Kim Novak: Vertigo (1958)
George C. Scott: Anatomy of a Murder (1959), Dr. Strangelove (1964), Patton (1970)
Lee Remick: Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Tony Curtis, Marilyn Monroe: Some Like It Hot (1959)
Jack Lemmon: Some Like It Hot (1959)
Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh: Psycho (1960)
Burt Lancaster, Shirley Jones: Elmer Gantry (1960)
Ruby Dee: A Raisin in the Sun (1961)
Sidney Poitier: A Raisin in the Sun (1961), In the Heat of the Night (1967) Guess Who’s Coming To Dinner (1967)
Sophia Loren: Two Women (1961)
Natalie Wood, George Chakiris: West Side Story (1961)
Audrey Hepburn: Roman Holiday (1953), Sabrina (1955)
Shelley Winters: Lolita (1962)
Angela Lansbury: The Manchurian Candidate (1962),
Shelley Winters: Lolita (1962)
Peter Sellers: Lolita (1962) Dr. Strangelove (1964)
Richard Burton: The Night of the Iguana (1964), Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)
Rod Steiger: The Pawnbroker (1965), In the Heat of the Night (1967)
Brock Peters: The Pawnbroker (1965)
Michael Caine: Alfie (1966)
Robert Blake: In Cold Blood (1967)
Spencer Tracy/Katharine Hepburn: Guess Who’s Coming To Dinner (1967)
Warren Beatty: Bonnie and Clyde (1967)
Faye Dunaway: Bonnie and Clyde (1967), Chinatown (1967)
Dustin Hoffman: The Graduate (1967), Midnight Cowboy (1969) Little Big Man (1970), Straw Dogs (1971), All the President’s Men (1976), Marathon Man (1976)
Anne Bancroft: The Graduate (1967)
Paul Newman: Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969)
Barbra Streisand: Funny Girl (1968), The Way We Were (1973)
Mia Farrow, Ruth Gordon: Rosemary’s Baby (1968)
Robert Redford: Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969), The Way We Were (1973), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President’s Men (1976)
Paul Newman: Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969)
Liza Minelli: The Sterile Cuckoo (1969), Cabaret (1972)
Jack Nicholson: Five Easy Pieces (1970), Chinatown (1974), One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)
Maggie Smith: The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969)
Jon Voight: Midnight Cowboy (1969), Deliverance (1972)
Chief Dan George: Little Big Man (1970)
Elliott Gould, Donald Sutherland: M*A*S*H (1970)
Ali MacGraw, Ryan O’Neal: Love Story (1970)
Malcolm MacDowell: A Clockwork Orange (1971)
Jane Fonda: Klute (1971), Fun with Dick and Jane (1977)
Clint Eastwood: Dirty Harry (1971), The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)
Topol: Fiddler on the Roof (1971)
Cloris Leachman, Jeff Bridges, Timothy Bottoms: The Last Picture Show (1971)
Joel Grey: Cabaret (1972)
Burt Reynolds: Deliverance (1972), Smokey and the Bandit (1977)
Al Pacino: The Godfather (1972), Serpico (1973), Dog Day Afternoon (1975)
Cicely Tyson, Paul Winfield: Sounder (1972)
Linda Blair: The Exorcist (1973)
Ellen Burstyn: The Exorcist (1974), Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974)
Sissy Spacek: Badlands (1973), Carrie (1976)
Martin Sheen: Badlands (1973), Apocalypse Now (1979)
Robert Redford: Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969), The Way We Were (1973), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President’s Men (1976)
Louise Fletcher: One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)
Cleavon Little: Blazing Saddles (1974)
Gene Hackman: The Conversation (1974)
Ellen Burstyn: The Exorcist (1973), Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974)
Gene Wilder, Richard Pryor: Silver Streak (1976)
Chief Dan George: The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)
Gregory Peck, Lee Remick: The Omen (1976)
Piper Laurie: Carrie (1976)
Robert DeNiro: Taxi Driver (1976), The Deer Hunter (1978)
George Segal: Fun with Dick and Jane (1977)
John Travolta: Saturday Night Fever (1977)
Jill Clayburgh: An Unmarried Woman (1978)
Christopher Walken: The Deer Hunter (1978)
Robert Duvall: Apocalypse Now (1979)
Meryl Streep, Justin Henry: Kramer vs Kramer (1979)
Sigourney Weaver: Alien (1979)
Sally Field: Norma Rae (1979)
writing about film

Muqarnas Vaults: Creative and Progressive Design Process Thesis

Table of Contents Muqarnas Design Framework Latest Design of Muqarnas How to Design Muqarnas – Size, Dimension, and Form Analysis of Muqarnas Shapes New and Old Configurations of Muqarnas Development of Muqarnas by Using Technology How to Use Muqarnas in Modern Business Works Cited Muqarnas Design Framework The design of muqarnas vaults is based on a smooth transition from two-dimensional forms to three-dimensional ones. Such a transition is believed to be a creative and progressive process. The spatial properties of vault-like elements result in various experiments with the development from a rectangular or square shape to a dome-like structure. Thus, muqarnas designs usually include several basic elements that are combined in repetitive layers to produce complicated surfaces. Muqarnas drawings in-plane projection represent traditional design methods utilized by Islamic architects who applied strict geometric and mathematical rules to create their architectural works. Such drawings give a general understanding of the main principles of muqarnas design. The absence of overlapping elements in muqarnas makes it possible to project three-dimensional structure to the plane surface rather easily. Still, ancient architects used a special system of abbreviations in their drawings which makes them too complicated. It is generally recognized that different shapes are difficult to distinguish in such plane projections. Nevertheless, it is possible to say that muqarnas design is created with the help of a limited number of geometric elements that are simple and uncompounded. The links between the elements are determined by a geometric system of strict conformity. These two basic rules are necessary for muqarnas projection approaches. The primary blocks used to build muqarnas are called cells. In the complicated examples of muqarnas, intermediate elements are also present. They are used as subsidiary items between the cells to make a geometric network more complete. Some researchers state that “the primary requirement of prefabrication is that the whole complex has to be decomposed to specific forms with limited variety and quantity” (Dadkhah et al. 134). It enables the development of diverse projections based on specific elements that almost do not vary and can be recognized as three-dimensional items from the beginning. Therefore, each two-dimensional tile is originally a three-dimensional element in the plane projection. To design three-dimensional structures in plane drawings, it is necessary to understand clearly how each element affects the space. Figure 1. Muqarnas Elements. Complicated muqarnas structures are developed by utilizing the modular design. Such design is a construction of a variety of different elements composed of a set of basic modules. Such modules can be applied in the final layout or can be a part of the invisible substrate. Usually, the geometric items of two different scales are used in a certain combination. The large-scale patterns are rather big and recognizable, and the conjunction of small-scale elements is often determined by several key points of the large-scale patterns. For such muqarnas designs, the presence of complicated shapes such as stars, rosettes, and hexagons is widespread. It is noted that “an example of these combinations of stucco and tiling is the entrance portal (iwan) of the Shah Mosque, Esfahan, Iran, built by Shah Abbas the Great between 1611 and 1629” (Gherardini and Leali 138). The semi-dome of this mosque is characterized by the application of several three-dimensional shapes which corners are directed towards the center to create the point of attraction for the other points and the observer. It is generally recognized that every muqarnas niche-like element has a roof and some vertical facets. The facets are adjusted to form a right angle, a half a right angle, or a sum of these angles with the near elements. Two facets are considered to be placed on a plane surface which is parallel to the ground. It is possible to place a flat surface above them, which is not parallel to the ground, or two curved surfaces to form a roof. This structure is what the muqarnas designers call a cell. The cells which are adjacent to the same level form a tier. The intermediate elements are situated between the roofs of two connected cells. They usually have a shape of triangles. Thus, it is possible to say that muqarnas design is an evolution of a decorative and structural element. The shape of muqarnas tiles is convenient to trap the light and diffuse it to make special visual effects. The final muqarnas structure includes a finite number of items that are logically connected and bounded to a primitive perimeter. Latest Design of Muqarnas The contemporary designs of muqarnas are characterized by utilizing the bifurcated fold approach. This method is easy to apply through computer algorithms as the relationship between the elements is clear. It is also noted that “different from the basic principles of the well-known structural systems such as load-bearing or frame-based systems, the fold comprises an anti-hierarchical load disposition” (Alaçam et al. 288). The notion of bifurcation is defined as a geometrical operation or a process of branching to achieve a stable force redistribution on a surface. It greatly assists in understanding and developing vault-like structures. For the application of this method, initial plane geometry is required as well. Therefore, three-dimensional forms can be generated from two-dimensional patterns by using computer technologies. This process includes creating a bifurcation for each calculated point along the line of force-flow. The bifurcated fold approach represents the combination of muqarnas encoding and folds technique which includes force-flow, layering, subdivision, and projection. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is generally recognized that 3D modeling of muqarnas structures might give a new understanding of mathematical methods used to develop its form. Thus, it is possible to investigate the further potential of muqarnas to apply it in modern architecture. A cellular element is considered to be a basic item for developing various solutions for the irregular distribution of columns and plan types. How to Design Muqarnas – Size, Dimension, and Form A simple muqarnas can be designed by determining the location of radial and orbital axes. For this purpose, a circle or a half-circle with an arbitrary radius is identified. Radial axes are determined by dividing it into equal sectors. Traditional muqarnas domes are expanded by using crescent and ray methods. The number, size, and form of the elements are derived from the size of a muqarnas dome, as well as from the height of its arches, which allows filling the spaces between them with tiles. The number of tiers is also dependent on the size and height of the whole structure. The tiers are formed by adding vertical tiles. The traditional domes usually include thirty-two tiles in the center. The domes can be expanded by various methods, which involve applying additional tiles between the determined axes. Each configuration might use various shapes of tiles. It is stated that the increasing repetition of tiers causes the creation of new focal points (Dadkhah et al. 134). In the highest point of a dome-like structure, the element of the last tier is aligned with the identified axes. The radius and the size of the muqarnas element vary depending on the architect’s style. In contemporary designs, there is a tendency to omit intermediate elements, which results in developing muqarnas structures consisted of simple and uniform geometric patterns. It is possible to say that each element plays a great role in muqarnas design and projection. The most important element in a flattened dome is an item that is placed at the upper tier, which is usually a big star in the center of a dome. The variations of muqarnas domes depend on the technique applied to their erection. For example, onion domes use flat vertical tiles to narrow the dome in its highest part. The additional tiles used in the designing of such domes create more space and a bigger radius. Analysis of Muqarnas Shapes The geometrical patterns of muqarnas are derived from the equal subdivision of circles, and their forms are based on circle grid templates. The center of the circle is defined as a point to initiate all the patterns in Islamic culture. Some researchers state that “the circle is a symbol of a religion that emphasizes One God and the role of Mecca, which is the center of Islam toward which all Moslems face in prayer” (Abdullahi and Embi 245). Therefore, many geometric patterns used in muqarnas are based on such constructive polygons as octagon and hexagon. Stars are the fundamental elements of Islamic patterns and are designed by connecting the vertices of the polygons. The elements that originate from hexagram and hexagon can be classified as six-point patterns. It is noted that at the certain tier, two adjacent rays of a six-point star become divergent or parallel and create rosette petals in the shape of a deformed hexagon. Still, the polygons and stars are developed from more easily produced forms such as hexagons. It is generally recognized that muqarnas can be developed with the help of an infinite number of possible elements. Still, all these elements are derived from the basic shapes such as square or rhombus. It should be noted that two-dimensional projections of muqarnas designs include a limited number of simple geometric forms which are shown below. Figure 2. Geometric Forms Used in Muqarnas. According to the Il-Khanid description of muqarnas, the element of a square shape has four right angles and ribs with the length that amounts one. They can form a cell or an intermediate element. There is a range of other elements based on the square form. The jug shape consists of two ribs that correspond to the other curved sides of the unit. This element appears only as a cell. The element of a large biped form represents what is left from a square after the utilization of a jug item. It has a diagonal which length is √2 – 1 and two sides whose length is one. This unit is combined with a jug element to make an intermediate pattern. A half square pattern is based on a square divided by diagonal. It is utilized at the muqarnas edge as a cell. Still, it might appear as an intermediate pattern. We will write a custom Thesis on Muqarnas Vaults: Creative and Progressive Design Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The elements that have a rhombus as their basis have one or more angles of 45 degrees. The rhombus elements have four equal sides and two opposite angles which have 45 degrees. They appear in muqarnas both as intermediate elements and cells. The elements of small biped shape and almond can be combined to split or form the rhombus. The almond appears only in such elements as cells, while the small biped shape can be utilized as the intermediate element and in a cell. A half rhombus shape is defined as a rhombus divided by diagonal. Two such elements can appear in muqarnas in conjunction with a square and a jug. The top projection of these combined elements forms the shape of a hexagon. Sometimes, such an element as a barley kernel can appear in muqarnas. It has a form of a rhombus with one stretched side. This element might occur as an intermediate element in the upper tier to fill the upper and the last part of a vault. All the muqarnas elements are combined by stair steps called layers or tiers to form a complete dome or another muqarnas structural element. New and Old Configurations of Muqarnas The studies of old configurations of muqarnas were based on the analytical studies of traditional drawings made in two dimensions. It is a general opinion that the complex geometry of three-dimensional models was simplified by utilizing digital technologies. For example, for evaluation of muqarnas structures in ancient mosques, such an approach as digital photogrammetry can be used. This method applies three-dimensional scanning and 3D modeling codes to determine morphological and structural features of various configurations of muqarnas. The form and dimension of muqarnas are dependent on the geographical region where it was built and the period of its construction, as well as on the section of the building where it was applied and the material. For instance, some researchers note that “the usage areas of muqarnases, which are frequently used in Anatolian Turkish Architecture, are quite wide” (Karabörk et al. 141). Apart from the traditional application of muqarnases in domes and portals, they were also utilized in tombs, fountains, street corners. Still, the main principles of old muqarnas constructions remain the same for all configurations. All muqarnases are constructed by making a concave-return surface which is narrowed at the top and contain curved elements to connect vertical and horizontal parts of the construction. The early configurations of muqarnas have rather big cells that are primitive and array-sliced. The muqarnas variations of the late periods are proved to become more sophisticated and intricate. It is generally recognized that the ancient architects applied muqarnas ornaments that had various complex shapes such as hexagons, octagons, and stars, and were unique. It is stated that “the intricate 16-point patterns remained popular in North Africa and Islamic Spain, but only minimally influenced eastern regions, such as Persia, Anatolia, and the Mughal region” (Abdullahi and Embi 250). In the construction of domes, it is possible to distinguish the flattened and onion domes. Both forms include complicated sets of cells and intermediate elements filled between the rays to form an exquisite structure of muqarnas. The new muqarnas configurations designed with the help of digital technologies are usually less complicated than the old ones. As it was mentioned before, modern designs are mostly based on a bifurcated fold approach combined with the results of studies of old plane two-dimensional projections and digital analysis of ancient examples of muqarnas. It is possible to say that digital 3D modeling and analysis of muqarnas forms resulted in the attempts to design and build constructions with muqarnas elements applied in them. Still, new configurations are not that intricate as the works of the ancient architects. The contemporary developers usually apply the same approaches to the creation of forms and application of cells with some variations due to modern tendencies. Development of Muqarnas by Using Technology An algorithmic approach is vastly applied in architecture for decoding structural and spatial elements. It is noted that “a layering algorithm in Python programming language was developed as interference of surface explorations which allows the manipulations of the internal relations dynamically via interactive layer line selection by the user” (Alaçam et al. 294). Thus, modern architects can benefit from applying digital technologies in the development of such complicated structures as muqarnas. There are many programs available for structural analysis and modeling of muqarnas by using various parameters that are applied to its formation. The development of a 3D model starts with one element, a square, or a circle, depending on the expected results. By rotation at 45 degrees, a second element of the same shape is placed on the top of the previous one. This method is applied to get a plane projection of the future muqarnas element in the form of an octagon, hexagon, or a circle. Usually, such projection consists of several repetitive tiles of almost the same shape which can be used for the construction of muqarnas elements. After that, an analysis of possible shapes is performed and compared to the traditional approaches. Not sure if you can write a paper on Muqarnas Vaults: Creative and Progressive Design Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Computer technologies allow safely to develop and model such complicated constructions as domes and portals by using the same approaches as in the process of physical modeling. The initial two-dimensional plan is transformed into a three-dimensional model by the tools available in graphic programs such as 3D MAX where the possible variations of cells and their shapes are analyzed to get the final design. It should also be noted that in computer modeling, the calculations are performed for each triangular pattern received in the plane projection to apply force flow and bifurcation rules. A CAD environment can be used to import the existing projections of muqarnas for analysis or modeling the new ones. Some researchers state that “the analysis of the pattern is a fundamental phase to avoid useless work and take advantage of its modularity” (Gherardini and Leali 147). Thus, muqarnas two-dimensional elements can be classified by a hierarchy which includes plane elements, niche-like patterns, and intermediate items. A single module drawn in the program can be repeated by the available tools such as copy or mirror to multiply it. Thus, various elements can be integrated into the model. If the patterns are not available, they can be taken from the three-dimensional projection of the muqarnas construction erected out of a two-dimensional model. A photograph can be utilized to make this plane projection of muqarnas. Thus, it is possible to make a correlation between a two-dimensional design and a three-dimensional model using digital technologies. How to Use Muqarnas in Modern Business The application of digital technologies in muqarnas development and analysis made it possible to apply this exquisite construction element in the modern buildings, as well as in the decoration of gardens, squares, and yards. Some researchers note that modern Islam architecture tends to combine state-of-the-art approaches with traditional elements such as muqarnas in the construction of new buildings (D’Agostino 9). Thus, the interior of such businesses as airports, restaurants, and shopping areas can be easily decorated with the variations of muqarnas elements. It should be also noted that modern architects tend to use muqarnas elements to build creative constructions. One such example is a Hayam Temple to Sunlight presented at the Burning Man festival of modern art. This construction embodies the perfection of Islamic geometry. It is assembled from the plywood boards perforated with flowers, which are joined seamlessly and resembles muqarnas but still is an original work of art that contains only necessary elements. Another interesting idea presented at this festival is a sitting named Reflection, which also resembles the muqarnas design. The application of muqarnas elements was also noticed at the exhibition dedicated to Islamic culture. The entrance to the exhibition was decorated with a muqarnas-like structure made from fabric that hung from the archway in a neo-Gothic style. Thus, it is possible to say that muqarnas is still popular in the modern world and the methods of its design and modeling occupy the minds of many contemporary architects and designers. The latest tendencies of using muqarnas prove that this decoration and construction element can be utilized in a variety of businesses, such as designing private gardens with Eastern elements or applying muqarnas elements in the interior decoration of shops, airports, hotels, and other public places. Various niches, portals, dome-like elements, and arches can be utilized in constructing pavilions, fountains, creative benches, and entrances. Muqarnas elements can also be used for constructing some interesting pieces of art to be placed in the streets for the decoration and tourist attraction. Thus, the functional potential of muqarnas is very expanded and can be used by modern architects in their models both as a decorative and structural element. Works Cited Abdullahi, Yahya, and Mohamed Rashid Bin Embi. “Evolution of Islamic Geometric Patterns.” Frontiers of Architectural Research, vol. 2, no. 2, 2013, pp. 243-251. Alaçam, Sema, et al. “Reconnoitering Computational Potentials of the Vault-Like Forms: Thinking Aloud on Muqarnas Tectonics.” International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 15, no. 4, 2017, pp. 285-303. Dadkhah, Negin, Hadi Safaeipour, and Gholamhossein Memarian. “Traditional Complex Modularity in Islamic and Persian Architecture: Interpretations in Muqarnas and Patkâné Crafts, Focusing on their Prefabricated Essence.” Proceedings of 2012 ACSA FALL CONFERENCE — Offsite: Theory and Practice of Architectural Production (Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 27–29 September 2012), 2012, pp. 130-138. D’Agostino, Glauco. “Architecture in Saudi Arabia: An Exciting Challenge Amidst Traditional Islamic Features and Technological Development.” Geopolitics, Political Geography and Geostrategy Magazine, Jan. 2015, pp. 1-18. Gherardini, Francesco, and Francesco Leali. “A Framework for 3D Pattern Analysis and Reconstruction of Persian Architectural Elements.” Nexus Network Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, 2016, pp. 133-167. Karabörk, Hakan, Esra Yaldiz, and Lütfiye Karasaka. “3d Documentation of Portal Muqarnases in Anatolian Madrasahs with Digital Close Range Photogrammetric Method.” Mediterranean Archaeology

Sydney Opera House Project management Critical Essay

The construction of Sydney Opera House, which started in 1957, is one of the projects that I got a chance to research on while in college. It is a perfect example showing the impact of poor project planning on an organization. During this period (1997), planners had estimated that the project would last 6 years, and would cost $7 million (Murray, 2013). Unfortunately, the project’s triple constrain priorities were not clear and were changed on several occasions before the project got completed. The change of one priority automatically affected the others. One of the initial changes was done on the layout of the building. During the construction, the multipurpose opera hall’s design was changed. This affected the interior layout. This confirms the effect of changing a priority. This further caused other unprecedented changes such as the introduction of a cinema, theatre, and library. The consequence of these changes is that the project was completed in ten years later, and ended up costing $102 million. It took more time and costs than what the planners expected. The scope of the project ought to be clearly defined before the project. This could have helped the planners avoid changing priorities (Schwalbe, 2010). Moreover, they could have saved on costs and time, among other things. Project attributes have several dimensions that must be managed simultaneously. They include people involved in the implementation of projects, communication and the level of collaboration between them, time available, and the type and level of knowledge and skills needed to complete certain tasks. They also include management of risks, coordination of sub-projects or project activities, and organizational and cultural changes involved in the project (Mazura, Pisarskia, Chang,

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