This paper will review the advantages of brain-compatible learning environments by first discussing what brain-based learning consist of, the relationship between the brain and student learning, the advantages of brain-compatible learning environments, how these environments can be implemented, brain-compatible teaching methods and how we can measure the success of brain-based learning. Brain-based education is best understood in three words: engagement, strategies, and principles.
Brain-based education is the engagement of strategies based on principles derived from an understanding of the brain. ” (Jensen, 2008) Brain-based learning focuses on how the brain can best learn the content being taught. Brain-based learning recognizes that the brain does not learn in a linear fashion like how must schools are structured today. A brain based learning environment focuses on social connections and motivation to encourage learning.
Students learn best when presented with challenges and are encouraged to come to conclusions on their own regarding the content being taught. Not everyone learns as the same pace and brain-based learning environments must accommodate for this by incorporating techniques that allow for non-linear learning. How we learn is complex and no two brains learn the same way, however there is a basic learning process all brains follow. Input is received through the thalamus while at the same time being sent to other processing areas (e. g. isuals to occipital lobe and language to the temporal lobe), this allows for immediate action if the information is urgent and is perceived as a threatening situation.
The brain creates a quick interpretation of the data it takes in; if the data is interpreted as threatening the amygdala is triggered which then engages the sympathetic nervous system. Non-threatening data is held in the frontal lobe for five to twenty seconds, during this time it is filtered; non-essential data is purged from memory, while meaningful data is sent to the hippocampus. In the hippocampus it is organized, indexed and eventually stored in the cortex long term.
The brain is instinctively wired to remember the facts surrounding survival, things such as where to find food, who our closest relatives are, how to defend ourselves, how to make tools, how to take care of our children, what gives us pleasure, what gives us pain, distinctive aromas and tastes are all facts we instinctively remember. On the other hand, “word-based, names, equations, vocabulary and facts are not the types of memories that we are “automatically good at remembering” (Hileman, 2006) So merging the things we are good at remembering with the things we want our students to learn is a basic technique of brain-based learning.
An example of this would be using smells or emotions to help remember key facts. Another brain-based learning technique is timing, “our brain cycles through attentional highs and lows every 90 to 110 minutes” (Hileman, 2006) As a result we must space activities, lectures and assessments throughout the class periods to coincide with this cycle, this may be challenging in environments that are structured in shorter periods but not impossible. Repetition is another brain-based learning technique. When material is repeated connections are strengthened in the brain.
We must be careful though as there is a fine balance between repeating a technique to aid in retention and being so repetitive that the learner becomes bored and no longer receptive to the material. Movement is also a brain-based learning technique that increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain thus enhancing and stimulating learning.
Visuals can also increase learning, “between 80 and 90 percent of all information that is absorbed by our brain is visual” (Jensen, 2008) Our brains are designed to identify differences in a group of objects and images with contrast, color and/or movement will attract a learners attention. Design the decor so that entering students will get a glimpse of what they will be learning throughout the year. ” (Veverka, 2011) Not only will this decor provide visual enhancement, it will also engage the learner by subconsciously providing the learner with repetitive views of the content. Hileman suggests that novelty is another way to stimulate and engage the brain, making subtle changes in the learning environment such as changing rooms, a change in lighting, field trips or guest speakers can engage learners.
Hileman also suggests that color can motivate brain activity. “It has been suggested that every color has a wavelength, and every wavelength, from ultraviolet to infrared affects, our body and brain differently” (Hileman, 2006) Some colors have calming effects while other simulant effects, effectively using colors to engage learners is another brain-based learning technique that can be easily incorporated into a brain-based classroom.
The final technique Hileman suggests is automatic leaning, most f what we learn is non-conscious, our brain quickly assesses input and makes decisions on how to react without conscious thought. How a teacher is perceived by their students can impact the learning environment, teachers must maintain a positive attitude, must have an enjoyment of learning and develop a rapport with their students to allow for a safe and positive learning environment for students. Social behavior can also play a part in brain-based learning as humans are social creatures. Therefore creating cooperative learning environments can help access the social aspect of learning.
There are many techniques involved with brain-based learning, but there is a question of how these techniques can these incorporated into the traditional classroom. In short they can’t, traditionally classrooms are not designed to utilize the brains natural learning ability , traditional classrooms rely on lectures and memorization with the goal of getting students to pass tests. To implement brain-based learning techniques we must step away from the traditional classroom and focus on teaching in a way that augments how the brain can best learn.
We must stimulate different areas of the brain and incorporate varying teaching styles into the learning environment. There must be a focus on “creating an environment, specifically, that can mean giving students periodic breaks in instruction so new information can sink in. It can even be as simple as including water breaks to refresh students. ” (Kormanik, 2002) In Kormanik’s article one teacher, Lynn Hessler, took a brain-compatible learning course that discussed techniques such as aromatherapy, music and positive thinking in the classroom.
7 Habits of Highly Effective People
7 Habits of Highly Effective People.
7 Habits of Highly Effective People Critical Review
Your introduction should include an overview of the book that both incorporate an encapsulated summary and a sense of your general judgment. This is the equivalent to a thesis statement.
Your review should have two goals: first, to inform the reader about the content of the book, and second, to provide an evaluation that gives your judgment of the book’s quality.
Here are a number of questions that you can address as part of your critique. You need not answer them all, but questions one and two are essential to any book review, so those must be included. And these are ABSOLUTELY NOT to be answered one after another (seriatim). Don’t have one paragraph that answers one, and then the next paragraph that answers the next, etc. The answers should be part of a carefully constructed essay, complete with topic sentences and transitions.
1. What is your overall opinion of the book? On what basis has this opinion been formulated? That is, tell the reader what you think and how you arrived at this judgment. What did you expect to learn when you picked up the book? To what extent – and how effectively – were your expectations met? Did you nod in agreement (or off to sleep)? Did you wish you could talk back to the author? Amplify upon and explain your reactions.
2. Identify the author’s thesis and explain it in your own words. How clearly and in what context is it stated and, subsequently, developed? To what extent and how effectively (i.e., with what kind of evidence) is this thesis proven? Use examples to amplify your responses. If arguments or perspectives were missing, why do you think this might be?
3. What are the author’s aims? How well have they been achieved, especially with regard to the way the book is organized? Are these aims supported or justified? (You might look back at the introduction to the book for help). How closely does the organization follow the author’s aims?
4. How are the author’s main points presented, explained, and supported? What assumptions lie behind these points? What would be the most effective way for you to compress and/or reorder the author’s scheme of presentation and argument?
5. How effectively does the author draw claims from the material being presented? Are connections between the claims and evidence made clearly and logically? Here you should definitely use examples to support your evaluation.
6. What conclusions does the author reach and how clearly are they stated? Do these conclusions follow from the thesis and aims and from the ways in which they were developed? In other words, how effectively does the book come together?
7. Identify the assumptions made by the author in both the approach to and the writing of the book. For example, what prior knowledge does the author expect readers to possess? How effectively are those assumptions worked into the overall presentation? What assumptions do you think should not have been made? Why?
8. Are you able to detect any underlying philosophy of history held by the author (e.g., progress, decline, cyclical, linear, and random)? If so, how does this philosophy affect the presentation of the argument?
9. How does the author see history as being motivated: primarily by the forces of individuals, economics, politics, social factors, nationalism, class, race, gender, something else? What kind of impact does this view of historical motivation have upon the way in which the author develops the book?
10. Does the author’s presentation seem fair and accurate? Is the interpretation biased? Can you detect any distortion, exaggeration, or diminishing of material? If so, for what purpose might this have been done, and what effect does hit have on the overall presentation?
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