Advances in transportation networks and the creation of new business were just as important for trade and transporting goods which proved costly. Technical innovations formed the agricultural revolution, which amplified the amount of food available. With more food available, people were better nourished than they had been in more than 500 years, and the population began to grow (Levack, Muir & Veldman, 2011, p. 300).
The population grew so quickly that Europe went from 14 million people in the seventh century, to 74 million in 1300, and continued to grow a possible 500 percent by the fourteenth centuries. The prized possession of the agricultural revolution was the carruca, a heavy plowing tool that required six to eight horses to maneuver it; however the carruca cut deeply into the dirt allowing minerals to surface for plant development.
As no peasant family could afford this many animals the farmers would come together creating a plow team which required communal planning and collaboration. With Europe plummeting in size, communities proved to be a handful for newly flourishing authority figures. In many places the citizens of the new enlarged towns attempted to rid themselves of their lords to establish self-rule or, at least, substantial autonomy for their city (Levack et al. , 2011, p. 302).
In the northern central Italy, groups known as communes formed, they seize control of surrounding areas and created a culture of self-rule. Although not all democratic, the communes created institutions which consisted of mostly male citizens. These institutions embraced public speech and having an input in important verdicts. The other two reasons were just as important: advances in transportation networks and the creation of new business techniques (Levack et al. , 2011, p. 304). Trading items such as, food and cloth heavily depends on water transportation.
Where there were neither sea-ports nor navigable rivers, drovers’ hauled goods cross-country by pack train, a very expensive enterprise (Levack et al. , 2011, p. 304). In Europe, with no land transportation routes, governments and local aristocrats repaired and built new Roman roads that had been unkempt for years. Long distance trade also proved useful for new business techniques. References Levack, B. , Muir, E. , & Veldman, M. (2011). The West: encounters & transformations (3rd ed. , Vol. 1). Boston: Longman
Women’s reproductive rights
Women’s reproductive rights.
Description Women’s reproductive rights are specifically the right of unrestricted access to birth control, abortion and family planning. Unfortunately throughout the 20th century low- income American women of all races, religions and ethnicities who were deemed as a burden to society were challenged with the very real practice of eugenics – the controlled breeding of a desired population and the elimination of the undesirable. As a result, thousands of women; particularly African American and Hispanics were subjected to government funded sterilizations. At its peak in the early 20th century; 32 states were practicing some form of eugenics which was tied into federally funded welfare programs; with California and Mississippi leading in numbers. Please address the following: Give a brief (no more then a page) historical content of the beginnings of eugenics in the U.S. (you may want to keep in mind the evolution of birth control). Identity at least three state or federal court cases that addressed eugenics or sterilizations. Briefly discuss the court’s opinion and dissent and the precedent it set. In 2019, where are we now with eugenics? Has the message simply been repackaged and redelivered or has society done away with these “programs”? You can choose to narrow the scope of your research to a specific state, race or ethnicity or kept it broad; inclusive of the entire gender in America.
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