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West Coast University Burden of Infectious Disease & Risk factors Paper

West Coast University Burden of Infectious Disease & Risk factors Paper.

Watch this video before you start your week 5 assignment. This video will provide some perspective into health care in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential challenges you may face.PBS NewsHour. (2011). South Sudan’s health care system shows dire need [Video]. Retreived from http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/video/2011/01/…For weeks 5, 6, and 7, you will be acting as a relief worker for a new public health clinic opening in sub-Saharan Africa to help combat communicable and noncommunicable diseases.Address the following in your paper:Determine the major communicable and noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.Analyze why these diseases are prevalent.Assess the challenges to prevention, transmission, and treatment of communicable diseases.Evaluate the risk factors for the burden of noncommunicable diseases.Investigate the costs to the population for both communicable and noncommunicable diseases.What is needed to prepare a public health employee for working in this kind of environment?Your paper should be 3–4 pages in length, and include a minimum of 3 scholarly sources. Use current APA formatting to style your paper and to cite your sources. Integrate your sources into the paragraphs. Use internal citations pointing to evidence in the literature and supporting your ideas. You will need to include a reference page listing those sources.See the rubric for specific grading criteria.
West Coast University Burden of Infectious Disease & Risk factors Paper

NUR 425 Denver School of Nursing Global Health Factors Covid 19 Presentation.

I’m working on a nursing presentation and need support to help me study.

In this assignment, you will explore the cultural context of a global health problem and consider how the structure of a health care system affects the way the problem is addressed.Step 1: Identify a global health problem.Choose ONE health problem that affects people around the world, and that is impacted by cultural practices. Find reliable statistics that support the global nature of this problem.Step 2: Gather data.Find scholarly sources, research and gather global data about the health problem you have identified. For example, the World Health Organization posts disease and health risk prevalence data on a country-by-country basis. Searching websites of humanitarian organizations such as Doctors Without Borders, Operation Smile, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation can provide additional context about the health problem.Step 3: Create the slide presentation.Address the following points in your 10-12 slide presentation:Nursing perspectives of the problemDescribe the global impact of the health problem. Example topics could be comparing the impact across populations, communicable disease spread, environmental impacts Describe the ways culture influences the risk factors, treatment and/or prognosis of the problem. Examples can be language barriers, food preparation, folk medicine usage etc. You may connect to one culture or multiple cultures in answering this promptIdentify one or two cultural care strategies that nurses could use to improve the health problemHealth care system impact on the problemConsider how the structure of a health care system affects the way the problem is addressedConsider how the structure of a health care system affects the way the problem is addressed. Compare at least two countries with different health care systems- for example, you may discuss access to care, diagnostic and treatment options, public policies and economic considerations such as costs to the patientDiscuss any differences in health outcome statistics for the health problem between the two countries. Is there any evidence for why these differences or lack of differences occur?Be sure to use statistics to substantiate the health problem. Make sure that you use APA 7th edition format to properly cite any sources.Step 4: Add presenter’s notes.Include talking points and details in the notes area for each slide. These notes should document what you would say to an audience about each slide if you were to present in person.Step 5: Cite any sources in APA format.
NUR 425 Denver School of Nursing Global Health Factors Covid 19 Presentation

Need help writing a 4 page paper

Need help writing a 4 page paper. I don’t know how to handle this History question and need guidance.

Go to the Sources for Chapter 26 and read the following three documents: Phillip LaFollette, The Doctrine of Fear, 1941; Franklin D. Roosevelt, “The Four Freedoms,” 1941; and the Supreme Court Opinions in Korematsu vs. United States, 1944. By drawing upon the documents, show how each dealt with core American values but differed on how best to defend them in the context of the crisis produced by World War II. Who do you think made the best argument for protecting American values in the cases of LaFolette versus Roosevelt and of Justice Black versus the dissenting Justice Murphy? Explain your reasoning. A four to five page paper is due on Tuesday Oct. 31. Late penalties apply.
This does require sources that I can provide
Need help writing a 4 page paper

Employee Relations Issues in Potential Reasons for Workplace Violence Research Paper

i need help writing an essay Table of Contents Interpersonal conflict Identifying signs of work place violence Reasons for workplace violence Cost of conflict and violence How to manage workplace violence Conclusion References Employee relations issues are the day-to-day occurrences in the working environment among employees, friends, family members, strangers, and even employer. They may be positive or negative leading to workplace violence. Workplace violence may involve physical violence, threats, insults, molestation, intimidation, or any act that disrupts peaceful environment at workplace (The USDA Handbook on Workplace Violence Prevention and Response, 1998). Such issues arise when employees are not equipped with the right methods of solving the matters arising in their work place. The probability of work place violence is always high since people spend most of their time at workplace, exercising teamwork in most activities. According to the National Security and intelligence Unit in America and Canada, statistics have shown that the fastest growing crime is workplace violence. This is not only happening in the US but all over the world. Murder cases have been reported many times resulting from work place violence, making the level of security at workplaces wanting. The following essay will cover on the employee relations issues and the potential reasons for workplace violence whose major cause may be interpersonal conflict and management decisions among others. Interpersonal conflict Interpersonal conflict refers to a situation where colleagues in a work place or an employer and his junior collide, and they may not be getting along well. Most people in workstations spend so much time conflicting amongst themselves, avoiding conflicts, or recovering from conflicts. It includes bullying, intimidation, harassment, competition among workers among others. Interpersonal conflicts in workstations may lead to stress since colleagues spend the better part of the day together. It may also lead to physical violence when a solution is not found on time. Below are some of the reasons that lead to interpersonal conflicts at work. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sharing of work among colleagues may lead to conflict whereby some employees feel that their partners are not contributing enough to a share of work given. Other interpersonal conflict arises when employees feel that there is no one to run to in times of conflict especially when senior personnel collides with his/her junior. Different professional groups working in the same unit may also be a source of interpersonal conflict where by one team suffers form superiority complex and intimidate or harass the other group. This is mostly evident in the medical professions where doctors always look down upon nurses thus resulting into conflict. If job description is not clearly outlined to the workers, conflict with the supervisor may arise when one does not accomplish what is expected of him/her or between employees when blaming each other on a piece of work not done. At times, the workload may be beyond the employee ability, where by their leader are not sensitive and they give them deadlines to meet the targets (Hoel

A Case Study About Healthcare Leadership

Effective leadership is essential in health care organisations as in other organisations. It is necessary for driving innovation, effective patient care, patient safety, improving working within clinical teams, sorting out issues within emergency context and other aspects necessary for effective and efficient running of healthcare organisations. Transformational leadership has often been prescribed as the ‘gold standard’ of healthcare leadership(Gopee and Galloway 2009).This essay sets out to: briefly discuss the concept of leadership; highlight why leadership is important in healthcare; make a distinction between the closely-related concepts of leadership and management; briefly highlight how power relates to leadership; describe some leadership approaches applicable within the context of healthcare organisations; describe leadership styles visible in healthcare; present a case study set in a teaching hospital practice setting in Africa ; critically assess the leadership approaches operating within the setting and its effect on organisational performance ;and make recommendations on improving leadership practice within the specified setting. What is leadership? Leadership can be defined as “the ability of an individual to influence a group of people to achieve a goal(Bryman 1992).It is also noted that ‘leadership can have four possible meanings, namely: the activity of leading; the body of people who lead a group; the status of the leader; and the ability to lead'(Gopee and Galloway 2009). Kouzes and Posner (2007) suggest some characteristics of an effective leader namely to: be more effective in meeting job-related demands; be more successful in representing their units in upper management; create higher performing teams; foster renewed loyalty and commitment; increase motivational levels and willingness to work hard; and possess high degree of personal integrity. Why leadership in healthcare? Effective leadership and management has been found to contribute to efficiency of health care services, performance (McColl-Kennedy and Anderson 2002) and satisfaction of staff employed within them.(Bradley and Alimo-Metcalfe 2008) researched the causal relationship between leadership behaviours and the performance and productivity of staff and found that ‘engaging leadership’ improved employee engagement and performance. (Morrison, Jones et al. 1997) studied the relationship between leadership style, empowerment, and job satisfaction on nursing staff at a regional medical centre. They used Bass’s Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to measure leadership style, items from Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment instrument to measure empowerment, and the Warr, Cook, and Wall’s job satisfaction questionnaire to measure job satisfaction. The authors found that both transformational and transactional leadership were positively associated with job satisfaction. Some other researchers reported that good leadership skills impacted on patient safety and quality of care (Corrigan, Lickey et al. 2000; Firth-Cozens and Mowbray 2001; Mohr, Abelson et al. 2002).Furthermore, leadership skills are essential in the world of public health policy and leadership is one of the core competencies required of public health trainees(Faculty of Public Health 2010). Leadership versus management Relevant to this discourse is making a distinction between leadership and management. They are two similar but distinct concepts. Management is seen as seeking order and maintaining stability while leadership is seen as seeking adaptive and constructive change. Leadership in the healthcare context aims to influence practitioners towards the achievement of the common goal of quality patient care. On the other hand, management as a process coordinates and directs the activities of an organisation to ensure it achieves its set objectives. Management ensures healthcare resources (human such as doctors, nurses and clerical staff and non-human resources like medical devices and consumables) are utilised in an efficient way whilst delivering effective healthcare service(Gopee and Galloway 2009). However, leadership is known to be complementary to management (Kotter 1999; Zaleznik 2004). Leadership theories and styles in healthcare A number of theoretical leadership approaches can be applied within healthcare .However, not all aspects fit in perfectly into healthcare, and thus some adaptation may be required. Transformational leadership Transformational leadership is a widely advocated approach for healthcare. Transformational leadership is one of the contemporary leadership approaches that are concerned with how an individual influences others in a group in other to achieve a common goal .Transformational leaders seek to accomplish greater pursuits within an organisation by inspiring other members of the group to share their vision for the organisation. Transformational leaders motivate and raise the morality of their followers and help them reach their fullest potential. Mohandas Gandhi Nelson Mandela have been cited as transformational leaders(Northouse 2007). In an organisational context, a transformational leader is one who attempts to change the organisations values in order to portray a standard of fairness and justice while in the process emerging with a better set of moral values. Transformational leadership is about the collective good of an organisation; it is expected to bring about organisational change .It aims to inspire commitment to the organisation’s vision and ideals .In healthcare, teams of health care professionals are inspired to achieve the highest quality of patient care irrespective of limiting situations (Gopee and Galloway 2009). The concept of transformational approach of leadership was popularised by the political sociologist, leadership expert, and presidential biographer- James Macgregor Burns in his seminal work Leadership written in 1978. In this book, he described the leadership styles of some political leaders. Bernard Bass widely cited in leadership literature built on the work of Burns and argued that leadership is an influence process which motivates followers to perform above their expected output by ‘raising the follower’s level of consciousness about the importance and values of the shared goals, operating beyond their self-interests and addressing higher level needs'(Bass 1985). He also suggested that transformational and transactional leadership models where a continuum rather than mutually exclusive entities. Four qualities or behavioural have been widely cited as the leadership factors which are an integral part of transformational leadership- the 4 I’S(Bass 1985; Avolio, Waldman et al. 1991) namely: idealised influence-describes the ability of the leader to act as role model s whose followers emulate. This factor is sometimes mentioned as being the same as charisma; inspirational motivation-the ability to inspire the members of the group to become integrated with the vision of the organisation while transcending their own self-interest ; intellectual stimulation-the stimulation of creativity and innovation in the followers so that they are able to discover and develop new ways of sorting out issues within the organisation as they arise; and individualised consideration-portrays the need for leaders to recognise the strength and weakness of each member of the group foster on the development of followers and help each in the achievement of goals through personal development. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, is one based on reward for performance. A transactional leader is described by (Bass 1985)as one who prefers a leader-member exchange relationship, in which the leader meets the needs of the followers in exchange for meeting basic expectations. In essence, a transactional leader has a penchant for avoiding risks and is able to build confidence in subordinates to allow them to achieve goals. The transactional leadership construct has three components: Contingent reward -clarifies what is expected from followers and what they will receive if they meet expectations. Active management by exception- focuses on monitoring tasks and arising problems and correcting these to maintain current performance. Passive -Avoidant Leadership-reacts only after problems become serious and often avoids decision-making(Avolio, Bass et al. 1999). Connective leadership is a theory based on the premise that establishing alliance with other organisations via networking is essential to the success of an organisation. Collaboration between different clinical teams within a hospital and with other health care organisations and service industry exemplifies this.(Klakovich 1994) suggests that ’empowering staff at all levels facilitates the collaboration and synergism needed in the reformed health care environment of the future’. Distributed leadership Clinical leadership Leading change in the University College Hospital Ibadan: a failed effort in transformation? Healthcare in Nigeria is faced with enormous challenges. The University College Hospital Ibadan was established in 1948 is the foremost tertiary hospital in Nigeria. It is basically organised as a public sector organisation whose primary goal is to provide the best available healthcare service in the western region and the country as a whole. Funding is from the Federal Government and its activities are regulated by the Federal Ministry of Health which is also responsible for the implementing healthcare policies. However, a private section of the hospital was established recently modelling the prevalence of internal markets currently prevailing within healthcare. Currently, the University College Hospital produces 1 in every 5 physician in the nation. It was initially commissioned with 500 bed spaces but has now grown to a 850 bed hospital. The current average bed occupancy ranges from 60-70%. The hospital board of management comprises: the Chairman the Chief Medical Director; the Chairman, Medical Advisory Committee; the Secretary of the Board; representatives of public interest; representative of the Nigerian Medical Association; representative of the State Government; representative of the University of Ibadan Senate; representative of the Vice Chancellor of the University of Ibadan; and the Provost of the College of Medicine. The organisation has three principal officers but the day -to -day running of the hospital falls on the Chief Medical Director who demonstrates some attributes of transformational leadership in order to bring about change . Vision ‘To be the flagship tertiary health care institution in the West Africa sub-region, offering world-class training, research and services, and the first choice for seeking specialist health care in a conducive atmosphere, renowned for a culture of continuing and compassionate care'(University College Hospital Ibadan 2009). Mission Statement ‘Rendering excellent, prompt, affordable, and accessible health care in an environment that promotes hope and dignity, irrespective of status, and developing high quality health personnel in an atmosphere that stimulates excellent and relevant research’. (University College Hospital Ibadan 2009). The Chief Medical Director is an assigned leader-one whose leadership is based on formal position and legitimate authority .His appointment by the Federal Government in 2003 was proposed to be vital contribute to the improvement of the hospital. A trained obstetrician, he participates actively in the care of pregnant women. With increasing satisfaction of healthcare staff, patient satisfaction rates began increase. A new magnetic resonance imaging ,centre, cancer treatment and research centre….new innovations…the bank to collect..Satellite pharmacies were established in order to reduce the time and effort spent by staff in getting patient medications. …staff development through exchange programmes, establishment of day care centres….shows his entrepreneurial qualities. Despite it all, mortality rates remain high, medical errors are frequent, post operative patients developed infections frequently and physicians were verbally and physically abused by patient relatives. Private patients get more attention from the junior doctors and other specialist consultants. It has now been found wanting in serving the needs of the local population. Repeated nurses strike ,junior workers strike ….. SWOT analysis of the University College Hospital Ibadan Strengths Weaknesses Fairly well-equipped operating theatres Large newly renovated and well-built hospital blocks Excellent medical microbiology services, including HIV testing Residential accommodation for house officers and other specialist trainees Strong alliance with international organisations for infectious diseases research Expensive laboratory services Relative shortage of medical staff Politicisation of board of management appointments Weak administrative set-up Expensive pharmacy services Inadequate funding Delay in staff remuneration Few opportunities for exchange programmes for students and residents Inadequate supply of electricity Opportunities Threats Federal Government’s commitment to the development of tertiary care More research funding Competition from existing private and missionary hospitals Incessant industrial actions embarked upon by nursing staff, physicians and support staff Critical analysis of the leadership approach in Despite recognition that transformational leadership has some positive benefits, it is particularly difficult to act out within public services organizations Frederickson 1996 cited in (Currie 2005).Though with its own merits, the view that transformational leadership is the solution for healthcare leadership has been criticised. While there are advantages of using the transformational approach, it is not a universal panacea. Transformational leadership alone cannot account for effective outcomes in this health care organisation. Other aspects like of organisational behaviour such as management practices, knowledge management, and organisational culture are also key determinants. A US study of 370 hospitals explored the relationship between leadership, quality and knowledge management and found that transformational leadership is fully mediated by knowledge responsiveness in its effect on organisational performance (Gowen, Henagan et al. 2009). Effective knowledge management is thus strong confounder in the relationship between leadership and organisational performance. In relation to organisational culture, there is also a link between hospital and ward culture with patient outcomes. Research has shown that hospitals with a strong hand-washing policy and practice recorded fewer infections. Transformational leadership, while focusing on change, may not be in consonance with performance management needed for accountability in healthcare(Firth-Cozens and Mowbray 2001). The context in which a leadership style operates is also a key determinant on outcome irrespective of leadership style. Studies have shown the relationship physician working hours, stress, and burnout on quality of care and patient outcomes (Firth-Cozens and Cording 2004; Landrigan, Rothschild et al. 2004).Tackling job stress is thus a key avenue for improving quality of care. The Chief Medical Director needs to understand the complexity within which healthcare is delivered and translate it to his practice setting rather than trying to adopt a prescribed process. Conclusion This essay has highlighted a number of leadership theories, skills, style leadership in healthcare has been assessed. There is no perfect style or approach to leadership and healthcare organisations pose a complex setting. Several approaches may operate simultaneously. Context, political environment and social factors will affect leadership styles and approach. Clarifying the situation of a practise and flexibility is very important. Numerous challenges face healthcare organisations in Nigeria. The ability to deliver safe, effective, high quality care within organisations with the right cultures, the best systems, and the most highly skilled and motivated work forces will be the key to meeting this challenge. Conflicts still exist as to what constitutes good practice in leadership and there is no perfect set of prescriptions for effective leadership. All the existing theories merely provide a framework for which practise can be based. Healthcare organisations are a complex setting and to achieve efficiency and effectiveness, healthcare leaders need to be very flexible in their leadership .The University College Hospital should adopt an blend of different theories and styles in practice. Recommendations Leadership can be taught (Parks 2005)and improved through organising leadership development programme. It is also noted that leadership development programmes improved efficiency and quality in healthcare(McAlearney 2008). Top management and clinical staff can take these.(Kotter 1990) suggests that organisations can nurture and ‘grow’ their own leaders while adapting to constant changes(Parks 2005) There appears a need for leadership approaches that are sensitive to a context in which there are significant professional and moral concerns graeme.

K- Pop and American Pop Essay

K- Pop and American Pop Essay.

I’m working on a communications writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Hi the followings are the requirements for this assignment and I have also attached my proposal as a file. You can start with my idea in the proposal. The course readings that you can use is also in the proposal.Overview• 7-9 pages excluding references page• APA citation format• Minimum source requirements:o 3 class readingso 3 outside secondary sourceso 3 primary institution/organization profile sourceso 4-6 total media texts (content analyzed).InstructionsFor the final paper, students will develop their proposals into a comparative analysis of regional/national media. For example, one might compare specific organizations (e.g. US’s Washington Post, Israel’s Haaretz coverage of Covid-19) or a genre (political satire, romantic comedies, etc.).Writers will use secondary and primary sources (see definitions in Addendum 1). Secondary research from scholars will provide background information for the reader. Writers will make their own comparative analysis with primary research. Comparative primary analysis will be of two types:1. Institutional/organizational: e.g. companies, government agencies, advertising groups, revenue figures, media imports/export numbers, etc.2. content analysis: e.g. themes in national advertising campaigns, film adaptations, the role of gender in two similar shows, how news organizations cover a topic, etc.The paper should touch on both types of analysis, but the writer may choose which type to focus on in the paper. The paper should inform the reader on relevant media system context. A comparative paper on The Simpsons adaptation in Saudi Arabia, for example, would likely note the changes introduced to the show in light of the religious sensibilities of Arabic audiences.Paper Organization and StructureThe paper will have roughly four main sections, though there is flexibility in how writers structure the paper. All page numbers suggestions are approximate and will shrink or grow as you focus on elements of your comparison.1. Introduction (1-2 pgs.)Introduce the media outlets/programs/content you will be comparing and which aspects you will be comparing. For example, you could compare similar news shows, reality TV, children’s programs, documentaries, etc. in two countries. Your “cases” should be comparable in as many ways as possible (similar genre, similar audience, similar medium) so that any differences you find can be linked to the regional media system in which they function. Justify the comparison in relation to globalization theories (what general questions does this case study comparison contribute to?). Explain how you will investigate your question (what methods and primary sources will you be using?).2. Media organization/programming profiles (2-4 pgs.)2a. Drawing on relevant course readings and additional secondary and primary sources, situate your media organizations in their national/regional context. For example, if you were comparing Al Jazeera and CNN, you would would be smart to provide some information on the contrasting free speech laws in Arab and western media systems. Focus your reader’s attention on the most important elements for your comparison.2b. Provide specific background on the media organizations related to your topic (e.g. TV Globo, Gibli Studios, a particular telenovela or set of Bollywood films). Fruitful information for this section may include the following elements: historical background, ownership, funding, audience, and mission statement of an organization.3. Content (text/image/format) analysis (2-4 pgs.)3a. Draw a sample of at least 3 “texts” from each media outlet/program (6 texts total)3b. Conduct a close reading of these texts to draw out similarities/differences of the “output” of the media outlets/programs/genre you are investigating.3c. Support your interpretations with evidence (quoted passages, captured images, statistics – e.g., numbers of times in which certain themes, frames, characterizations, images appear in each sample).4. Conclusion (1-2 pgs.)Summarize what you have learned from this study. Link your findings to globalization theories and concepts. Reflect on the research process: what worked well? What might you do differently next time? What kinds of future research might extend or qualify this study?Provide a APA citation and bibliography listing all primary and secondary sourcematerials.Addendum 1: definition of sourcesSecondary sources may include (but are not limited to):• articles in scholarly journals such as European Journal of Communication; Media, Culture & Society; Gazette; Press/Politics; New Media and Society, International Journal of Communication, International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, etc.;• scholarly books written by academics or other experts about the organization, including biographies or organizational histories;• journalism/media professional reviews such as Columbia Journalism Review, etc.;• articles in major business newspapers, business magazines, or general newspapers with business sections (e.g., BusinessWeek, Bloomberg, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, New York Times business section, etc.) – but no matter how many of this type of article you use, they will only count as one secondary source, and you will have to use at least one additional secondary source from the first three categories.Primary sources may include (but are not limited to):• Hoover’s company reports, Corporate annual reports, financial filings, etc.;• Articles in relevant trade publications such as Ad Age, Editor & Publisher, Strategies (French), Variety, etc.;• Reports of the World Association of Newspapers, Harvard’s Nieman Lab, Pew Research Center, etc.;• Government or Industry Trade Group or International Regulatory Agency (UN, OECD, WTO, etc.) reports;• Memoirs or autobiographies by managers or creative professionals working at the organization;• Interviews conducted by you (provide notes or transcript). Television, print, images, films that provide the content for analysis
K- Pop and American Pop Essay

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