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Week two Discussion one

Week two Discussion one.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.Musculoskeletal SystemLast names that begin with A through M: Select the muscular system for your initial post.Describe the location and the function of the muscular system. Define the different types and functions of muscles. Explain how muscles receive energy and how muscular contraction occurs. Define what factors influence the force of muscular contractions.Last names that begin with N through Z: Select the skeletal system for your initial post.Describe the location and the function of the skeletal system. Explain the different classifications of bone and provide at least two examples of each type. Further, explain the process of bone growth and repair.Use two scholarly sources (one may be your course text) to support your initial post. All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Guided Response: Review your classmates’ posts and respond to two peers to further discuss the muscular and skeletal systems. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who was assigned the body system you did not discuss in your original post. Choose a dysfunction of this system and identify contributing factors for this disease. Explain the etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment for this disease. Examine how this disease can have an effect on the other physiological systems of the body. Finally, discuss how this disease and dysfunction of the body system may have an impact on the environment or how the disease is impacted by the environment. Each peer response should be at least 100 words in length and should be supported by one scholarly source.ReplyRepliesLynne TrevisanAug 11, 2020 at 11:51 AMWeek 2 Discussion 1 TemplateRemember to discuss and explain your responses. A list is not enough.Last names that begin with A through M: Select the muscular system for your initial post. My topic assignment is the muscular system.A description of the location and function of the muscular systemA definition of the different types of muscles would includeThe function of the muscular system isMuscles receive energy viaMuscular contraction occurs due toThe factors that influence the force of muscular contractions includeReferences (be sure to include 2 scholarly sources with corresponding citations within the written material)Last names that begin with N through Z: Select the skeletal system for your initial post.My topic assignment is the skeletal system.A description of the location and function of the skeletal systemThe different classifications of bone includeTwo examples of each bone classification/type:The process of bone growth includesThe process of how bones repair themselves are as followsReferences (be sure to include 2 scholarly sources with corresponding citations within the written material)Add citations of your sourced information above. Add references at the end of your work. If you need assistance, please see the Introduction to APA page in the AU Writing Center.ReplyThomas LyonsAug 11, 2020 at 2:25 PMMy topic assignment is the Muscular System.A description of the location and function of the muscular system.The muscular system is a body system which is composed of fibers and is located in all areas of the body. Muscles are responsible for the movement of the human body. A definition of the different types of muscles would include:The different types of muscles tissues are cardiac, visceral or smooth and skeletal. (Colbert, et al., 2013). Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. They are striated in appearance and are under voluntary control. (“Types of Muscle Tissue”, n.d, para. 1).The function of the muscular system is:The major functions of the muscular system are the promotion of movement, circulation, posture and balance. Muscles are the only tissues in the body that have the ability to contract and promote movement to other areas of the body.Muscles receive energy via:Muscles receive energy by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is the source of energy that is used to power the movement contraction in working muscles. Contraction itself (i.e. actual shortening movement) occurs when a bond is broken between ATP and one of its three phosphate bonds. It is the energy that is liberated by the breaking of this bond that causes the movement. Hence ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (How Do Muscles Work, n.d, para. 3). Muscular contraction occurs due to:Muscular contraction occurs due to the muscle being stimulated by signals from their motor neurons. The strength of a muscle’s contraction can be controlled by two factors: the number of motor units involved in contraction and the amount of stimulus from the nervous system.The factors that influence the force of muscular contractions include:The factors that influence the force of muscular contractions include the number of muscles, the size or the length of the muscles, the frequency or strength of stimulus, and the degree of muscle stretch. Precision of movement is inversely proportional to the number of muscle fibers. The size of the muscle will determine how big of a movement it is capable of making or how small and fine of a movement. With exercise, your muscles expand and the number of contractile proteins will also increase. The more intense the stimulus is the stronger the contraction will be and the frequency will affect the force of the contraction. The degree of muscle strength depends on the length of fibers by which the optimal force of contraction is achieved. ReferencesColbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.How Do Muscles Work. (n.d.). Retrieved from…Types of muscle tissue: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image. (n.d.). Retrieved from JamesAug 11, 2020 at 7:38 PMMy topic assignment is the muscular system.The muscular system is the tissue that is located and connected in between your skeletal systems and your integumentary system. Muscle is the general term for all contractile tissue; a contractile tissue is a property that allows these systems to expand and compact and is controlled by nerve impulses (Colbert et al,2013).The three muscle types in this system are: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Skeletal muscles are also known as voluntary muscle because they are consciously controlled and are attached directly to the skeletal system (Colbert et al,2013). Conversely, smooth muscles are involuntary and are not under the control of our conscious and derive their name from the lack of a striped appearance that the skeletal muscles have (Colbert et al,2013). Lastly, cardiac muscle is found exclusively in the heart and has a striated appearance (Colbert et al,2013).The main function of the muscular system is movement, and nearly all movement of the body is controlled by the contraction of muscles within this system.Muscles receive energy through an energy molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP captures chemical energy produced from food molecules, in turn transforming it into fuel at the cellular level (Editors, 2020). The nervous system initiates this chemical reaction for this whole process.Muscular contraction occurs due to contractile units known as sarcomeres. Sarcormeres are protein threads made up of cylinders called myofibrils (Colbert et al,2013). Each sarcormeres has two types of protein threads that cause myofilaments to slide toward each other, shortening the sarcomere which in turn shortens the entire muscle (Colbert et al,2013).The factors that influence the force of muscular contraction include the number of muscles, the size and length of muscles. A larger increase in either size of the muscles, or the amount of muscles that participate in a contraction will effect how much force the system is able to exert.ReferencesThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 12). Adenosine triphosphate. Retrieved August 12, 2020, from…Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.ReplyShannon WightAug 12, 2020 at 9:34 PMHello everyone, The skeletal system is the framework of the body system comprised of bones, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that perform vital functions within the human body. The human body consists of 206 bones and divided into five classifications that consist of:Long bones e.g., humerus and femurShort bones e.g., carpals of the wrist and tarsals of the anklesFlat bones e.g., skull and shoulder bladesIrregular bones e.g., vertebrae and facial bonesSesamoid bones e.g., patella and feet (Biga et al., n.d.). The skeletal system plays an important role by protecting internal organs, stores, and releases fat, produces blood cells, stores, and releases minerals, facilitates movement, supports the body (Biga et al., n.d.). All these functions are vital for health and well-being, as well as consuming enough water, protein, and minerals such as calcium for good bone health. 50% of a bone’s weight comes from stored minerals, 30% is from protein, and the remaining 20% is from water (Colbert et al., 2013, p. 6.1). The process of bone development, ossification (osteogenesis) begins by the 6th or 7th week of embryonic life. The two osteogenic pathways include intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Regardless of the pathway the mature bone is the same in the end. During intramembranous ossification compact and spongy bone develops and begins in utero during fetal development and continues into adolescence. The four steps of ossification include: 1. Mesenchymal cells group into clusters, differentiate into osteoblast (build new bone), and ossification centers form. 2. Secreted osteoid catch osteoblasts, that become osteocytes (mature permanent bone cells). 3. Trabecular matrix and periosteum form. 4. Compact bone develops superficial to the trabecular bone and the cramped blood vessels compress into red bone marrow (Biga et al, n.d.). During endochondral ossification bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage after birth through adulthood. The six steps of endochondral ossification include: 1. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes that produce a cartilage model of the future bony skeleton. 2. Blood vessels on the edge of the cartilage model transport osteoblasts, that place a bony collar. 3. Capillaries penetrate cartilage and deposit bone inside cartilage model, this forms a primary ossification center. 4. Cartilage and chondrocytes continue to grow at the ends of the bone while medullary cavity expands and remodels. 5. Secondary ossification centers develop after birth. 6. Hyaline cartilage remains at epiphyseal (growth) plate and at joint surfaces as articular cartilage (Biga et al., n.d.).Bone repair depends on the type and severity of the fractures and can occur directly (contact) or indirectly. Direct bone healing occurs when osteoblasts and osteoclasts join broken structures and indirect bone healing is more complex but involves endochondral bone formation in which broken bones form cartilaginous patches before re-growing new bone (Biga et al., n.d.). The stages in bone repair include: 1. Broken blood vessels leak blood that results in a fracture hematoma. 2. External and internal calluses form that are made cartilage and bone. 3. Cartilage of the calluses slowly erode and are replaced by trabecular bone that form hard calluses. 4. Remodeling results to replace immature bone with mature bone (Biga et al., n.d.).ReferencesBiga, L. M., Dawson, S., Harwell, A., Hopkins, R., Kaufmann, J., LeMaster, M., … Runyeon, J. (n.d.). The Functions of the Skeletal System., B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee, K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Week two Discussion one

Discussion Board. I don’t understand this English question and need help to study.

Choose only ONE of the following options below and, in your post, write a paraphrase that avoids plagiarism of the paragraph you have chosen. Your paraphrase can be as long as the excerpt you have chosen, but should not duplicate any phrasing from the excerpt. If you must, you can quote up to three words in a phrase.
When you are done posting your paraphrase, reply to at least one classmate’s paraphrase, commenting on what s/he has done well and what s/he can improve with the wording. Your response should be written in no fewer than 75 words.
Choose to paraphrase ONE of the excerpts below:
Option 1
Morrison began writing Sula in 1969, a time of great activism among African Americans and others who were working toward equal civil rights and opportunities. The book addresses issues of racism, bigotry, and suppression of African Americans; it depicts the despair people feel when they can’t get decent jobs, and the determination of some to survive. Eva, for example, cuts off her leg in order to get money to raise her family. Morrison shows how, faced with racist situations, some people had to grovel to whites simply to get by, as Helene does on a train heading through the South. Others, however, fought back, as Sula does when she threatens some white boys who are harassing her and Nel.
Option 2
In 1993, Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, and thus became the first African American and only the eighth woman ever to win the award. According to Maureen O’Brien in Publishers Weekly, Morrison said, “What is most wonderful for me personally is to know that the Prize has at last been awarded to an African American. I thank God that my mother is alive to see this day.” In 1996, she received the National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters.
Discussion Board

According to the International Telecommunication Union, mobile phone users in the world will raise to more than 7 billion at the beginning of 2014. Additionally, the report of ITU in 2013 revealed that over one third people in the world use the web. China, a country with more than 591 million internet users doubtlessly, ranks first on the list of “Five Countries with the Most Internet Users” with the USA the following second 254 million. Among so large a number of internet users in China, Chinese people always use the web via mobile phones. By the end of December 2013, China had 500 million mobile Internet users […] Among all the Internet users, the proportion of those using mobile phones to access the Internet rose to 81.0% from 74.5%, and the number of mobile Internet users grew steadily (“Statistical Report on Internet Development in China” 22). Therefore, in China, it is very convenient to contact a person—just call him/her or send a message. Meanwhile, one can easily observe that no matter in restaurants or on the road, there being a group of people who always lower their heads addicted to the mobile phones; one can easily observe that some looking down on screens of the mobile phones ignore the others at a meeting; one can easily observe that lots of people no longer listen to and communicate with others but focus on the mobile phones. Consequently, one must start to consider what the popularization of mobile phone has brought? And think about how does it work to interpersonal relationship? Good or bad? Have people fallen into “a world where [they] are slaves to the technology [they] mastered” (Gary Turk)? Have fallen into “a world of self-interested, self-image” (Gary Turk)? After reflection, a conclusion that mobile phone exerts a double-edged influence on interpersonal relationships, impairing our affection while it providing people with a more convenient platform for communication is drawn. Negative Impact on Interpersonal Relationships The wide use of mobile phones reduces the chances of face-to-face communication. Nowadays, with the emergence of various social instruments in them, such as Wechat, Micro blog, Facebook, it is common to see that people hold their mobile phones all day long. Most of the people would like to make contact with others by those instruments, but not through conversation. Psychologists Kaveri Subrahmanyam of California State University and Patricia M. Greenfield of U.C.L.A. wrote in the journal “The Future of Children” that electronic communications — such as texting, social networking and instant messaging — might be making teenagers less interested in face-to-face talks, according to their initial research (Arvidson “The Effects of Cell Phones on Relationships”). Now, people tend to use texts or calls to inform someone. For example, a mother will ask her kids to go to bed by texting them even though she lives in the next door to her kids. Therefore, some psychologists make a suggestion that people should grasp more chances to communicate with others and pour their feelings into others face to face, because the number of messages they sent is inversely proportional to the feelings of accumulation in a way (Ni 180). In addition, people focusing on mobile phones when getting together will definitely hurt their relationships. When people get together, it ought to be a chance for them to communicate with each other directly and sincerely. However, most people are just keeping their heads down and phubbing is seen here and there. When people have meal with their parents or grandparents but just keep their eyes staring at the screens, the eldership of the family will feel lonely and think the young are impolite. Some couples text each other at home though they sit next to. And a group of friends get together, they are laughing not because the party but because the fun news they are reading on their phones. Warner said, “Increasing use of cell phones […] was linked to a decrease in family satisfaction and increased stress over a two-year period” (“Cell Phones Raise Stress”). After a long time, it will do harm for people’s harmony of family and friendships. What’s more, being addicted to the mobile phones makes people lonelier. According to a survey made by the China Youth Daily, “46.1 percent said that reliance on mobiles was making people’s social circles smaller, and nearly 30 percent said it was making them lonelier” (Custer “Chinese Survey Shows Worry Over Impacts of Mobile Phone Use”). Most people have many friends on their Social Network Site. They talk every day, share interesting or sad things every day, but they do not know who those people really are and they might never meet them even once during their whole lives. When they turned off all the social instruments, they realized it was difficult for them to find someone to talk to; when people left their phones at home or some other places, they would become anxious and did not know what they should do. Spending too much time on mobile phones or relying on them will make people feel lonelier step by step. Also, communicating by mobile phones does harm for the sense of trust. Because when people communicate by texting or other social instruments, sometimes they do not really mean that. Talking through message is in a negative position, since it lack the face to face sensed presence and the recipient does not know the real surroundings the sender in, which offers chances to lie (Ni 177). For example, when someone send “hahaha” (It means happy or laugh at receiver), most of the time, he is not happy or laugh actually, maybe he is expressionless or upset. Sending message is loses the sense of reality and people cannot feel the real situation of their communication. Positive impact on interpersonal relationships Though mobile phone exerts a certain negative influence on interpersonal relationships, it also provides great convenience and enhances the flexibility on social interaction. For one thing, as a modern communication tool, the mobile phone breaks the formal time and place limitations , which makes people more accessible to communicate with others and then get further to strengthen the relationship. In the past, before the invention of the modern communication tools, if one person wanted to discuss something important with another person who lived in a far area, it was very inconvenient and that always cost a lot of time. But now, faced with the same situation, people just wave their fingers to press a call button, and then they can talk to others easily. Besides, owing to mobile phone’s convenience, the times for people to contact with their friends, relatives and partners become more frequent. An interviewer says: “Although I cannot meet my friends for a long time, the relationship between us becomes closer rather than alienated by using this convenient communication tool to contact with each other occasionally”.(Ni 127)Therefore, the mobile phone is definitely an effective tool for people to maintain their relationships. For another, mobile phone can make the interpersonal relationships more comfortable. In the daily life of interpersonal communication, people sometimes will feel bashful, uncomfortable and nervous when meeting with others face to face. However, there doesn’t exist the same problem on the message communication, people can integrate themselves into the contacts with a more open and bold attitude when breaking away from definite communication environment (Ni 126). For instance, if a boy is too shy to express his love to a beautiful girl face to face, he can choose to bare his heart by sending a message or making a phone call so that he will not miss her. Since the mobile phone provides a comfortable communication platform, it is wise for people to grasp more chances to communicate with others. As a communication media, mobile phones enhance the flexibility on social interaction. People can do their business whenever they need, and make an appointment conveniently. In addition, it plays a vital role in family relationship, friendship and business relationship. People can chat with their family members or friends without the limit of place. Also they can talk to their business partner to keep a close relationship. However, mobile phones estrange people from one another. Most people spend too much time in playing phones and ignore talking to others. Technology and humanity are not necessarily compatible. One is about an anonymous push forward into the unknown…to explore it, to develop and exploit it, which is important. The other is about paying undivided attention to the individual and the world in front of you, developing relationships, and increasing consciousness (“Cell Phones May Hurt Interpersonal Relationships Just by Being in The Room, Study Says”).Both are necessary. The challenge is figuring out how to use technology to enhance humanity, not degrade it (“Cell Phones May Hurt Interpersonal Relationships Just by Being in The Room, Study Says”). Meanwhile, people’s sense of loneliness is increasing and the sense of trust decreasing with the popularization of mobile phones. Interacting in a neutral environment, without a cell phone nearby, seems to help foster closeness, connectedness, interpersonal trust, and perceptions of empathy – the building – blocks of relationships (Lin “How Your Cell Phone Hurts Your Relationships”). Therefore, when people have a meeting or party, phones should be gathered in one place. Set the rule that the one who uses his phone without permission will be punished. Perhaps it would be going too far to prepare for important conversations by throwing your cell phone into the closet, or leaving it in the car on first dates. But if you are spending the day with people you really care about, you might want to reconsider the next time you reach for your phone to reply to a text message or check sports sores. Just having that phone nearby is bad enough (Lin “How Your Cell Phone Hurts Your Relationships”) .So try to use your mobile phones appropriately, or you are likely to lose your friends and a happy life. Works Cited Arvidson, Erik. “The Effects of Cell phones on Relationships.” eHow. Demand Media, n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. Custer, C. “Chinese Survey Shows Worry Over Impacts of Mobile Phone Use.” TECH IN ASIA. TECH IN ASIA, 22 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. “Cellphones May Hurt Relationships Just By Being In The Room, Study Says.” The Huffington Post . n.p. 5 Sep. 2012. Web. 24 May 2014. Lin, Helen L. “How Your Cellphone Hurts Your Relationship.” Scientific American. n.p. 4 Sep. 2012. Web. 21 May 2014. Look Up. Dir. Gary Turk. Perf. Gary Turk, Louise Ludlam, Stuart Damley, Daniel Cobb. Youtube, 2014. Film. Ni Huan 倪桓. “Shouji duanxin chuanbo xinli tanxi” æ‰‹æœºçŸ­ä¿¡ä¼ æ’­å¿ƒç†æŽ¢æž(Research on Communication Psychology of Mobile Phone Messages).Beijing åŒ-京:Communication University of Chinaä¸­å›½ä¼ åª’å¤§å­¦, 2009. Print. “Statistical Report on Internet Development in China”. China Internet Network Information Center, Jan. 2014. Web PDF. 27 May 2014. Warner, Jennifer. “Cell Phones Raise Stress.” CBSNEWS. CBS Interactive Inc, 14 Dec. 2005. Web. 2 May 2014.

Think of a physical problem encountered by a group of people that you care about/have an interest

Think of a physical problem encountered by a group of people that you care about/have an interest. I’m working on a Engineering exercise and need support.

Think of a physical problem encountered by a group of people that you care about/have an interest in. (This may be your family, your hometown, kids in ICU’s, refugee groups, an online community you participate with, the neighbors down the street, etc. The topic doesn’t need to be serious, but it does need to address some “problem” encountered by the group.) Explain the problem to me in 200 words or less.
Think of an engineering solution to the problem that you have described that prominently features at least one tech topic form file CH 5 and one from file CH 6. Describe to me first in broad terms how your idea would address or help with the need, and then be specific in the method and technical framework that you would use to make your idea a reality. Use 600-1000 words to do this.
– A thought out need was clearly expressed, at least one topic from each chapter was used in the idea, specific detail to carry out the plan was included.
– It is simple to follow, and easy to understand.
– It is in the word count range. (approx. 200 word intro. +600-1000 words of solution
– There was care taken in spelling, punctuation, and grammar (this is not a writing class, so I won’t be exacting, I’m just looking for professionalism in the amount of effort).
– Given reasonable resources and funding it would be a feasible project
Think of a physical problem encountered by a group of people that you care about/have an interest

Discussion 14

essay writing help Discussion 14.

read at least four (4) academically reviewed articles on the ethical issues that may arise in information management. Please note that Wikipedia articles will not be accepted for this discussion.1. Write a comparative analysis of the articles noting the similarities and differences.2. Discuss what you learned from those articles. In your discussion, give example(s) of your organization handles ethic concerns as they relate to information management.3. Read and respond to at least 2 of your classmates’ posts. Review discussion/posting requirements. (Uploaded two discussions for which responses needed)4. Main discussion (450-500 words), responses each 250-300 along with references.5. Follow APA Format throughout.
Discussion 14

History of Romanticism Report (Assessment)

What is Romanticism? Romanticism refers to the period of intellectual, artistic and literary movement in Europe in the first half of nineteenth century. This movement was a vivid response to the Industrial Revolution, as well as a revolt against existing political and social norms (Gunderson 38). Romanticism was an ideological system that criticized rationalistic nature of assumption. Therefore, the priority was given to the development of visual arts, literature, music, and natural sciences. Romanticism had a potent impact on political life, leading to the development of radical and liberal view on governance. Romanticism is characterized by free expressions of emotions and feeling, which is often exposed in literature, artistic works, and science. The significance and nature of Romanticism is also analyzed by German artist Caspar Friedrich and poet William Wordsworth. The supporters of the Romantic Movement point to the spontaneous and irrational display of powerful emotions and feeling that allow humans express themselves. In terms of artistic representation, the emphasis should be placed on imagination as the major source for creating artistic works whereas artificial rules should be ignored. Additionally, the representatives of Romantic Movement attained much importance of genuineness and originality of ideas and thoughts. Why is the 19th Century Called The Romantic Era? The nineteenth century is called the Romantic Era because describes a historical and cultural movement characterized by aesthetic style and attitude toward art, literature, and science. In artistic sphere, romanticism was a protest against the neoclassical search for intellectual control and order (Gunderson 16). A human, therefore, should be guided by sense and intuition rather than by logic and reasoning. Finally, people should be free from dogma dictated by the Church. In literature, Romantic Movement can be perceived as a shift in Western mythological trends in portraying heroes. In fact, real hero with ordinary abilities and skills prevailed instead of focus on supernatural phenomenon. The movement features strong emotion as a powerful tool for expressing aesthetic experience, with an emphasis placed on such emotional states as horror, apprehension, and awe that were especially encouraged during that time. In artistic field, painters focused on picturesque representation of natural landscapes, as well as naturalized interpretation of human activities. Despite the fact that movement originates from Europe – the cradle of scientific discoveries – it supported prevalence of emotion and intuition over rational approaches practiced during the era of Enlightenment. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Is Being Romantic Different Today from that in19th Century? In modern times, the concept of Romanticism has not been changed when it comes to the core concepts and outlooks. At the same time, there are certain shifts in terms of the creation of marginal movements and various streams within this ideology. It should also be stressed that Romanticism has largely been affected by technological progress and innovation and, therefore, the modern supporters of this movement fight against spread of state-of-the-art technologies because destruct humans and nature. Usually, ‘romantic’ minds usually possess a progressive mind and, therefore, these people are not afraid of expressing ideas that differ radically from the well-acknowledge ones. Additionally, being romantic is still associated with absence of knowledge. Instead, the emphasis is placed on imagination and unlimited self-expression. Within the context of the rapid development of consumerist culture, it can be stated that Romanticism has played a crucial role in advancing the industrialization process due to the straightforwardness of the ideas. At the same time, the modern Romanticism stands apart from technological and industrial development because it is now regarded as a socio-cultural movement representing pieces of art and literary work. Do Men and Women Have Different Ideas about What Is Romantic? Psychologists would definitely argue that males and females feel differently due to the peculiarities of their nervous systems. Indeed, both men and women refer to different forms of romantic attachments, particularly when it comes to romantic relationships. In this respect, multiple research studies prove that men are prone to be les anxious and more avoidant as compared to women (Erdman and Ng 211). When men become attached to relationships, they tend to create distance to be on the save side and make things easier. In fact, they ignore romantic attachments and feelings. In contrast, women tend to be more anxious. Being attached increases their anxiety and therefore, close relationships could be more disruptive for women in emotional terms, as compared to men. In this respect, it can be concluded that women are more prone to be romantic because they are not afraid of expressing their feelings whereas men are expected to use reason to take control of the situation. Is Romanticism Universal or Do Different Cultures Have Different Ideas? When it comes to the different views on romanticism in various cultures, the focus should be on the concept of collectivism and individualism, as well as on low-context and high-context cultures. In this respect, Western countries, in which the priority is given to individualism and low-context dependence, romanticism is closely associated with freedom of self-determination and expression of ideas (Erdman and Ng 215). In Eastern countries, which are characterized by individualism and high-context environment, people are less oriented toward romanticism because individuals are highly affected by traditions, rituals, and customs that restrict human freedom to express their emotions freely. We will write a custom Assessment on History of Romanticism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Erdman, Phyllis, and Kok-Mun Ng. Attachment: Expanding the Cultural Connections. US: Taylor

Competitiveness Business Essay

Competition is the basis of the victory or failure of firms. Competition decides the aptness of a firm’s activities that can add to its performance such as innovations, a unified culture or excellent execution (Porter, 1985). Competitiveness has turn out to be one of the significant concerns of government and industry in each nation. ‘Why do some nations succeed and others fail in international competition?'(Porter, 1990). There are numerous explanations for why some nations are competitive and others are not. The intense debate on competitiveness was initially given by Michael E. Porter in his book ‘The Competitive Advantage of Nations’ which was published in 1990. His vital idea in this book was to explain the reasons ‘why some social groups, economic institutions, and nations progress and flourish (Porter, 1990). Since the key idea of this academic piece of work is to evaluate the global competitiveness of the Indian textile industry, therefore in this thesis a study of global competitiveness of Indian textile industry has been made with the help of four determinants of Porter’s Diamond Framework. The four determinants are factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries and firm/strategy/rivalry. This structure has been developed by using the theory of Porter five forces analysis which will be discussed later (Kathuria, 2008). Below fig.1 is the model by porter on the Competitive Advantage of Nation. Fig. 1 Porter’s Diamond Model for the Competitive Advantage of Nation CHANCE GOVERN-MENT DEMAND CONDITIONS FACTOR CONDITIONS RELATED AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES FIRM STRATEGY, STRUCTURE, AND RIVALRY Source: Porter 1990 pp.127 First, factor conditions are the most significant part of theory of competitive advantage of nations. Each nation owns factors of production such as labour, capital, natural resources, arable land and infrastructure which are essential to compete in every industry. As porter says, a nation’s firms achieve competitive advantage if they enjoy low-cost or distinctively high-quality factors of the specific types that are important to competition in a finicky industry. He also points out that competitive gain from the factor depends on how efficiently and effectively they are used (Porter, 1990). He has categorized the factors as ‘basic factors’ (such as natural resources, climate, and location) and ‘advanced factors’ (such as infrastructure, communications, sophisticated skills and research facilities). There exists a complicated relationship between basic and advanced factors. He further argues that advanced factors offers the most lasting basis for competitive advantage whereas basic factors can provide preliminary advantages. He also points out that drawbacks in basic factors create pressures to invest in advanced factors (Grant, 1991). The factor conditions in context to Indian textile industry are that India is the major producer of cotton yarn in the world. India has relative advantage in labour cost over a few of the developed countries. India has skilled manpower in both technical and management fields (Kathuria, 2008). The second important determinant of ‘diamond’ framework of porter is home demand conditions for the industry’s product or service. It is very essential for an economy to have a mature domestic market. The three necessary elements of home demand are ”composition of home demand, the size and pattern of growth of home demand and the mechanisms by which a nation’s domestic preferences are transmitted to foreign markets” (Porter, 1990). He argues that firms are highly responsive to the requirements of their closest consumers; therefore if the demand in the home nation is high it stimulates the firms to innovate and meet high benchmarks which will enhance the firm competitiveness continuously. The home base should offer former indication of demand trends to its home country seller before its overseas competitors (Grant, 1991). The third determinant to attain national gain in an industry is “presence in the nation of supplier industries or related industries that are internationally competitive” (Porter, 1990). As said by Porter, competitive advantage in several suppliers industries award prospective benefits on nation’s firms in lots of other industries since they generate inputs that are of great magnitude for innovation and internationalization. The presences of related industries in a nation of competitive industries often guide to recent competitive industries. Related industries also share activities (technology development, manufacturing, distribution, and marketing) in the value chain when competing (Porter, 1990). For instance, India is ranked second in the world for yarn spinning capacity after China roughly accounting 20% of the world’s spindle capacity. Competitive advantage can be attained through establishment of relations between quality suppliers and clothing industry. India has a complete value chain and import content is very small (Kathuria, 2008). The last determinant of diamond model explains the situation in which firms are created, organized, managed and the nature of domestic rivalry between them. The objectives, policies and ways of coordinating firms in industries vary from nation to nation. A range of cultural aspects like interaction between the employees, working principles and employee-employer relations plays a major part. The central idea given my porter in this determinant is that it is essential for firms to be familiar with the national rivalry and strategies played them in order to be successful globally (Porter, 1990). Porter further adds the relationship between domestic rivalry and determination of competitive advantage is very attractive. Rivalry creates pressures on the firms to decrease costs, improve quality and innovate (Grant, 1991). Finally, the two variables that influence the above four determinants are ‘chance and government’. Chance events are important as they generate discontinuities that permit changes in competitive strategy. They have the ability to nullify the rewards of previously well-known competitors and create the potential that a new nation’s firms can replace them to attain competitive advantage in response to new and different conditions. The key role of government in the ‘diamond’ is to influence the four determinants. The government can manipulate the four determinants either positively or negatively. For example, the government can affect the factor conditions through subsidies, policies towards capital markets etc. All together these six factors explicate why some businesses prosper more than others. The main objective of this model is to explain how different nations hold the advantage of their home-base to build relations with different nations in order to become competitive globally (Porter, 1990). The diamond model is supported by porter’s five forces model which will assess the competitiveness of Indian textile industry. Porter’s Five Forces Model Michael Porter gave the five forces framework for measuring the competitive environment of the industry. These five forces reveal the capability of the firms to earn an average rate of return on investment in surplus of the cost of capital. The five forces have the potential to determine industry profitability as they can control the costs, prices and essential investments of firms in an industry. The five forces are threat of new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitute product of services and competitive rivalry (Porter, 1985). The Fig.2 will explain the porter’s five forces analysis of Indian textile industry. BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS High demand for apparels and home textiles in the US and EU markets. BARRIERS TO ENTRY No barriers in the domestic market. New capacities coming up. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES Competition from low cost producing nations like Pakistan and Bangladesh. INDUSTRY COMPETITION Quote free regime competition from China. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS High availability of cotton. Low cost of labour. Source:, 2006 Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyers can influence the industry due to their talent to compress prices, snip for superior quality products or services and to play competitors off against each other. Bargaining power of buyers assess the demand scenario of the industry (Henry, 2008). Global textile and clothing industry is presently measured around US$ 440 billion. The global textile trade is dominated by the US and European markets. With the removal of quotas the textile trade is estimated to increase to US$ 650 billion. Even though China is expected to become the supplier of choice but India will also gain from it as overseas importers wouldn’t take the threat of buying from one country only. As a result the exports of India will rise (, 2006). Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers can exercise bargaining power over members in an industry by boosting prices or dropping the quality of purchased good and services Henry says that ” the factors that increases supplier power are the mirror image of those that increase buyer power” (Henry, 2008). India is the third major producer of cotton which is the main raw material in textile industry. Due to the rich accessibility of cotton and its low prices, it assists the manufacturers to lesser its production cost and maintain pricing pressure on the buyers. The other benefit that India has is its low labour cost per hour as compared to other countries like US, China, Taiwan Hong Kong and South Korea (, 2006). Threat of New Entrants It is the situation where the new competitors decide to enter the particular industry to decrease the level of profits earned by existing firms. Those industries attracts more new entrants in which existing firms earns returns more than their cost of capital (Henry, 2008). The removal of MFA quotas has given the opportunity to all the countries to enter the textile sector. As a result many big players are entering the textile sector. Smaller players which cannot enter the international markets are entering the national market creating excess supply thus deteriorating the cost structure. For instance, even if the major players like Arvind mills, Raymond and Alok industries consolidate with international companies they still cannot maintain their margins unless they have the ability of capturing the major part of foreign markets (, 2006). Threat of Substitutes This is the threat from those products and services which can fulfil similar requirements. The consumer can shift to these substitutes due to difference in prices and performance (Henry, 2008). India has a threat from low cost producing countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh which may hinder India’s exports demand (, 2006). Competitive Rivalry The main disadvantage of India is its geographical distance from major global markets of US, Europe and Japan in contrast to its rivals like Mexico, China etc which are comparatively nearer. Big geographical distance results in high shipping expenses and lengthy lead-time. Another disadvantage of Indian textile industry is its fragmented structure. The country has time-consuming and most complicated supply chains in the world (, 2006). Refrences Grant, R.M. 1991. Porter’s Competitive Advantage of Nation’s: An Assessment. Strategic Management Journal. 12, pp.535-548 Kathuria, L.M. 2008. An Analysis of Competitiveness of Indian Clothing Export Sector Using Porter’s Model. The Icfai University Journal of International Business. 3(4). Porter, M.E. 1985. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: The Free Press. Porter, M.E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. London: The Macmillan Press. Porter, M.E. 1998. The Competitive Advantage of Nations (With a New Introduction). New York: Palgrave. Henry, A. 2008. Understanding Strategic Management, New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2006. Indian Textile Industry: Porter analysis [online] [accessed 28th May 2010] Available at:

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