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Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects Essay

Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects Essay. Introduction The current disparities in wealth have been in existence for many years. The gap between the rich and the poor started to widen due to the emergence of industrialization. Inventors of various technological components monopolized their inventions. This enabled them to accumulate enormous wealth (Portes 1). This article examines two authors namely George Henry and Carnegie Andrew and how they argue about wealth accumulation and its effects. Their ideas on the effects of accumulation of wealth in the development of America are indeed conflicting. For instance, Henry believes that accumulation of wealth by a few individuals negatively affects America. However, Carnegie exudes confidence that there are myriads of positive effects when individuals are allowed to accumulate enormous wealth. Analysis According to Henry (Portes 2), the true wealth of an individual should be limited to the individual’s ability. Other factors (such as monopolies) that allow certain individuals to accumulate mass wealth should be discouraged. He believes that the difference in the innovativeness of individuals is not as large as the gap that exists between the poor and the rich (Portes 3). In addition, he supports his argument with case studies of millionaires who existed during his lifetime. He describes the way those millionaires accumulated their wealth. From his analysis, it is evident that several wealthy people employed high levels of manipulation, monopolization, and fraud to acquire their riches. He asserts that all human beings have the ability of becoming rich. However, the current gap between the rich and the poor coupled with individualism has made it almost impossible for the poor to acquire wealth. He advocates for government regulations on the amount of wealth that can be owned by an individual. In his paper, he also philosophically asserts that the true wealth of Americans should almost be equal. Henry’s perspective is a complete contrast to Carnegie’s point of view. Carnegie believes that Americans who are being allowed to accumulate wealth allow better economic development. He envisages that the spirit of individualism encourages competition and self-actualization (Portes 2). Moreover, he has no problem with Americans accumulating wealth. He perceives it as a normal occurrence in humanity since an individual’s social status is dependent on effectiveness and. He offers explanations on the relevance of wealth accumulation and how it has helped to further the industrial revolution in the country. In addition, he believes that if Americans’ freedom of wealth accumulation is restrained, the developments realized so far will be significantly affected. His opinion is based on the natural human instincts of an individual’s success rather than group success. The efficiency of Americans will be downgraded if individualism is prohibited. Furthermore, he argues that most Americans may not realize their full potential. Therefore, the accumulation of wealth from Carnegie’s point of view is seemingly better for the sake of all Americans. The two authors agree to some extent that the emerging gap between the poor and the rich should be addressed. However, they offer different methods of addressing the growing disparity between the poor and the rich. To begin with, Carnegie believes that nobody should acquire riches using fraudulent deals. However, he advocates for incentives so that all Americans can be enabled to accumulate enough wealth. This is opposed to direct wealth redistribution. He offers several measures such as increasing training facilities and educational support that will enable the poor to bridge the gap between them and the rich. Additionally, he advocates for active utilization of the accumulated wealth. In addition, he proposes the initialization of government policies that compel the rich to help the poor in society. This contradicts Henry’s perspective who believes that the available wealth should be distributed among all the Americans. He suggests that this is the only way that equality can be realized in the American society. Furthermore, he narrates that the accumulation of wealth is a means of manipulating of government processes. He compares it with the way judiciary has been manipulated for long as a result of accumulated wealth. The rich people use wealth to acquire almost everything they need including justice. In order to avoid such occurrences, he suggests equitable distribution of wealth among the Americans. Carnegie rejects this proposal by arguing that wealth distribution will not solve the problem since it is a temporary solution to the challenge. He believes that redistribution of wealth will eventually result into emerging cases of the rich and the poor due to the management styles of those who own property. This is opposed to Henry’s suggestion. Analyses of the two authors’ arguments confirm that that they agree on the problem that is facing Americans, namely the growing gap between the poor and the rich (Portes 8). While Carnegie trusts that the two diverse groups will always exist and nothing can be done to bring everything on the same level, Henry is emphatic that all Americans can be equal provided that the necessary measures are put in place to tackle the disparities. Carnegie suggests that very little can be done in terms of uplifting the poor people. Redistribution of the wealth will downgrade the achievements that were made during industrial revolution. The revolution was a success because individuals were allowed to obtain maximum returns from their contributions. Hence, it encouraged competition for resources and eventually enhanced development (Portes 10). The acknowledgement of excessive wealth accumulations because of capitalism and individualism is quite intriguing. The author advocates for wealth accumulation but believes that there should be a maximum amount of wealth that an individual can posses. He points out on the available mechanisms that can be used to redistribute wealth. The most common mechanism is the distribution of wealth to family members. He note that this option of wealth redistribution may be ineffective since individuals may not be willing to share their wealth with family members before they die. Besides, most people die without the proper documentation on wealth distribution. One of the solutions offered is that in cases where individuals own massive wealth, they should use the same to uplift the society during their lifetime. He is against cases where individuals’ wealth is used to help the society when the actual owners are already dead. This offers no room for appreciation of the help offered and therefore, it limits the number of people who are willing to give back to the society (Portes 13). To recap it all, the arguments posed by the two authors are indeed substantial although some recommendations may be unrealistic. However, both of them are advocating for all Americans to be rich. Henry believes that all Americans are wealthy but they have been denied their riches, while Carnegie emphasizes that the rich should use their wealth to develop a platform for bridging the gap between the rich and the poor. Works Cited Portes, Alejandro. Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24(1998): 1-24. Print. Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects Essay
W5 Virtual Museum Visit.

This week, answer all three of the questions below. You should reference your book as well as online materials for the answers to these questions (remember to cite outside resources). Your answers should be in essay format, be a minimum of three-five sentences each, and include at least three glossary terms per question.
Visit the Google Art Project:…. Look at Hotel Room, a painting by Edward Hopper in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza.

Describe in formal terms how the strong verticals and horizontals securely hold the parts of the painting together. What does the diagonal of the bed provide? Now move close and examine the paint work. How do the near-architectural elements fit with the lush paint?

Re-Read the article in this week chapter Art and Society, “Degenerate Art,” AND go online and watch the video “Art in Nazi Germany,” at SmartHistory (LINK:…) After reading the article in the book and watching the online video, and based on your understanding of the threat that ideas generated by the arts can have to repressive governments, what are your thoughts on something like this happening in the United States? Do you think in our current information-saturated culture that the arts still have the ability to sway popular opinion?
Identify and Detail:

Who is the artist?
Which movement does this represent and why?
What is the subject of this work?
W5 Virtual Museum Visit

In the current business world, where time and distance are not barriers, organizations run their operations across the globe crossing the boundaries by bypassing the limitations. The working environment of such organization is diversified, filled with people of different skill sets, culture, religion, language, ethnic, mentality etc. As this diversified team needs to work closer and as it needs collaboration for the smooth operation of business, it is critical to manage efficiently the cross cultural environment in an organization. In this essay we critically analyze how diversity helps an organization to be competitive in the global market, the cross cultural issues and the importance and how to manage diversity efficiently in an organization. 1. Introduction Industries and organizations are fast growing with the help of innovative technologies. In the current business world, these technologies, the enablers, are helping the organization to expand the business across the globe crossing the boundaries of limits. As a result of this, the organizations environment is very much diversified with people from different countries, language and culture and so on. Organizations need to deal with people from this diversified environment. In the new generation business or service industry, even in a single project people from different culture or countries works together for the project completion. A close relationship between these people is very much essential for the uninterrupted continuation of the operations and for the successful completion of these projects. A small issue or fault in these relations could make a sever problem and the impact of the same on the organizations operations will be very high. So a cross cultural environment should be carefully handled for not breaking the thread of operation of an organization. The truth is that, there could be several cross cultural issues arising in an organization due to several reasons. So, in such situations a manager should need skills for managing the diversity in an organization as well. This skill is very much important as globalization has become more and more relevant than the past. 2. Diversity – An enabler for globalization As the business is becoming more and more globalize, diversity in an organization is a competitive advantage for leveraging the opportunity of business globally (Zainuba 1998). A good management of such diversity can help in enormous improvement of team work and also helps in improving the productivity of an organization. Zainuba (1998) points out that multinational companies like GE, Honeywell, BankAmerica and lot more has kept diversity leaders as their senior level employees in their organization. Diversity also has huge importance as it helps in satisfying multi cultural clients of an organization and also helps to handle the diversified market place in the globalize environment. Companies who run their business in multiple companies face competitive issues. For understanding those markets and competitive issue, a cross cultural collaboration and understanding is very much important. Due to this reason many companies has kept their managerial level employees or top level executives in foreign countries to be from a different country or culture to understand the global business and to pursue the advantage of the market. For example, Colgate Company has kept an Australian as the top level executive for their European division operations. By doing like this these companies get a better chance to be competitive in the global market and helps globalization effectively. 3. Cross cultural issues: It is obvious that when a diversified team work together, due to many reasons like language barriers, cultural difference etc, many issues may occur. But in any organization it is critical to analyze the cause of these issues and is necessary to find out what hinders the team work in such situations. Cultural difference is the major cause of the cross cultural issues in most cases in an organization. Hofstede (cited in Higgs 1993: 37) has identified four different dimensions which cause cultural difference or the factors which cause impact on the national cultural difference in an organization. Hofstede (1993) broadly classifies these dimensions as Individualism / collectivism, power-distance, uncertainty avoidance and Masculinity / femininity. The dimension individualism / collectivism represent the extent to which individuals are valuing their self determination which is as opposed to their behaviour, determined by collective will of organization. The next dimension which is power-distance also causes huge impact on cross cultural environment. Employee shows involvement in and also has a participative style of management in the low power-distance culture. The other side of this is that the employees always tend to accept and behave in certain ways as directed by the higher management hierarchy. Masculinity / femininity are considered to be one of the most difficult dimensions. There is always a high conflict between highly masculine cultural values and highly feminine cultural values in an organization. It is considered that the masculine culture values mostly related to material acquisition and assertiveness where as feminine culture values relates to the relationship and person and the quality of life (Higgs 1996). So these cross-cultural conflicts always tend to be high in a multinational organization. Uncertainty avoidance domain represents the employee tolerance of uncertainty in the work place. A research done by Higgs

Effects of the Internet on the Digital Divide

Discuss the effects of the Internet on the digital divide In the modern digital age, the vast number of people who are either exposed to or making use of the internet increases by hundreds of people every second. Even countries that were once viewed as greatly less technologically advanced are making leaps and bounds in the area of technology and the internet. However, although the gap between the different type of cultures has begun to be bridged, there is still an marked way to go when it comes to making sure everyone in the world has an equal and fair amount of access to the digital world, and this stark difference is commonly referred to as the digital divide. ‘The digital divide refers to the perceived gap between those who have access to the latest information technologies and those who do not’, (Compaine 2001). There is a social divide which is the inequality of access and use of disadvantaged groups within society, and a democratic divide has emerged between people who use the internet in order to participate in life. The driving force behind the increasing number of internet users today is the young people – the most common users and advocates for new and advanced technology. In an article written by the Internet Health Report, they detail the important statistics of the number of people around the world who have access to the web. Firstly they state ‘In Europe nearly 80% of people have Internet access, while only 20% of people in Africa can access the Internet’. Countries in Africa are usually seen as less economically developed – which links to the other statistics that have been unveiled. They then discuss ‘people between the ages of 15-24 make up almost one-quarter of all people online. But even among them, regional differences make for a stark contrast. In Europe, 96% of youth are online, compared with only 40% of young people in Africa.’ These statistics allow us to see how even in countries where internet usage is deemed to be much lower, it is still the young people who are the main driving force behind it. One of the largest reasons that has helped to continue the digital divide between cultures, rather than breach it, is how affordable the internet and the money that you need to have in order to gain access to it. Universal internet access is seen to be one of the primary foundations needed in order to have everyone connected through the internet. There are many reasons as to why households are still not connected to the internet, and one of the main ones is the cost of broadband and data for the actual connection. ‘It is estimated that only 41% of the world’s households are connected to the Internet. Half of them are in less developed countries, where household Internet penetration has only reached 28%. This is in stark contrast to the 78% of households in more developed countries’, (Tyson 2015). These facts back up the clear digital divide between countries who are seen to be at different levels of both economic and technological development. Every country is encouraged to aim to reach the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which were established in order for all the countries in the world to have equal opportunities. They are described as ‘a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.’ There are a number of different reasons as to why families who live in areas of severe poverty would not be able to have access to the internet. Usually, it is simply because of their lack of wealth, meaning they are unable to buy the resources needed for this access. It could also be because of political factors – such as citizens in North Korea having restricted access to news and information due to them living in a dictatorship. Another reason could be due to their lack of education, which has meant that don’t have the knowledge to be able to figure out how to use the internet. Bridging the digital divide not only involves gifting less advantaged people mere access to the internet but also helping to teach them ways to use it correctly. Another aspect of the digital divide which has been explored is the ‘knowledge gap’. The people in the world who already have access to information are also the only ones who are continuing to get access to more, newer information. The gap that already existed is being enlarged, as the people who knew less to begin with are, in comparison, still acquiring less information because of the divide there, to begin with. There have been a number of different types of people whom all have different opinions on the effect that the internet has on the existing digital divide. Firstly there are the cyber-optimists, who ‘hope that the development of the Internet has the capacity to reduce, although not wholly eradicate, traditional inequalities between information-rich and poor both between and within, societies’. There are also people who believe this to be the exact opposite, named cyber-pessimists who ‘believe that the digital technologies will reinforce and exacerbate existing disparities’. Finally, there are also people who sit in the middle of these two extreme viewpoints, named cyber-sceptics who ‘suggest that both the fears and hopes are exaggerated, with technologies adapting to the social and political status quo, rather than vice versa.’ We are unable to pinpoint if one of these viewpoints is solely correct as many different studies have shown both the positive and negative effects that the internet has had on every aspect of the world. Not only do cyber-optimists and cyber-pessimists share differing opinions on the effects of the internet on the digital divide, but they have also established different effects and models to show how the internet will change the world in the future, which are called diffusion models. The first is the normalisation model, which is where the cyber-optimists suggest that the way the internet spreads which follow a usual pattern, and those people who are already technologically advanced will always be ahead of others. Once the internet has spread to everyone, the technology that we are using will become more simple and less expensive, which will lead to a call for new types of technology in order to surpass the previous. Cyber-pessimists instead emphasise the ‘stratification model’, which they believe offers a more accurate portrayal of what will really occur. This is where the groups already ingrained within the technological world will continue to have an advantage in the digital world. Thus far in this essay, there has only been a discussion of the digital divide occurring between different cultures and countries, places of extremely different technological advancement. However, in many places, there are also digital divides within countries themselves. This is due to the many different types of hierarchy throughout these countries, such as economic standing, age, education level, and many others. Specifically within the UK, there have been many studies undertaken to detail the apparent divide. A prominent charity in Britain named Age UK conducted a digital inclusion evidence review in order to find out how many elder people in the United Kingdom either have little or no access to the internet regularly or have never used it. One of the standout statistics from the review is ‘around 6 million people aged 65 not having the internet at home, 3.7 million of whom are aged 75 ’, which shows us how even though the UK is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, there are still a large number of people who are being left behind with these new advancements being made. There have a number of different barriers that have been established as reasons why these people choose not to, or have not been able to, have access to the internet. The first is the actual access to the internet itself. This could be due to the lack of affordable ways to access it, such as being unable to buy a computer or a smartphone for their own use, and also a lack of education, or being too stuck in their ways to want to educate themselves further. The second barrier that is mentioned is motivation, whether these people are actually willing to want to learn and educate themselves more. These could be either be through a lack of interest, as they feel that they are better off without needing the internet. It could also be that the supposed money that they would spend on using the internet does not equal up to be beneficial for them in the long run. It could also be because not enough appealing content as ‘the bias of existing content towards the social, cultural and economic priorities of earlier-adopters may act as a considerable disincentive to people trying to engage in new technologies.’ The final barrier, as detailed by the ‘Royal Geographical Society’, is the basic skills and ability that these elderly people have in the usage of the internet. ‘In the consultations conducted as part of the Inclusion Through Innovation study, more respondents cited lack of training or skills as a problem which may prevent some groups from benefiting from ICT than those who cited lack of access’, as people who are of a certain age did not grow up with the technology that we have around us today. They also have a growing concern over the lack of security and safety that they feel they have when using a computer like they have a complete lack of privacy. The final area of the digital divide that I will be discussing is the global digital divide, the broadest and most general form of the divide which concerns the whole world. Allowing people in lesser advanced countries to have access to technology encourages them to engage in debate and events that they would not have had the access to beforehand. In an article by the Guardian, Carter writes ‘It’s about encouraging the marginalised and disadvantaged to see what’s in it for them to be connected.”. Closing the digital divide means to not only help people in economic ways but also to educate them, allowing them to be involved in new aspects of the world. Companies are being founded all over the world in order to help educate and involve people with technology and the internet, passionate about helping people in disadvantaged positions. There has been a large focus on digital dividends, which are described as ’the broader development benefits from using these technologies’ (Mishra and Deichmann 2016). It is not just about merely accessing the world wide web from a smartphone or computer anymore, but also campaigning for widespread equal access for every different type of person who is using this technology. In conclusion, it is easy to quickly state that the use of the internet has helped to increase the digital divide, as it has caused the nations and cultures who were already ahead and advanced to further themselves even more, due to them having the money and resources to be able to do so. Due to the lack of resources in the lesser developed countries, the fight to reduce the money required in order to access the internet is warranted, as it is only fair that the technology is cheap enough for the wider public to use. Also, Pick and Azari wrote that ‘beyond the resources and programs, the results for a single nation seeking improved ICT depends on political will and leadership that appreciates how multidimensional factors, including the ones highlighted in this article, need to be combined for development.’ This point demonstrates how the way in which these leaders and countries choose to use the internet will then influence whether the technology has either a positive or negative effect on the people in their country. The internet has not either had a strictly positive or negative effect on the digital divide, but it seems that it solely depends on the way in which you choose to utilise the made available to you, and thus whether you are bridging or expanding the digital divide itself. Reference List Anon., 2019. Digital divide in the UK [online]. 21st Century Challenges. Available from: [Accessed 1 Jan 2019]. Anon., 2019. Sustainable Development Goals | UNDP [online]. UNDP. Available from: [Accessed 9 Jan 2019]. Anon., 2018. Who’s online, and who isn’t? [online]. Internet Health Report. Available from: [Accessed 5 Jan 2019]. Carter, M., 2010. Technology as democracy: bridging the digital divide. The Guardian [online], 2010. Available from: [Accessed 28 Dec 2018]. Compaine, B., 2001. The digital divide. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Green, M. and Rossall, P., 2013. Age UK Digital Inclusion Evidence Report 2013 [online]. Available from: UK Digital Inclusion Evidence Review 2013.pdf?dtrk=true [Accessed 3 Jan 2019]. Mishra, D. and Deichmann, U., 2016. World Development Report, 2016: digital dividends. Choice Reviews Online, 53 (11), 53-4889-53-4889. Norris, P., 2008. Digital divide. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Pick, J. and Azari, R., 2008. Global digital divide: Influence of socioeconomic, governmental, and accessibility factors on information technology. Information Technology for Development, 14 (2), 91-115. Tyson, G., 2015. Gareth Tyson’s Homepage [online]. Available from: [Accessed 3 Jan 2019].

Poor as Suppliers of Intellectual Property – Analysis

python assignment help In their Business Ethics Quarterly article, “The poor as suppliers of Intellectual Property: A Social Network approach to sustainable poverty alleviation”, Shivarajan and Srinivasan observe that the base of pyramid model’s view of the poor and their approach towards poverty alleviation needs to be extended or altered through an alternative model that considers the poor as the valuable suppliers of intellectual property rather than as consumers of low priced or customized products or services. Due to the poverty and illiteracy people are unable to participate in global knowledge networks. The author has clearly mentioned the limitations of BOP-customer focused approach in the areas such as: economic viability, social impact and how the BOP-consumer approach addresses the social exclusion. The authors suggest newer role of MNC’s in poverty alleviation without losing their profits and developed a poverty alleviation model to harness and integrate the intellectual property of the poor into the global knowledge network through the trust based partnership among the poor, non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations. In this article, the authors also explained the alternative to BOP customer focused poverty alleviation model by giving wider definition to the poor, associated poverty and the poor as suppliers of intellectual property. The authors strongly believe that the poverty alleviation can be achieved through social inclusion and provision of the facility for the poor to share, exchange and gain from their intrinsic skills, intelligence, capabilities taking the shape of the intellectual property for which they are the rightful owners. The achievement of inclusion of poor to the global network of knowledge will provide the opportunities for the poor to make profits from their knowledge, become entrepreneurs, provide employment to other poor and push themselves from the poverty which is not much possible with the ‘Base of Pyramid’ model (Shivarajan

San Jose State University Prepositions for The California Ballot Essay

San Jose State University Prepositions for The California Ballot Essay.

Pick one of the many propositions that are on the California ballot this November. Explain the positives and negatives of the chosen proposition if it were to pass and if it were not to pass. [Honors students are to do two essays.]This is to be in essay format — although the instructor isn’t too concerned with the standard 5-paragraph model; get to the point and then conclude, that’s enough. Citation is a must, but the instructor isn’t wild about MLA; if you’re not an English or Foreign Languages major, you shouldn’t be either — use whatever citation format is the most dominant in your field of study (most Social Sciences uses APA). Length should be roughly between 750 and 1000 words. Opinions and personal anecdotes should be kept to the conclusion, if included at all.Rubric:An understanding of what the proposition doesEqual treatment of both sides of the issueClear and deep analysis of the positive aspectsClear and deep analysis of the negative aspectsProofread — in politics, if you’re not clear and reasonable, you lose the argument.
San Jose State University Prepositions for The California Ballot Essay

Annotated Bibliography on Convection Tourism

Convention tourism is one of the largest sectors in the tourism industry. Conventions bring cities/venues significant revenue. It is because of these facts that destinations and venues compete with one another in hopes to be selected by planners. This annotated bibliography will showcase some academic journals as well as other research findings to help us get a better idea of what influences planners to choose their host destination. Crouch, G. I.,