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WCU Pathophysiology Of Tuberculosis in The Recent Times Discussion

WCU Pathophysiology Of Tuberculosis in The Recent Times Discussion.

The purpose of the
case study is to have you expand on the pathophysiological disease
process by searching for evidence-based practice treatment and advanced
practice nursing role implications related to the disease.Review the patient’s
TB questionnaire. (Page
1)(Page
2) Conduct an
evidence-based literature search to identify the most recent standards of
care/treatment modalities from peer-reviewed articles and professional
association guidelines (www.guideline.gov).
These articles and guidelines can be referenced, but not directly copied into
the clinical case presentation. Cite a minimum of three resources.Answer the following
questions:
What is the transmission
and pathophysiology of TB?
What are the clinical
manifestations?
After considering this
scenario, what are the primary identified medical concerns for this
patient?
What are the primary
psychosocial concerns?
What are the implications of
the treatment regimen, as far as likelihood of compliance and outcomes?
Search the Internet to research rates of patient compliance in treatment
of TB, as well as drug resistant TB.
Identify the role of the
community clinic in assisting patients, particularly undocumented
patients, in covering the cost of TB treatment. What resources exist for
TB treatment in community health centers around the United States? Compare
the cost for treatment between, subsidized as it would be for a community
health center, and unsubsidized.
What are the implications of
TB for critical care and advanced practice nurses?
The use of medical
terminology and appropriate graduate level writing is expected. Your paper should be
4–5 pages, (excluding cover page and reference page).Your resources must
include research articles as well as reference to non-research evidence-based
guidelines. Use APA format to
style your paper and to cite your sources. Your source(s) should be integrated
into the paragraphs. Use internal citations pointing to evidence in the
literature and supporting your ideas. You will need to include a reference page
listing those sources. Cite a minimum of three resources.
WCU Pathophysiology Of Tuberculosis in The Recent Times Discussion

Table of Contents Marketing channels Marketing channel strategy Value chain Pricing strategy Works Cited Marketing channels A marketing channel is a system of distribution that allows the customer to choose the product and buy it. The creation of an efficient marketing channel is essential for the overall success of the marketing strategy of the company. Samsung is a global corporation, and it has numerous marketing channels. There are such marketing channels as: Samsung manufacturing unit –> C

British Petroleum (BP) Strategic Change Management

BP is most widely associated with its fuel stations and forecourt retail operations; it also has a wide range of activities. The exploration of oils, gas, extraction, transportation, and the processing and selling of fuels. Bp has developed a low carbon energy strategy such as wind farms and solar power. BP operates the Wild Bean Café brand in the UK, Europe, South Africa and Australia. The convenience store brand is also in the US. However, Wild Bean Cafés are focused on quality food and coffee, having a strategy of differentiation from competitors offering poorer quality Refreshments. 1.1.1. Company’s Mission The company aims to be competitive on the low pricing of its fuels, and this is evident on garage forecourts where drops in oil prices have been passed on to their consumers more rapidly than some of its competitors. In all BP’s activities they seek to display some unchanging fundamental qualities, integrity, honesty, honest dealing treating everyone with respect and dignity, striving for mutual advantage and contributing to human progress. The group aims To have the best competitive corporate, operating and financial performance. To improve and to be accessible, inclusive and diverse. To engage the creative talents of their employees, and develop and apply leading Cost- effective technology and intellectual creative to enhance innovation and new ideas. To carry on its business in an environmentally responsible manner, and develop cleaner energy and renewable energy sources. The group is committed to the responsible treatment of the planet’s resources and to the development of sources of lower- carbon energy. BP expresses that their group value fewer than four headings Performance People and capability Health, safety and environment External relationships GROUP VALUE PERFORMANCE Compliance with the law and ethics > to comply with all applicable laws and regulations in each jurisdiction in which the group operates. All BP employees will be required to comply with the code of conduct, which prohibits illegal, corrupt or unethical practices and high standards of decency. Continuous improvement > improve continuously in pursuit of the group values by setting targets and through encouragement of our employees. Internal targets > to establish realistic and reasonable targets in the group plan. Any Progress against targets will be reported internally and analysed transparently and in a timely manner so that progress and variations can be understood voluntarily. PEOPLE AND CAPABILITY Human capability and technology > to nurture human capability and ensure that the right technology, skills, behaviours and intellectual property are available for the pursuit of the broad goals. 1.1.2. Challenges BP is currently underperforming due to TNK BP in Russia is currently experiencing power struggles between British executives running it and Russian billionaire shareholders It’s safety record has been questioned The company has experienced an explosion at the Buncefield in 2005 which killed 15workers and the spill in the United States of America which caused pollution. The company has also lost consumer confidence. Financial problems Bp also has been responsible for the spill in the Gulf of Mexico (Online). TASK 1 Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation The importance of strategic change management in any organisation cannot be overemphasised. Change management has increasingly become a necessary business concept among business firms especially in the wake of the recent dynamic global business environment. Strategy is the direction and the scope of an organisation over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations. Strategic change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organisation and on the individual level including adapting to change, controlling change, and effective change. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GURUS Julia Bologun (2001) describes strategic change as “Arising from management trends such as culture change, business process swings, empowerment and total quality. Other change initiatives are driven by the need for organisations to reposition themselves in the wake of changing competitive business conditions”. Strategic change is context specific in any organisation and the way it is managed has no simple formula or universally agreed framework that will work in all cases (Bologun, 2001). Organisations have different challenges and issues that affect them and when the change process is deemed necessary to undertake, the roadmap is always different per case study. Different theorists have made attempts by giving and emphasised that strategy must be context sensitive. The culture web framework is introduced as a means of addressing the ‘softer’ issues, which is a critical first step, as barriers to change must be identified. The strategy kaleidoscope will help managers to understand the change context and plan for transition. According to Gray Hampel his refered strategies as Strategic decay the notion that the value of all strategies, no matter how brilliant decays overtime”. (Gray Hampel 2000) Abell.D also came up with his own understanding of strategy as Strategic windows and stressed the importance of the timing both entrance and exit of any given strategy (Abell .D 1978). Henry Mintzberg looked at the changing world around him and concluded that there are five types of strategies (Henry Mintzberg 1988) Strategy as plan Strategy as ploy Strategy as pattern Strategy as position Strategy as perspective The entire three theorists were talking about the equivalent things to which I do agree with. For an organisation such as BP to prevail in this ever changing market their strategies have to change and not stick to the same strategy for too long because it won’t be as effective as it was, timing is of importance to an organisation, where and planning, of the strategy is vital. AC2.1 Examine the need for strategic change in BP All organisations are currently undergoing some type of change. Many of the organisation change programmes arising from management fads such as customs change, business process engineering, empowerment and total quality, branding, reputation. For instance BP had the need to change because of its Experience of controversies regarding business practices, environmental damage, and hazards to workers. Other large energy companies have come under fire for releasing huge amounts of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. For some time, BP is trying to turn a new leaf in its history book toward a more environmentally-friendly future through investments in renewable energy and a support of ethics and compliance initiatives. British Petroleum changed its name to BP and then tried to rebrand itself as Beyond Petroleum. As an organisation it’s important to change with time and surroundings. There is need for change because of the external and internal developments and internal factors. These factors bring attention to the organisation to formulate and implement strategies to survive in the competitive market. There is need for strategic change because it is also necessary in order to gain competitive advantage enables the organisation to be focused also enables adaptability BP has been able to enjoy a large market share and gain competitive advantage over its competitors because of accepting to change with its surroundings and by learning what its customers need and want from them as a company. Change has also enabled Bp to adapt in any environment; For example the company has gone green to protect the environment and have become the big campaigners for going green and change has also enabled the organisation to be focused on what is important to their stakeholders. AC2.2 Assess the factors that are driving the driving the need for strategic change According to Johnson, Scholes, Whittington (2006) “the major influence of change in organisations is categorised as six factors namely Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Environment, and Legal otherwise known as the PESTEL framework” P- POLITICAL: Government stability, Taxation policy, foreign trade regulations and the social welfare policies. E-ECONOMIC: Business cycles, GNP trends, interest rates, Money supply, inflation, unemployment, and disposable income. S-SOCIO-CULTURAL: Analyzing the population demographics, income mobility, life style changes, Attitudes to work and leisure, Consumerism, levels of education. T-TECHNOLOGY: Has unleashed a process that has been called “perennial gale of creative destruction.”Technological change can make established products obsolete overnight and simultaneously create host new product possibilities. Thus technological change is both creative and destructive both an opportunity and a threat. E-ENVIRONMENT: specifically stands for ‘green’ issues, such as pollution and waste. L-LEGAL: embraces legislative constraints or changes, such as health and safety legislation or restrictions on company mergers and acquisitions. INTERNAL The employment of a new leader. Benchmarking exercise against external organisation Senior management dissatisfaction with the status equo Employee -Management conflict. Bp has been affected by the political and the environmental aspect. It had a spill in the USA which had an intervention of the politicians. The organisation had to respond to the demands and controversy from the media, consumer and politicians of the state by changing alot of its strategies in place. BP agreed to the demands of the politicians (foreign trade regulations and social welfare policies) to compensate the residents affected by the spillage. All these problems needed Bp to change its strategies. The world is advancing in technology and for it to compete in the ever changing business world, Bp has to be ready to change and adapt to those changes. The organisation has come up with programs that can help its staff to have knowledge of the new and advancing technology; For instance they needed to improve on the machinery that they use to drill. Bp has advanced in technology by using sophisticated technologies and tried- and true techniques to be able to find oil and gas. The company also incurred a loss when they lost alot of oil in the spillage which affected their financial situation. The spillage affected their market share by its price dropping in the global market; the other factor which affected Bp was the environmental factor. The spillage polluted the water and hence affecting the resident’s livelihood and it also affected the wildlife. BP had to come up with a strategy to stop the spillage which resulted to large sums of money being spent. Bp has changed and responded to change by striving to secure and make sure that it isn’t affecting the environment since they are big campaigners of climate change and going green. In the case of BP, management was dissatisfied with the way Tony Hayward Group Chief Executive handled the Mexico oil spillage. Tony Hayward resigned and this called for replacement of new management. A.C2.3 Assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to change There are severe resource implications to an organisation such as BP for not responding to strategic change. The response should be implemented at the right time and BP’s call to sort out the spillage needed a response at the time; had they not responded and acted as efficient as possible their reputation would have been damaged further. If BP as an organisation does not respond to change, this will affect its entire resources adversely. Human resources normally includes the Restructuring Redundancies Interviewing Hiring Training Layoffs Physical resources mainly affect the non-current assets of an organisation such as Equipment Vehicles buildings reputation Financial resources have an impact and it may also have a huge one on the Costs of training Redundancy costs Relocation costs New building Refurbishments of existing buildings For BP to manage the changes effectively, Human Resource has to implement strategies that would enhance change: Training is a vital aspect of human resource and ensuring that its members of staff and employees are well trained. The organisation bought together a project team to develop Andrew oilfield, located in the North Sea. Since discovery about 20 years earlier, attempts had been made to develop the field, but each conceptual plan floundered and Andrew had gained a reputation as being too difficult to achieve economic sanction. Bp brought in consultants who coached Bp engineers and contractors in ways of working together and “think out of the box” to solve Andrews technical and economic problems Interviewing is paramount for the succession of Bp’s organisational aims and objectives. Bp has to have the right employees in place so as to be able to compete with its competitors in the ever changing environment A.C 3.1 DEVELOPING SYSTEMS TO INVOVLE STAKEHOLDERS IN BP Stakeholder is a person, group, or organisation that has direct or indirect stake in an organisation because it can affect or be affected by the organisations actions, objectives and policies. Stakeholders in every organisation play a very important role in day to day running of an organisation. It is vital to develop a system that involves stakeholders in the planning of change. The systems need to be appropriate, applicable and workable in the organisation chosen. Most importantly concentration must be devoted to the most influential stakeholder. Stakeholders include Government, suppliers, competitors, owners, customers, unions and these can be internal stakeholders or external stakeholders. It’s important for Bp to have knowledge of its business surroundings for them to identify market segments to fulfil customer need. The expectations of BP will certainly be an increase in profit maximisation, growth in market share, capital investment, high product quality and high quality performance. Systems to involve stakeholders A system is a structured collection of parts that are highly incorporated to accomplish an overall goal. The system has various inputs, which go through certain processes to generate certain outputs, which collectively, accomplish the overall required goal for the system. So a system usually brings in stakeholders to perform in different aspects to achieve organisational objectives. (Online) Configuration system – An organisations configuration consists of the structure, processes and relationships in the course of which the organisation operates. The reason for configuring challenges is vital to organisational success. Functional structure- Once an organisation grows beyond a very basic level of size and complexity, it has to start dividing responsibilities. This system is based on the primary activities that have to be undertaken by an organisation such as production, finance and accounting, marketing, human resource and research and development. Convergence system- This is where previously separate industries begin to overlap in terms of activities, technologies, products and customers. (G. Johnson et al 2008) A.C3.2 Develop a change management strategy with stakeholders Management strategy is an arrangement to manage stakeholders according to the level of power and level of interest. It is a key concept for business to survive /grow by responding to any environmental changes. A strategy is the direction and scale of an organisation over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment throughout its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of satisfying stakeholder expectations. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS (MAPPING) Stakeholder analysis helps an organisation to define whom to try to involve when designing a process of change. It also helps to determine in which way and how to include the stakeholder in the organisation. The process allows the organisation to find out whose information needs should be considered. A KEY PLAYERS Involve them Increase effort and level of interest B KEEP INFORMED Engage and update Involve C KEEP SATISFIED Lest important Communication and update D MINIMAL EFFORT Participate Increase level of interest The stakeholder analysis has two axis and four quadrants: The x – axis represents influence The y – axis denotes power The quadrants are: HH – high high HL – high low LH and LL low high and low low High power, interested people these are the people you must fully keep and make the greatest efforts to satisfy. High power, less interested people: put enough work in with people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become uninterested with the message. Low power, less interested people keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project. Low power, less interested people: again, monitor these people, but do not turn them off with undue communication For the analysis to be effective the following should be carried out: Their interests, values, and concerns What sources of stakeholder power What claims they might make on the organisation Who the most important stakeholders are from the organisations perspective Map the relationship between them Identify the resultant strategic challenges A.C3.3 Evaluate the systems used to involve stakeholders in the planning of change Six steps need to be taken into consideration so as to involve stakeholders in the planning of change: Indentify: who the stakeholders are (government, customers, investors, suppliers) Prioritise: Stakeholders will have varying degrees of power, influence and interest in planning. It’s important to identify, prioritise and understand the impact they will have on the decisions made. Map their profiles: This will show their different responsibility and who will have greater influence on the stakeholders. Develop an engagement strategy: one way of engaging with the stakeholder is by using a stakeholder light traffic strategy. Using the traffic light image is a useful way to flag up what strategy is appropriate with the different relationships in place at any given time. Optimise their support to make good of the support they are giving you in the planning of change. This is by ensuring that you keep those stakeholders satisfied. Monitor changes to ensure that any changes are put across to those stakeholders. It’s important to give frequent updates. BP stakeholders can be involved through meetings such as the Annual general meetings where all aspects of the company are discussed with members of the BP board and Carl- Henric Syanberg as chairman. The chairman informs other stakeholders on the different plans and issues that were discussed by board and what projects they were ready to take as an organisation as an organisation. Change in Bp happens all the time and I think that out of the four systems I have picked the stakeholder analysis because it is effective and it gets involves all stakeholders and Bp is able to operate for the best intentions of its stakeholders. A.C3.4 Create a strategy for managing resistance to change In every company there are forces involved when a company decides to adopt new strategies. There are resistive and driving forces. In this case the resistive forces are those that don’t want to accept any kind of change brought about in the company and sometimes there those who are in the favour of change. It’s important to put in place strategies of how to manage any resistance going on in the organisation INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE Individually, people may resist, although this is generally limited to the extent of their personal power. For those with lower power, this may include passive refusals and covert action. For those with more power, it can include open challenge and criticism. COLLECTIVE RESISTANCE When people find a common voice in organized resistance, and then their words and actions can create a significant threat to the change, even though they are individually less powerful. An organised resistance is usually a sign of a deep divide. People will not go to the bother of organizing unless they have serious issues with the change. PASSIVE RESISTANCE Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions. At meetings, they will sit quietly and may appear to agree with the change. They may agree and then do nothing to fulfil their commitments. ACTIVE RESISTANCE- Occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement. 1-Participation and involvement: – Is a strategy which is used when dealing with key stakeholders of the organisation. Participation and involvement is usually adopted when the key stakeholders are neither keen nor interested in company matters and every time the company tries to adopt change for the benefit of the company they resist that change. Using such a strategy can be very helpful to achieve the objectives and on the other hand it is time consuming for the company. 2-Education and communication: – Is a strategy which is applied when stakeholders are not aware of benefit of the strategy. It’s important to educate and communicate with the stakeholders so as to get them to understand the reason for the change. The major advantage of the strategy is that the stakeholders will cooperate productively and positively. Using this strategy can be time consuming and costly too. 3-Negotiation and compromise: – The strategy of negotiation and compromise take place when there is a group division. By this strategy a company convince the both groups at working together for the benefit of company. Its also promotes unity which is very good for a company. It is cost effective. The current situation for Bp Company is not good because there is division of groups. This groups are the Russian shareholder and the British shareholder. This means that there can be experiences of groups opposing each other’s opinions hence bringing about resistance for change. In my opinion if BP as a Company has to sustain their rank in international market then they should work together and be united as an organization. Stakeholders should be ready compromise for the benefit of the company. TASK2 AC 1.1 Discuss models of strategic changes There are many theories about how to accomplish change. Many begin with leadership and change management guru, John Kotter. A professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned change expert, Kotter introduced eight-step change process.(Lecture Notes) Step One: Create Urgency For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving. This isn’t simply a matter of showing people poor sales statistics or talking about increased competition. Open an honest and convincing dialogue about what’s happening in the marketplace and with your competition. If many people start talking about the change you propose, the urgency can build and feed on itself. Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within your organization. Managing change isn’t enough – you have to lead it. Step Three: Create a Vision for Change When you first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember Step Four: Communicate the Vision What you do with your vision after you create it will determine your success. Your message will probably have strong competition from other day-to-day communications within the company, so you need to communicate it frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything that you do. Step Five: Remove Obstacles If you follow these steps and reach this point in the change process, you’ve been talking about your vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. Hopefully, your staff wants to get busy and achieve the benefits that you’ve been promoting. Six: Create Short-term Wins Nothing motivates more than success. Give your company a taste of victory early in the change process. Within a short time frame (this could be a month or a year, depending on the type of change), you’ll want to have results that your staff can see. Without this, critics and negative thinkers might hurt your progress. Step seven Build on the Change Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture the market Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of your organization. Your corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind your vision must show in day-to-day work. (Lecture class) Models of Strategic Change Lewin’s Change Management Model was developed in the 1950s by a psychologist named Kurt Lewin (Syque, 2007). According to Lewin for change to occur in an organisation he looked at three stages, which are still widely used today: unfreeze, transition, and refreeze. Unfreeze – Most people tend to stay within certain comfortable zones and are usually hesitant of change. Employees tend to become comfortable in this unchanging environment and become uncomfortable when any change occurs, even if it is not a major one. To overcome this frozen state, we must initiate an unfreeze period, which is done through motivation. Motivation is important in any organisation, even when it is not changing. Transition -This period is when the change is occurring, which is a voyage and not a step. The transition period takes time because employees dislike change. This is when leadership transition period is good for the company as well as the employees. Refreeze – At the end of the transitional voyage, comes the next stage refreeze. At this stage it’s where the company once again becomes stable. BP has encountered several problems but they have been able to change with its challenging and demanding surroundings. BP as a company has changed its strategies for it to survive in this competitive business world. As an organisation there has been need for change and it has improvised strategies, so as to adapt to this ever changing world AC1.2 Evaluate the relevance of models of strategic change to BP in the current economy All organisations are currently undergoing some type of change. Many of the organisation change programmes arising from management fads such as customs change, business process engineering, empowerment and total quality, branding, reputation. For instance BP had the need to change because of its Experience of controversies regarding business practices, environmental damage, and hazards to workers. Other large energy companies have come under fire for releasing huge amounts of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. For some time, BP is trying to turn a new leaf in its history book toward a more environmentally-friendly future through investments in renewable energy and a support of ethics and compliance initiatives. British Petroleum changed its name to BP and then tried to rebrand itself as Beyond Petroleum. The different models of strategic change are of relevance in the current economy because the group will be able to compete with other oil companies such as Shell strategically. These models assist on the sustainability of the group, the growth of the group and the market share by using the different models. AC1.3 Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organisations Contingency Theory There are many forms of contingency theory. Contingency theories are a class of behavioural theory that challenge that there is no one best way of organising or leading and that an organisational or leadership style that is efficient in some situations may not be successful in others (Fiedler, 1964). In other words: The most favourable organisation or leadership style is dependent upon various internal and external constraints. There are also contingency theories that relate to decision making (Vroom and Yetton, 1973). The effectiveness of a decision process depends upon a number of aspects of the situation such as the importance of the decision quality and acceptance; the amount of appropriate information possessed by the leader and subordinate and the likelihood that subordinates will accept an autocratic decision or assist in trying to make a good decision if allowed to participate; the amount of disagreement among subordinates with respect to their preferred alternatives. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues did different leadership decision research in 1939 and acknowledged that there were three different styles of leadership, particularly about decision-making. Participative Style A leader who involves others in decision-making improves the perceptive of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. Individuals are more committed to actions where they have been involved in the relevant decision-making. A leader will find that people are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on united goals. When people make decisions jointly, the social commitment to one another is greater and that increases their commitment to the decision. Several people deciding collectively make better decisions than one person alone. Autocratic In this case the leader takes decisions without consulting with others. A leader makes a decision without any form of consultation. In Lewin’s research he found that he this type of style caused the most level of discontent. An autocratic style works when there is no requirement for any input on the decision, In style it means that the decision would not change as a result of input, and where the driving force of people to carry out subsequent actions would not be affected whether they were or were not involved in the decision-making. Management Intervention There are always teams in organisations that are there and the possibility of getting different results. No matter how dedicated a team is there will be tim

The Mousetrap novel questionnaire, English homework help

essay writer free The Mousetrap novel questionnaire, English homework help.

1) There are eight characters in The Mousetrap. Choose any two of them.
For each of the two characters, state one clue that made the character a
suspect. Then explain why the clue was true or false. Write your response in a
paragraph of at least five sentences. 2) Suspense is the quality of a
drama that makes the audience ask what is going to happen next. Suspense keeps
the audience guessing. Name two suspenseful events in the play.
For each of the two, state what happens and explain what is suspenseful about
the event.
For each example, explain how the suspense is resolved by the end of the play. Write
your response in a paragraph of at least five sentences.
3) Agatha Christie’s drama contains
many instances of honesty and dishonesty. Often, the same character is honest
in some ways and dishonest in other ways. Choose three characters from The Mousetrap. For each of the three,
give one example of how the character is honest and one example of how the
character is dishonest. In your view, is Christie showing that people are
mainly honest or that they are mainly dishonest? Give reasons to support your
interpretation.
Your response should have at least three paragraphs.

The Mousetrap novel questionnaire, English homework help

Purpose And History Of A Wheatstone Bridge Engineering Essay

This Term Paper is about topic “Wheatstone Bridge”. A Wheatstone bridge is a device which is used to find the unknown resisitance. It is an instrument or a circuit consisting of four resistors or their equivalent in series which is used to determine the value of an unknown resistance when the other three resistances are known. If talk in some little detail then wheatstone bridge contains the four resistance in which one is unkown resistance which we have to find ,one is variable resistance which is also called the rheostat of the circuit and two known resistance. It also contains the galvanometer for the detection of the current and it is also use to find the direction of current. The various use of wheatstone bridge is as under:- It is is used by electrical power distributors to accurately locate breaks in a power line. It is also used to monitor sensor devices such as strain gauges. Such devices change their internal resistance according to the specific level of strain (or pressure, temperature, etc.), and serve as the unknown resistor RX. Meter bridge, post office box and Carey Foster bridge are instruments based on the principle of Wheatstone bridge The basic use is to measure the unknown resistance. What is a wheatstone bridge? The wheatstone bridge is an instrument which is generally used to measure electrical resistance by balancing a bridge circuit. The bridge circuit contains four resistance, one of which contains the unknown resistance ,one variable resistance and two known resistance. Introductions to Wheatstone Bridge:- Wheatstone Bridge, a device for measuring electrical resistance. In wheat-stone bridge four resistance R1, R2, R3and R4are connected end to end with each other to form a closed loop. A sensitive galvanometer “G”is connected between their junctions. One form of Wheatstone bridge is shown in the following example:- For example:- When the Wheatstone bridge is connected in an electrical circuit, part of the current flows to the object whose resistance is unknown and part of current flows to the resistor of known resistance. If more current flows through one side of the circuit than the other, the galvanometer shows the deflection. Due to potential difference create in between them when the current flows equally along both sides of the bridge then the galvanometer shows zero deflection. Thus the bridge is balanced, the unknown resistance is calculated by using formula. The formula is:- R1/R2=R3/R4 Where R1 is the unknown resistance. R2 is the variable resistance R3 and R4 are the known resistances Generally wheat-stone bridge is used to determine unknown resistances. Conditions for wheatstone bridge:- There are two conditions for wheatstone bridge which is as under:- Condition-1:Galvanometer is always in zero potential in the circuit. Condition-2:We should have to take one variable resistance. History of Wheatstone bridge:- [link 1] Wheatstone’s bridge circuit diagram. A Wheatstone bridgeis an electrical circuit invented by Samuel Hunter Christie in 1833 and improved and popularized by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1843. It is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of bridge contains the unknown component and variable component. Its operation is similar to the originalpotentiometer. Potentiometer :- [link 2] A potentiometeris an instrument for measuring the potential (voltage) in a circuit,they were used in measuring voltage. Creation of Wheatstone bridge by different scientists:- [link 5] 1) A scientist and mathematician, Samuel Hunter Christie, developed the circuit to measure unknown electrical resistances and first described it in 1833. The bridge worked because of the special diamond-shaped arrangement of the four resistors. Electrical current from a battery split into two parallel branches of the circuit. One consisted of a resistor with a fixed, known resistance and an adjustable resistor, also with a known resistance. The other leg contained a resistor of fixed and known resistance and another whose resistance needed to be determined. By using a galvanometer to balance the current flowing through the two branches, Christie could, with the help of a little math, determine the value of the unknown resistor. 2) Then another British scientist, Wheatstone, came across Christie’s description of the instrument, which Wheatstone referred to as a “differential resistance measurer.” A prominent member of the Royal Society of London, Wheatstone was well-positioned to give the tool a popularity boost. He gave an account of Christie’s invention at an 1843 lecture, and soon after it came to be called the Wheatstone bridge was used in telegraphy and other applications. Wheatstone himself, however, gave full credit for its invention to Christie. But in translations of his lecture that appeared in Germany and France the following year, Wheatstone’s attribution was nowhere to be found. In addition to bringing the device to public attention, Wheatstone improved the design (Wheatstone developed the rheostat, a variable resistor) and found several new uses for it. By changing the type of elements contained in its legs, the Wheatstone bridge can determine unknown capacitances, inductances, frequencies and other properties. Besides Wheatstone, several other scientists helped extend the range of the device, including William Thomson, Lord Kelvin and James Clerk Maxwell. This sensitive, accurate method for measuring resistance is still widely used today. Theory of Wheatstone Bridge:- To understand this circuit, consider the following Figure to be two voltage dividers shown below: When the bridge is balanced, the voltages measured by V1and V2are equal, hence no current flows through the Galvanometer G in above figure. Since V1and V2are at the same voltage, the resistance ratios Rx/RSand l1/l2are equal. Because the slide wire has a uniform resistance per unit length, the length ratios l1/l2is equivalent to resistance ratio R1/R2. How Equipment of wheatstone bridge works:- [Link 8] The current flows from positive to negative through the circuit.When it reaches Point Ain the diagram, it splits and travels through either one of two Known Resistors, R1 or R2. Resistance is measured in a unit called an ohm. Here we notice that when this applet initializes, the resistance at R1 is 1 K ohm, while at R2 it is also at 1 K ohm. After the diverging currents pass through their respective resistors (R1 or R2), each reaches another fork in the road. At this point, if the bridge is not balanced, some or all of the current from either the R1 or R2 path will diverge down this middle path that bisects the square created by the circuit. The Galvanometer ispositioned on this middle path which generally tells the presence or absence of current.The direction of this current is determined by the value of the Variable Resistor(R3). Here at this time the bridge is not balanced because the ratio of resistance on the known leg (R1/R2) is not equal to the ratio on the unknown leg (R3/R4). This is where the variable resistor which is also called rheostat of the bridge comes into play. It can be adjusted until no current flows down the middle path. When that is achieved, the Galvanometer reads zero and the bridge is balanced. Achieve this balanced state by adjusting the Variable Resistorslider until the Galvanometer reads zero and no more current flows through the middle path. Notice how the arrows depicting current direction change as you manipulate the slider. The ohm value is displayed above the slider. By discovering the value of the variable resistor in the balanced bridge, you are able to determine what the unknown resistance at R4 is, with a little math: R1/R2 = R3/R4 or R4 = (R2 * R3) /R1 So by using the above formula we can easily find out the unknown electrical resistance. Derivations:- Derivation of Wheatstone Bridge:-[link 1] First, Kirchhoff’s first rule is used to find the currents in junctions Band D: When then I3= Ixand I1= I2……………………………………(3) Then, Kirchhoff’s second rule is used for finding the voltage in the loops ABDand BCD: The bridge is balanced when Ig= 0, so the second set of equations can be rewritten as: ……………………………………………….(1) ……………………………………………….(2) By dividing equation 1 by 2 we get:- From the equation (3), I3= Ixand I1= I2. The desired value of Rxis now known to be given as: If all four resistor values and the supply voltage (VS) are known, the voltage across the bridge (VG) can be found by working out the voltage from each potential divider and subtracting one from the other. The equation for this is: This can be simplified to: With node B being (VG) positive, and node D being (VG) negative. Bridgeconatianing constant voltage and voltage gage :- A basic Wheatstone bridge circuit contains four resistances, a constant voltage input, and a voltage gage, as illustrated below. For a given voltage input Vin, the currents flowing through ABCand ADCdepend on the resistances, i.e., The voltage drops from Ato Band from Ato Dare given by, The voltage gage reading Vgcan then be obtained from, Now suppose that all resistances can change during the measurement. The corresponding change in voltage reading will be, If the bridge is initially balanced, the initial voltage reading Vgshould be zero. This yields the following relationship between the four resistances, We can use this result to simplify the previous equation that includes the changes in the resistances. Doing so results in the solution for the change in Vg, where h is defined by, Moreover, when the resistance changes are small (<5%), the second order term h is approximately zero and can be ignored. We then have, which is the basic equation governing the Wheatstone bridge voltage in strain measurement. The coefficient is called the circuit efficiency. Equal-Resistance Wheatstone Bridge Circuit:- In practice, one often uses the same resistance value for all four resistors, R1= R2= R3= R4= R. Noting that r = 1 in this case, the change in voltage can be further simplified to, By thoughtfully selecting the target and reference resistances, the Wheatstone bridge circuit can amplify small changes in resistance and/or compensate for changes in temperature. How to use the Wheatstone Bridge :- In its basic application, a dc voltage (E) is applied to the Wheatstone Bridge, and a galvanometer (G) is used to monitor the balance condition. The values of R1 and R3 are precisely known, but do not have to be identical. R2 is a calibrated variable resistance, whose current value may be read from a dial or scale. An unknown resistor, RX, is connected as the fourth side of the circuit, and power is applied. R2 is adjusted until the galvanometer, G, reads zero current. At this point, RX = R2Ã-R3/R1. This circuit is most sensitive when all four resistors have similar resistance values. However, the circuit works quite well in any event. If R2 can be varied over a 10:1 resistance range and R1 is of a similar value, we can switch decade values of R3 into and out of the circuit according to the range of value we expect from RX. Using this method, we can accurately measure any value of RX by moving one multiple-position switch and adjusting one precision potentiometer. Significance of wheatstone bridge :- [link 1] The Wheatstone bridge illustrates the concept of a difference measurement, which can be extremely accurate. Variations on the Wheatstone bridge can be used to measure capacitance, inductance, impedance and other quantities, such as the amount of combustible gases in a sample, with an explosimeter. The Kelvin bridge was specially adapted from the Wheatstone bridge for measuring very low resistances. In many cases, the significance of measuring the unknown resistance is related to measuring the impact of some physical phenomenon – such as force, temperature, pressure, etc – which thereby allows the use of Wheatstone bridge in measuring those elements indirectly. Applications of Wheatstone Bridge:- [Link 6],[Link 7] A number of resistance measuring devices have been devised on the principle of wheatstone bridge.For example : 1) Meter bridge, post office box and Carey Foster bridge are instruments based on the principle of Wheatstone bridge and are used to measure unknown resistance. 2) A very common application in industry today is to monitor sensor devices such as strain gauges. Such devices change their internal resistance according to the specific level of strain (or pressure, temperature, etc.), and serve as the unknown resistor RX. However, instead of trying to constantly adjust R2 to balance the circuit, the galvanometer is replaced by a circuit that can be calibrated to record the degree of imbalance in the bridge as the value of strain or other condition being applied to the sensor. 3) A third application is used by electrical power distributors to accurately locate breaks in a power line. The method is fast and accurate, and does not require a large number of field technicians. Other applications abound in electronic circuits. We’ll see a number of them in action as these pages continue to expand. Bridge circuits are widely used for the measurement of resistance, capacitance, and inductance. The resistive bridge, also known as Wheatstone bridge. Links used in the Term Paper:- 1)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheatstone_bridge 2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentiometer_(measuring_instrument) 3)http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/sensors/methods/wheatstone_bridge.cfm 4) http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/wheatstonebridge/index.html 5) http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/museum/wheatstonebridge.html 6) http://www.citycollegiate.com/wheatstone_bridge.htm 7) http://www.transtutors.com/physics-homework-help/current-electricity/wheatstone-bridge- and-potentiometer.aspx 8) http://reocities.com/CapeCanaveral/8341/bridge.htm

West Coast University Disaster Home Go Bag Discussion

West Coast University Disaster Home Go Bag Discussion.

This week you will put together your 72-hour disaster home “go bag” and evaluate your preparedness.Here are the steps for your initial post:1. Use the lists available at the Ready.gov website, FEMA, or the Red Cross website to gather items for your 72-hour home go bag. Add additional items that you think will be useful and essential for your family. (You are not required to purchase items, but you may if you choose.)2. Post a picture of all of the items you have gathered for your go bag. For the sake of personal and family privacy, keep personal/private items out of the photograph; you may list them (e.g., prescription medications).You must take and submit a picture of your own items! You may not post a picture from the internet or any other source.Along with your photo, include the following information:A discussion of the items in your home go bag – what is present and what is missing.A brief explanation of the demographic considerations and potential disaster hazards in your area and why you included certain items.Your family, pets, and living situation considerations and why you included certain items.Are you prepared to help others in your community in the event of a disaster?Support your answers with evidence from scholarly sources.Additional ResourcesHow to Pack an Emergency Kit for Any DisasterHow to Put Together a Family Emergency Kit
West Coast University Disaster Home Go Bag Discussion

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