Examples Of Corporate Social Responsibility Management Essay
John D. Rockefeller the founder of Standard Oil Company started to distribute dimes to children on the street on the advice from a public relation expert. He thought that this gesture would help to counteract his bad reputation of being a ruthless monopolist who eliminated his competition in the oil industry. John Rockefeller was implementing an example of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) . Events around the world during the last decades have accentuate the need for corporate ethics. Their stakeholders, governments and international organizations need to take the issue of Corporate Social responsibility seriously. Life threatening incidents over the years such as the explosion at Union Carbide in Bhopal, India in 1984, the oil spillage at Prince William Sound, Alaska USA in 1989, a few corporate scandals example the mirror group UK 1991, Bank of credit and commerce International 1991 UK ,Enron USA 2001. Other issues such as global warming, human rights abuses, terrorism, climate change, globilization of the world economy . These problems affect how entities conduct the operational practices. These practices consequently impose on how corporate entities recognize their responsibilities to societies, and in turn societies’ expectation from corporate entities have increased.1 The idea of CSR has placed corporation not only in the position to be responsible for economic and legal obligations but also to a responsibility to society which extends beyond these obligations. In the 1920’s before the stock market crashed the doctrine of self interest was dominant. People’s interest was to make as much money as possible and to maximize profits 2 However concepts started to change during the great depression. Managers were now forced to balance interest of all stakeholders who pressured companies to use their wealth to meet the needs of society. This stage marked the first time for organizations to become socially responsible in order to survive. In the 1960’s CSR moved onto another stage. This period was marked by the quality of life management in which managers were now expected to manage the quality of life by helping to solve problems such as pollution and poverty at both local and national levels. They were expected to become involved in activities in their communities that improved the quality of life.2 Today CSR has reached the stage of life management . Two principles provide the basis for CSR today. According to Durnham and Pierce one is the principle of charity, that is people who have should give to those who do not. This belief is the foundation that organizations should practice philanthropy The other principle is that of stewardship that is when companies meet their obligations to society they can gain their power and wealth in so doing.2 CSR has grown fast and smoothly over the last 20yrs as companies strive to make operations more ethical. However it seems that companies were implementing CSR to counteract the damage on both sales and reputation caused by activist and stakeholders who were vigilantly monitoring their ethical bahavior.3 Countries may be affected differently by CSR example issues such as poverty, HIV/Aids, Country’s inability to repay international debt, the absence of electricity or running water whilst other issues of carbon oxide emissions , money laundering which may affect all countries but only made public in more industrialized countries.6 CSR is warmly embraced around the world since the 1980’s and are being revived. Entities around the globe are acknowledging that if they wish to compete successfully and survive in the modern markets they must incorporate CSR and satisfy stakeholders demands in this regard Doing “good” is now perceived as being trendy and rewarding if not immediate then absolutely in the longer term. 6 Companies are recognizing that CSR helps protect one’s reputation which in turn protect sale, share price and profits. One business ethics report suggested that companies with ethical commitments have an 18 percent higher profit than their competitor. Activist continue to attack companies on their behavior and make them aware that some of the issues they need to consider an example of this is the case of Nike v Kasky . Kasky a California based activist took Nike all the way to the supreme court. He claimed that Nike mislead the public about working conditions for Vietnamese, Chinese and Indonesians laborers. Before the case was tried a settlement was made in which Nike agreed to make an additional workplace related investment of $1.5 million to the Fair Labor Association. Nike also agreed to advocate corporate transparency. 9 During the 1990’s a number of CSR reporting initiative were established one is the Global Reporting Initiative(GRI) . This report was done by Multi stakeholder together with an independent institution and their mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable sustainable reporting guidelines. The role of the UK government in the aspect of CSR has been significant. . Because of the influences of the European Union it became necessary for the UK government to issue Parliamentary Acts such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, Data Protection Act 1998, Human Right Act 1998 to name a few. All these were concerted efforts by government to ensure that employees had legal protection during employment. 6 DEFINITION AND THEORY CSR have been variously defined but all the recent definitions have one common theme : they all state that modern business must be aware of the economic, social and environmental impact of their operations and actions on both their stakeholders and the natural environment. This will require them to minimize the adverse effects and maximize the consequential benefits of their action on stakeholders and the environment. One expert defined Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as “the notion that corporations have an obligation to constituent groups in society other than stakeholders and beyond that prescribed by law or union contract”. 1 According to Kotler4 CSR is “a commitment to improve community well being through discretionary business practices and contributions or corporate resources”. We can focus on the word discretionary and point to note is that the activities are not law imposed but voluntary . This commitment by corporations is to put into practice contribution and ethical practices. CSR is the ethical behavior of a company towards society, that is management acting responsibly towards other stakeholders who have a legitimate interest in the business. It is the commitment by businesses to behave in an ethical manner and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local communities and society at large.8 Nancy Lockwood, a researcher for the society for human resource management said: “Establishing a positive company reputation and brand in the public eye through good work that yield a competitive edge while at the same time contribute to others demands”1. Companies are now forced to shift from solely making profit to consider the responsibility to the environment and social responsibility in their business strategies. An example of this is the Body Shop5 . when the body shop was acquired by Loreal, customers and CSR activist were appalled. The body shop was well known for its display of ethics regarding many issues one being they were in opposition of animal testing, campaigning for human rights and building self esteem. Loreal on the other hand were severely criticized for animal testing and for exploiting women and creating insecurities in women. Customers felt betrayed and so decided to boycott the body shop products. The results was that the body shop reassured their customers that they have not compromised their values and ethics however they said that they are using this as an opportunity to extend their values to Loreal In addition to that they assured their customers that they will continue to operate as an independent entity. This case clearly emphasizes that displays of CSR was very important to the existence of the body shop. The newest theory of social responsibility is called sustainability. This refers to the idea that socially responsible companies will out perform their peers as they focus on the world’s social problems and view these as opportunities to build profits and help the world at the same time. Another theorist said that total CSR has four components : economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic . Therefore as companies make profits they are required to obey the law (legal responsibility) and do what is right, just and fair(ethical responsibility) and be good corporate citizens(philanthropic responsibility).7 THE BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO The British American Tobacco (BAT) an international tobacco company, during the years have had their share of trouble with increased litigation giving negative attention on the industry.. One notable case was the Carter case in Florida, Grady Carter who was a lifetime smoker contracted lung cancer. He was awarded $750,000 in damages by the Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corp. a subsidiary of BAT. The trouble did not end as the US Justice department is trying to have the industry pay $289 Billion for lying about the risks of smoking for the past 50 years. Governments have added additional taxes per pack of cigarettes in order to reduce the habit. BAT being the second largest cigarette company was affected by this increase and so recorded a 25 percent decrease in profits as a result. According to one medical expert the tobacco company was termed as a profit motivated disease vector, duty bound by corporate law to maximize profits13. With this reputation BAT has adopted the strategy of CSR in order maintain sustainability and profitability. In its 2003/2004 social report they acknowledged that that accepting CSR and contributing in the ways that a business can make good business sense. This explains BAT’s role in eliminating child labour in tobacco growing foundation and its claim that they do not employ child labour. 14 BAT has donated £380000.00 to help establish the UK’s first international centre for CSR at the University in Nottingham Business school. They have provided 250,000 farmers support in responsible tobacco leaf production. In China Bat aims to support the development of education ,including endowing a chair of marketing at the China Europe International Business School in Shanghai. In Malaysia BAT has given financial support to students who are talented and who may not have the resources to pursue higher education.15 BAT has since 2001 started to publicize their CSR activities by means of a public report in 14 countries . They believe that making this report public it would challenge those who claim that a tobacco company cannot be a socially responsible company16. In response to the increased litigation and negative attention on the industry, the tobacco company have become increasingly open about the dangers of their products16 BAT in Brazil have made the wearing of personal protection equipment mandatory when applying agrochemicals a condition of its contract with farmers.BAT is committed operate to strict standards and to ensure that sales and marketing are directed only to the adult consumers. They agree that there must be enforcement and penalties for breaking the law regarding such selling to minors. BAT has supported staff members regarding group policy and has provided guidance and support in specific areas like, Whistle blowing, Conflicts of interest, bribery and corruption, accurate accounting and record keeping insider dealing and market abuse to name a few. Their standard require that all staff act with high standard of business integrity, and to comply with all laws and regulations wherever the companies operate. Stakeholders have produced a summary of the expectations of BAT. All the reports BAT says are independently confirmed and are based on independently facilitated stakeholder dialogue. BAT claims that they became involved in CSR because it’s the right thing to do and that it supports long term business sustainability they also claimed that demonstrating CSR may help to overcome some barriers to trust amongst regulators. 17 At the end of 2008 BAT said that 40 percent of their global volume came from countries where their standards are generally stricter than local law. These standards cover all tobacco product marketing and any message through media, print ,promotional events and sponsorship. They cover some of the following: not to be aimed or appeal to youth, not to feature a celebrity or link tobacco with sports, not to appear in printed publications only if 75 percent are adults, carry a health warning on product packs, no billboards advertising within 100 meters of a school, no unsolicited free samples, public place smoking which includes bans on smoking in public places. They have also made it public of the dangers of smoking. BAT in many parts of the world have kept their standards and these standards in many cases are stricter than local laws or industry voluntary codes .Where their standards are lower than governments standard they obey the law.17 BAT has continued to pursue research and development and test marketing of innovative tobacco products that may be acceptable to the consumer. Their goal for 2009 is to be viable ,consumer acceptable reduced risk products to market. They are striving to develop and validate scientifically meaningful measurements to the exposure of tobacco smoke and to investigate how hey would measure potential harm. They are also striving to conduct their first clinical study of combustible prototype product that in smoking machine test produces lower levels of toxic compared to the conventional cigarette. In addition the will continue to develop and update our scientific website.17 BAT agrees that consumption of tobacco poses a real and serious treat to one’s health and Tobacco products should be appropriately regulated. Conclusion Many companies may use CSR as a mask for the devastating impact that multinational companies can have in an even more globalized world. 11 Bat for example, tobacco usage can never be termed as healthy no matter how “attractive” its made to be. Even if consumed in moderation it still has adverse effects on one’s health. Did BAT get involved in CSR to resist tighter regulation was a question asked also can the Tobacco company preach harm reduction. To the majority of public health policy it means urging people not to start using tobacco products. Since tobacco advertising is prohibited in most countries is BAT using CSR as a form of advertising and making their activities public . Making their CSR reports publicly available BAT has used this as a means of advertising. The sustainability reports list all their activities regarding CSR throughout the world. They have been doing good to cover over the damages they have caused over the years .From a public point of view it is important to remember that there is no safe form of tobacco. The tobacco company has strategically used CSR to satisfy stakeholders demands, and maximize profits. There are major weaknesses in the CSR agenda and it may require further examination. One is the definition which is not clear allowing companies to make claims of being socially responsible and this cannot be challenged . Another is the voluntary approach gives the power to companies to set their own agenda without fear of significant challenge . Also the external regulatory environment is not having sufficient checks in place to ensure that corporations behave in a socially responsible manner. There are a number of barriers to successful CSR for example lets take the human Rights Act . There are broad variations regarding objectives , scope and coverage. First the existing initiative are created by different bodies some of which may have more authority than others. Companies are left confused as to what is expected of them . Because of the different levels of authority companies can pick and chose between clauses of the social contract. References Global practices of corporate social responsibility bye Samuel O Idow, Walter Leal Filho Competitive Global management and Strategies by Abass F. Alkhafaji World business council for sustainable development Management by Robert Kreitner 10th edition Joseph W. Mc Guire Business and Society New York Mc craw-Hi;; 1963 p.144 Phillip Kotler and Nancy Lee www.icmrindia.org Essential of marketing by Charles W .Lamb, Joseph F. Hair, Jr Carl McDaniel Investing in corporate social responsibility: a guide to best practice.. by john Hancock http://www.csrquest.net/uploadfiles/1D.pdf Perspectives on corporate social responsibility by Nina Boeger Stocking up on sin: how to crush the market with vice-based investing by Caroline Waxler Ending the holocaust by Michael Robinoff The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility By Andrew Crane, Abigail McWilliams, Dirk Matlen The International Directory of Corporate Philantrophy By Europa, Europa publications Strategic corporate social responsibility stakeholders in a global environment by William B. Werther, David Chandler www.bat.com/group/site/uk Table of contents Introduction to CSR Definition The British American Tobacco and CSR Summary Conclusion
Capella University Agent of Technology Change Discussion
essay writer Capella University Agent of Technology Change Discussion.
Write 350 words In some ways, these initiatives were put in place as changes to the status quo. In organizations, there are a number of ways to drive change. You can simply order it done. You can also provide education as to the necessity of change, or IT managers can work with employees to help them accept change as their own. In addition, the IT manager can work behind the scenes to politically “grease” change processes and outcomes. Summarize how it will help you become an agent of technology change in your career.
Capella University Agent of Technology Change Discussion
Economics homework help
Economics homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on what are two of your strengths that you may build on as an emerging educator?. The paper also provides additional guidelines to use in writing the assignment paper well.,What are two of your strengths that you may build on as an emerging educator?,Download the Teacher Education Disposition Assessment ,here,., You can also find it in the SPU Teacher Education Communication HUB Canvas Site for future reference under Program Assessments here.,Read through it and complete it as a self-assessment for your own practice. You will not be turning this in, but you will use the results of this for your disposition paper.,Most of us are Basic or Proficient on most dispositions. None of us are Unsatisfactory or Distinguished on all of them. It may be you are unsure how to rate yourself – take time and think about it. If you are entirely stuck, mark Basic as the default.,Please note the goal is not self-reverence (all Distinguished) or self-scorn (all Unsatisfactory) – both approaches are unproductive and inaccurate. Our goal is self-assessment for growth – so be balanced, recognizing that “no challenge has overtaken you that is not faced by others” (I Corinthians, 10:13). It’s obvious, but also helpful to recognize that there is no assessment in the world that will fully represent your character and that this exercise is about raising awareness for making incremental improvements.,What are two of your strengths that you may build on as an emerging educator?,Reflective self-assessment paper. Write a paper between 1000 and 1200 words responding to the questions below using reflective narrative. You will choose 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses from the list of 12 criteria on the Disposition Assessment. It is not necessary to follow APA style, but attention to syntax and control of conventions is part of the scoring rubric, shown below. Upload your final paper to Canvas (Word or PDF file format) under the Assignments > Disposition Self-Assessment link.,If you would like to use these questions as prompts but to follow your own personal narrative style and structure, that is fine. Just don’t forget to write two areas of strength, two areas of growth/weakness, and the action steps you will take to improve in those areas of weakness.,Strengths,What are two of your strengths (from the Disposition Assessment criteria) that you may build on as an emerging educator?, How might your strengths provide opportunity to move from novice to expert teacher?,Weaknesses,Firstly, what are two of your weaknesses (from the Disposition Assessment criteria) that you need to improve to be an effective educator?, Secondly, how might your weaknesses prevent movement from novice to expert teacher?, Thirdly, what are two practical and observable steps you may take to improve your weaknesses?, Rubric, Disposition Self-Assessment Rubric, Disposition Self-Assessment Rubric, Criteria Ratings Pts,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Economics homework help
EDM 501 Trident University Theories & Practices of Domestic Terrorism Discussion
EDM 501 Trident University Theories & Practices of Domestic Terrorism Discussion.
DISCUSSION: Theories and Practices of Domestic TerrorismA substantive comment should be approximately 250 words or more for every response.Cite sources within your comment to support your statements for every response. (4 Responses Total)Include at least two references minimum, properly formatted, not just a link.Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.htmlSYNTHESIS MY DISCUSSION WITH THE 4 RESPONSESSYNTHESIS MY DISCUSSION WITH THE 4 RESPONSESSYNTHESIS MY DISCUSSION WITH THE 4 RESPONSESI started my discussion with this:Professor and Classmates, Theories and Practices of Domestic TerrorismTerrorism began with small terrorist groups. Rapoport’s theory states that modern terrorism got four waves, nationalist, anarchist, the current religious wave, and 1960s lefties. Each group lasted for a while before another one got formed, though some groups were overruled. The theory is elementary and gives complete information, thus being an excellent academic model. Rapoport uses different sources of data to compose a brilliant idea (Kaplan, 2008). However, when Rapoport’s theory is compared to varying views in the group, they did not contradict. Perspectives on TerrorismFrom the two, four waves is an international terrorism theory. However, any group that began as global waves are not part of the four waves. Such groups lead to the invention of foreign education and foreign ideas. The main goal of such groups is to change people to follow their culture and beliefs (Marighella, 1969). According to various theories of Rapoport, different waves led to emerging movements. Characteristics of The Fifth Wave GroupThe fifth wave group had authoritative and charismatic leadership, it was deep into religion and supported their leader, their signature is rape, and they are localisms. Violence gets forced until they are recognized and believe in perfectibility among them (Miller and Smarick, 2012). The group conducts radical quests and claims to have established some calendars and withdrawals to the wilderness and emphasize recruiting new members into the group, both men and women. Animal Liberation FrontThe Animal Liberation Front is an example of a terrorist group in the United States. The group is a severe threat, as said by the FBI (Lewis, Testimony, 2004). The group acts against the people and companies. The purpose of these acts is to cause harm to individuals and losses to the affected companies. The group is expanding hence causing damage to society (Militant extremists in the United States, 2016).Their EstablishmentsBeing a threat to communities, the group has succeeded in some of its violent acts, such as harassing employees and committing crimes affecting the stability of companies (Cadigan & Schmitt, 2010). However, the group plans on causing physical harm to other firms such as law enforcement and food producers, among others. Recently, the group improvised new explosives, causing fear to the public. Also, there are threats such as assassinations and more bombings.Both domestic and internal domestic is a threat to targeted countries. However, terrorism is almost in every country, even in the most developed ones, despite their law enforcement. Thus, the need for intelligence to help in discovering threats and preventing attacks (Trista, (n. d). These terrorist groups grow from tiny groups that get recruited what they call, making new men and women. People get trained on foreign beliefs and later form or join their larger groups.PedroReferences:Cadigan J., & Schmitt P. M. (2010). Strategic entry deterrence and terrorism: Theory and experimental evidence. Public Choice, 143: 3–22. Available from the Trident Online Library.Lewis, J. E. (2004, May 18). Testimony. Retrieved from The federal Bureau of Investigation FBI: https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/a…Kaplan, J. (2008). Terrorism fifth wave: A theory, a conundrum, and a dilemma. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2(2), Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277405374…Marighella, C. (1969). Mini-manual of the urban guerrilla. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/marighella-carlos/… [a classic]Militant extremists in the United States (2016). Homeland Security Digital Library. Retrieved from https://www.hsdl.org/c/militant-extremists-in-the-…Miller, E. and Smarick, K. (2012). Profiles of perpetrators of terrorism in the United States. START Terrorism Database. Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_PPTUS_DataCol…Trista (n. d.). The Weathermen launched a terror campaign in the 1960s and 1970s. Retrieved from http://historycollection.co/diana-oughton-one-many…4 RESPONSESRESPONSE 1Initial Post: Theories and Practices of Domestic TerrorismProfessor and Classmates,After reading Jeffery Kaplan’s section on “Terrorism’s Fifth Wave: A Theory, a Conundrum, and Dilemma,” I gained a great deal of knowledge that I was not aware of. The section brought a whole new perspective on terrorism. As I was reading, I was intrigued by how women are at the center of the fifth wave’s violence. The origin is the Acholi tribe, a tribal culture that exists throughout Africa and the Middle East (Kaplan, 2008). In 1986, Alice Lakwena’s Holy Spirit Movement gained recognition in the Acholi region. From this movement, the Lord’s Resistance Army was led by Acholi Joseph Kony and, based on his political beliefs, wanted to rule Uganda per the Biblical Ten Commandments (Minority Rights Group International, 2018). The militia mimics a cult, and an estimated twenty-five thousand children were abducted over the years, forcing them to commit malicious violence to the civilian population. The children are like children soldiers who are born to fight. The Lord’s Resistance Army was an ideal fit for the Fifth Wave (Kaplan, 2018). Based on an article of the Human Rights Watch, the United Nations verified and verified reports of children being effects reaching over fifty-eight thousand children. Fifteen to sixteen thousand were affected based on recruitment efforts between December 2013 and October 2015. Children Soldiers may start as young as eight years old and serve in government forces and armed opposition forces. Some of their duties include but are not limited to spy duties, messengers, or suicide missions (Bleasdale, 2013). This is the most horrible thing to teach children and remaining violent throughout the rest of theirs. I understand their culture, but the violent extremist group remains in countries such as Sudan. A right-wing extremist group in the United States called “Army of God” started its violent network in the early 1980s (Whyte, 2018). The group openly promotes the killing of abortion providers and supports various individuals jailed for murders of healthcare workers. The group has been linked to domestic terror attacks across the United States. Looking at historical factors, the United Supreme Court’s decision in 1973 to legal abortion in the case Roe vs. Waded launched a powerful movement across the nation to combat murderous injustice and direct violation of “God’s will. (Evans, 2011) ” When the Army of God was formed, they utilized violence to “stop abortion (Evans, 2011) ” If you can check the Army of God’s website, it is very gruesome. One of the statements made was “babies need to be protected from baby killing abortionist and from those who want to murder them (Spitz, 2020) .” What are your thoughts?DavidReferences:Bleasdale, M. (2013). Child Soldiers. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-soldiers.Evans, M. (2011). THE ARMY OF GOD AND MILITANT ISLAMISTS: POTENTIAL BFFS? Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from file:///C:/Users/dschible/Downloads/820900.pdf.Kaplan, J. (2020). Terrorism’s Fifth Wave: A Theory, a Conundrum and a Dilemma. Perspectives on Terrorism. Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/26/html.Minority Rights Group International. (2020). UGANDA Acholi. Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from https://minorityrights.org/minorities/acholi/.Spitz, R. D. (2020). Archive of Links 1 Army of God. Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from http://www.armyofgod.com/ArchiveofLinks.html.Whyte, L. (2018, February 5). Has Trump’s White House ‘resurrected’ Army of God anti-abortion extremists? Open Democracy. Retrieved on December 16, 2020 from https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/army-of-god-anti-abortion-terrorists-emboldened-under-trump/.RESPONSE 2Module 1 Discussion: Theories and Practices of Domestic Terrorism Classmates and Professor,One thing that really stood out to me was the 17 characteristics of Fifth Wave Groups. Radicalization and breaking away from the terrorist group from which they originated is likely to be the case for many terrorist groups, especially Fifth Wave Groups. Furthermore, these groups are being formed out of dire necessity, either due to all hope being lost or different ideologies.One such example is the Somali Pirates. Essentially they formed after their government collapsed, and foreign fishing vessels moved into the Somali waters to take advantage of some of the best fishing out there. Vessels came from worldwide and used illegal fishing techniques, which destroyed smaller fishing cages and traps, causing the local Somali people to go hungry. Other nations would use Somalia as a hazardous waste dumping ground because of little to no control measures to make matters worse.This tension is what formed the early piracy in Somalia. In the early 1990s, many of the attacks occurred close to shore and were unorganized, but they boarded the fishing vessel and pillaged what they could and then left. Another distinguishing fact between early piracy and piracy of today is that the early pirates would only target vessels fishing illegally as a deterrent to other vessels. The tactics of today’s pirates are much more sophisticated. They can carry out attacks up to 800 nautical miles from shore using “mother ships” and speed boats. They use GPS technology to identify their targets and use ransom as a primary means of income. In the course of approximately 30-40 years, piracy in this region has become extremely dangerous and has turned the Horn of Africa into one of the most hostile places in the world (Daniels, 2012).Looking domestically, white supremacy is a group that is well-known for racism and their right-wing ideology. White supremacists’ ideology is to have white domination, and they use religion as a tactic to spread their message. The Department of Homeland Security and the FBI has labeled White Supremacists as a domestic terror group due to their hateful message and violent acts. Although local and federal law enforcement has been aggressively pursuing domestic terror groups, attacks are still carried out (Caldararo, 2020). On February 14, 2018, “An assailant armed with a semi-automatic rifle entered Building 12 at Stoneman Douglas High School and opened fire on students and teachers in Parkland, Florida, United States. At least 17 people were killed, and 17 other people were injured in the assault. The assailant escaped the building and was arrested a few hours later. Authorities identified the assailant as Nikolas Cruz, noting that he possessed “racist, homophobic and anti-Semitic views.” and that he had etched swastikas into his ammunition magazines” (Global Terrorism Database, n.d.). This is one of the more deadly attacks that was recently carried out and why there has been such an emphasis on stopping this kind of violence.NicholasReferences:Caldararo, N. L. (2020). White Supremacy: Origins and Evolution, a Brief History of Who is Included and Excluded and How it Has Created a Crisis in America. Available at SSRN 3619534.Daniels, C. L. (2012). Somali Piracy and Terrorism in the Horn of Africa. ProQuest Ebook Central https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy.trident.eduGlobal Terrorism Database. (n.d.). Search the database. Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=201802140033Kaplan, J. (2010). Terrorism’s Fifth Wave: A Theory, a Conundrum, and a Dilemma. Perspectives On Terrorism, 2(2). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/26RESPONSE 3Module 1_Post 1Classmate and Professor,“Radicalize and break away from established terrorist wave” is the first characteristic that Jeffery Kaplan drafted (Kaplan, 2008). He expressed the ideology of the fifth wave of terrorism. Previous theories have been developed but failed to include groups that began on an international wave. Kaplan listed seventeen characteristics that would make up a fifth wave organization.The Aryan Nations was a neo-Nazi, KKK, skinhead white supremacist militia group created in the U.S in 1970. Hayden Lake, Idaho, is the location of the Aryan Nations compound. They practice their Christian identity believing that Aryans are superior to Jews and African Americans (Lambert, 2011). They have conducted guerilla warfare and urban terrorist acts. They conducted a bank robbery where they successfully stole four million dollars to aid in their plans to overthrow the government. In 1985 the group defaulted after twenty-five of their members were sent to prison. They began to form a prison gang and use newsletters to build their numbers. The Aryan Nations would also hold youth festivals near Hitler’s birthday to scout out young members. By 1997 this organization had hate groups established in twenty-seven states across the nation (Lambert, 2011). This group correlates with the fifth wave achieving many of the seventeen characteristics. The Aryan Nations had a radical request to purify the nation of Jews and African Americans using deadly schism and internal damage. This group targeted kids to join its causes, which also is outlined in number ten of the fifth wave characteristics.StephanyReferencesKaplan, J. (2008). Terrorism’s Fifth Wave: A Theory, a Conundrum and a Dilemma. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/…Lambert, L. (2011). Aryan Nations. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Aryan-NationsRESPONSE 4Discussion Week 1Classmate and Professor,The establishment of a break away terrorist group in my opinion probably happens more than we realize. The ideals that attract people can be contagious in a sense and lead to a more extreme and dynamic group as the result. An easy stretch is the link of distinct traits of fifth wave groups is violence. According to the reading “Violence is so pervasive in the fifth wave that it loses its message content beyond the simple assertion that ‘we exist’” Kaplan J. (2020). To me, this statement not only draws people who feel the violence or “the reason” the violence should take place is justified but also just violent people who do not concern themselves with the why but instead wanting to only participate and use the group and be violent.An example came to mind immediately as I read this and it lead me to believe Antifa is an example of an actual domestic terrorist group in America. I feel personally that the group exhibits over three-quarter of the traits listed in the typical characteristics according to Kaplan J (2008). Even so an article that not only recommends the group is also a terrorist group it also could mean significant changes if names a terrorist group. According to Sarah Lee’s article, “if named a terrorist group, the federal government can go after the funding sources” Lee, S (2020). I personally believe that statement alone is the reason why so many are hesitant on calling the group a terrorist organization it would mandate an investigation into who is funding them and fear the ties go far back into their own political party/state/personal circles in the elite level. It is truly sickening to see this happen in our country.- AndrewReferenceLee, S. (2020) If Antifa is Designated a Terrorist Group, There Are a Lot of Possible Charges Coming Retrieved 20201214 From:If Antifa is Designated A Terrorist Group, There Are A Lot Of Possible Charges Coming (redstate.com)Kaplan, J (2008) Terrorism fifth wave: A theory, a conundrum, and a dilemma. Retrieved 20201214 From: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/…_______________________Module 1 – BackgroundTERRORISM AND DOMESTIC TERRORISM DEFINITIONS AND THEORYRequired ReadingCadigan J., & Schmitt P. M. (2010). Strategic entry deterrence and terrorism: Theory and experimental evidence. Public Choice, 143: 3–22. Available from the Trident Online Library. Read the first 4 pages only.Kaplan, J. (2008). Terrorism fifth wave: A theory, a conundrum, and a dilemma. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2(2), Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277405374…Marighella, C. (1969). Mini-manual of the urban guerrilla. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/marighella-carlos/… [a classic]Militant extremists in the United States (2016). Homeland Security Digital Library. Retrieved from https://www.hsdl.org/c/militant-extremists-in-the-…Miller, E. and Smarick, K. (2012). Profiles of perpetrators of terrorism in the United States. START Terrorism Database. Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_PPTUS_DataCol…Trista (n. d.). The Weathermen launched a terror campaign in the 1960s and 1970s. Retrieved from http://historycollection.co/diana-oughton-one-many…Optional ReadingMarques, P. D. (2003). Guerilla warfare tactics in urban environments. U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Retrieved from http://fas.org/man/eprint/marques.pdfPerspectives on Terrorism Journal. (2017). Journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies. Retrieved fromhttp://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/…Coats, D. R. (2018). Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community. Retrieved from https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Newsroom/Testi…
EDM 501 Trident University Theories & Practices of Domestic Terrorism Discussion