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watch a youtube video and read the lecture note and write two paragraphs a

watch a youtube video and read the lecture note and write two paragraphs a.

provide a concise two paragraph focusing on the main points discussed in your assigned readings. These are essentially summaries that should also capture the central argument being made. In historical discussions, remember that time perspective and specific examples are critical in the understanding of events.***On YouTube, watch “Second Italo-Ethiopian war documentary [Full]” 1:39:56WWII Impact continued below…Shift in balance of Powers—As the leading powers in the world, and dominant colonial powers in Africa, Britain and France were destroyed by the war. Actually France itself lost its independence to Germany. The USA and USSR emerged as the new super powers and both of them were anti-colonial. This provided a new environment for the Pan-Africanists and African nationalists to push for freedom and independence. African experience in the war—Thousands of African were recruited by the Allies to serve in war. They were trained in new weaponry and they served in the forefront alongside white soldiers. Thus, the war was educational in many respects as it was psychologically liberating to African soldiers who no longer saw whites as invincible. Most of the Africans returned from the war with this attitude, one which became indispensable in the struggle for independence. For example, Ahmad Ben Bella of Algeria, Waruhiu Itote and Bildad Kaggia of Kenya joined the armed struggles and political parties to liberate their countries.United Nations Organization (UNO)– This world body that was formed in San Francisco in October 1945 to replace the defunct League of Nations, adopted a Charter that emphasized the need to respect human rights everywhere. It was an anti-colonial body that actually established several desks and commissions to address human rights issues around the world. It provided a much needed platform for the colonized to air their grievances that threatened to embarrass the colonial powers, pressuring them to embark on reforms. African nationalism benefitted greatly from this organization as African aspirations of freedom found their way to the UN Assembly. The Asian Influence —When the war broke out, the Indian nationalists led by among others M. Gandhi and J. Nehru successfully pressed the British for concessions to have their independence after the war. India gained independence in 1947 and with this the dismantling of the British Empire had begun. Soon, India joined the UNO and British Commonwealth of Nations as an equal member, where it also helped to represent African grievances. Through other bodies such as the Afro-Asian Solidarity since 1950s, Indian nationalists kept regular contacts with African nationalists and encouraged them in their demand for independence. Many African nationalists including, Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Nelson Mandela were influenced by India’s nationalists. Actually, Nkrumah’s Positive Action and Mandela’s Defiance Campaign strategies were modelled on Gandhi’s civil disobedience.Chap. 4—The 5th Pan-African Congress This congress was organized by the Pan-African Federation (PAF) that was formed in 1944 in anticipation of the end of the war. This congress was held in 1945 in Manchester, England. The purpose was to deliberate and strategize regarding freedom and independence of Africa and the black world. The congress was presided over by Dubois and Dr. Peter Milliard. It was attended by leading Pan-Africanists such Padmore and Makonnen, and from the African continent Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kamuzu Banda, Wallace Johnson and Obafemi Awolowo. Basically, all the Pan-African groups we have discussed and new ones, including Workers’ Association of Bermuda, African National Congress of South Africa, and the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons were represented. This congress was different from the earlier congresses in terms of strategies for attaining freedom:It resolved that the struggle should not be fought in the western capitals but back in the colonial territories. The leadership that was in attendance was asked to return to their individual countries and organize against colonialismIt resolved that colonialism should be fought in every way possible, including the use of force or violenceIt recognized the central role of the trade unions and African war veterans in waging the struggle for freedomThese strategies were adopted by many as Kenyatta returned to Kenya in 1946 and Nkrumah to Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1947 and joined political parties against colonialism.The PAF continued with its pro-independence activities using its paper, the “Pan-African” that had a wide circulation in Africa. This alarmed the colonialists so much that the publication was banned in East Africa. But because of the departure of Pan-African leaders like Kenyatta and Nkrumah to Africa, among other factors PAF began to decline. However, the match towards African independence continued to gain momentum.In French Africa, Leopold Senghor called for greater autonomy within the French Union instead of self-Government. The African Democratic Rally (RDA) of Felix Houphouet-Boigny pressed for the same, i.e., economic, political and social reforms, not independence. This was followed by the passage of the loi Cadre that destroyed RDA and allowed internal autonomy Franco-Phone colonies. But that began to change when French Africans rejected their poor and patronizing treatment as French and demanded freedom.Three important events happened that hastened the independence of Africa and its Pan-African dreams. In 1952, there was a coup or revolution in Egypt led by Gamal A. Nasser and other young military officers against corrupt King Farouk. They were also opposed to the continued presence of British military bases at the Suez Canal. In October the same year, the Mau Mau Rebellion erupted in Kenya against British settler colonialism. And in 1954, the long and bloody Algerian War of independence broke out. Another important event was the convening of the Bandung Conference in April 1955 for Asian and African independent countries. The conference called for an Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation, and to also fight against colonialism. Among those at those in attendance were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, J. Nehru of India, Indonesia’s Sukamo, Nasser and Nkrumah. This Afro-Asian Solidarity played a major in ending colonialism. In 1957, Ghana became the first black African country to achieve independence with Kwame Nkrumah as its leader. Then in 1958, Committee of African Organizations (CAO) was formed in London whose membership spread to African students throughout Europe and USA. Its central aim was African unity as evidenced by its paper “United Africa”. CAO’s members included Simon Kapwepwe, Oliver Tambo, and Isaac Kambona who later became important leaders in their countries’ independence. All Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kenneth Kaunda, Milton Obote and Hastings Banda gave speeches at the meetings convened by this organization. It would take acrimonious meetings and differences to eventually form the Organization of African Unity (OAU).***On YouTube, watch “Second Italo-Ethiopian war documentary [Full]” 1:39:56WWII Impact continued below…Shift in balance of Powers—As the leading powers in the world, and dominant colonial powers in Africa, Britain and France were destroyed by the war. Actually France itself lost its independence to Germany. The USA and USSR emerged as the new super powers and both of them were anti-colonial. This provided a new environment for the Pan-Africanists and African nationalists to push for freedom and independence. African experience in the war—Thousands of African were recruited by the Allies to serve in war. They were trained in new weaponry and they served in the forefront alongside white soldiers. Thus, the war was educational in many respects as it was psychologically liberating to African soldiers who no longer saw whites as invincible. Most of the Africans returned from the war with this attitude, one which became indispensable in the struggle for independence. For example, Ahmad Ben Bella of Algeria, Waruhiu Itote and Bildad Kaggia of Kenya joined the armed struggles and political parties to liberate their countries.United Nations Organization (UNO)– This world body that was formed in San Francisco in October 1945 to replace the defunct League of Nations, adopted a Charter that emphasized the need to respect human rights everywhere. It was an anti-colonial body that actually established several desks and commissions to address human rights issues around the world. It provided a much needed platform for the colonized to air their grievances that threatened to embarrass the colonial powers, pressuring them to embark on reforms. African nationalism benefitted greatly from this organization as African aspirations of freedom found their way to the UN Assembly. The Asian Influence —When the war broke out, the Indian nationalists led by among others M. Gandhi and J. Nehru successfully pressed the British for concessions to have their independence after the war. India gained independence in 1947 and with this the dismantling of the British Empire had begun. Soon, India joined the UNO and British Commonwealth of Nations as an equal member, where it also helped to represent African grievances. Through other bodies such as the Afro-Asian Solidarity since 1950s, Indian nationalists kept regular contacts with African nationalists and encouraged them in their demand for independence. Many African nationalists including, Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Nelson Mandela were influenced by India’s nationalists. Actually, Nkrumah’s Positive Action and Mandela’s Defiance Campaign strategies were modelled on Gandhi’s civil disobedience.Chap. 4—The 5th Pan-African Congress This congress was organized by the Pan-African Federation (PAF) that was formed in 1944 in anticipation of the end of the war. This congress was held in 1945 in Manchester, England. The purpose was to deliberate and strategize regarding freedom and independence of Africa and the black world. The congress was presided over by Dubois and Dr. Peter Milliard. It was attended by leading Pan-Africanists such Padmore and Makonnen, and from the African continent Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kamuzu Banda, Wallace Johnson and Obafemi Awolowo. Basically, all the Pan-African groups we have discussed and new ones, including Workers’ Association of Bermuda, African National Congress of South Africa, and the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons were represented. This congress was different from the earlier congresses in terms of strategies for attaining freedom:It resolved that the struggle should not be fought in the western capitals but back in the colonial territories. The leadership that was in attendance was asked to return to their individual countries and organize against colonialismIt resolved that colonialism should be fought in every way possible, including the use of force or violenceIt recognized the central role of the trade unions and African war veterans in waging the struggle for freedomThese strategies were adopted by many as Kenyatta returned to Kenya in 1946 and Nkrumah to Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1947 and joined political parties against colonialism.The PAF continued with its pro-independence activities using its paper, the “Pan-African” that had a wide circulation in Africa. This alarmed the colonialists so much that the publication was banned in East Africa. But because of the departure of Pan-African leaders like Kenyatta and Nkrumah to Africa, among other factors PAF began to decline. However, the match towards African independence continued to gain momentum.In French Africa, Leopold Senghor called for greater autonomy within the French Union instead of self-Government. The African Democratic Rally (RDA) of Felix Houphouet-Boigny pressed for the same, i.e., economic, political and social reforms, not independence. This was followed by the passage of the loi Cadre that destroyed RDA and allowed internal autonomy Franco-Phone colonies. But that began to change when French Africans rejected their poor and patronizing treatment as French and demanded freedom.Three important events happened that hastened the independence of Africa and its Pan-African dreams. In 1952, there was a coup or revolution in Egypt led by Gamal A. Nasser and other young military officers against corrupt King Farouk. They were also opposed to the continued presence of British military bases at the Suez Canal. In October the same year, the Mau Mau Rebellion erupted in Kenya against British settler colonialism. And in 1954, the long and bloody Algerian War of independence broke out. Another important event was the convening of the Bandung Conference in April 1955 for Asian and African independent countries. The conference called for an Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation, and to also fight against colonialism. Among those at those in attendance were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, J. Nehru of India, Indonesia’s Sukamo, Nasser and Nkrumah. This Afro-Asian Solidarity played a major in ending colonialism. In 1957, Ghana became the first black African country to achieve independence with Kwame Nkrumah as its leader. Then in 1958, Committee of African Organizations (CAO) was formed in London whose membership spread to African students throughout Europe and USA. Its central aim was African unity as evidenced by its paper “United Africa”. CAO’s members included Simon Kapwepwe, Oliver Tambo, and Isaac Kambona who later became important leaders in their countries’ independence. All Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kenneth Kaunda, Milton Obote and Hastings Banda gave speeches at the meetings convened by this organization. It would take acrimonious meetings and differences to eventually form the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
watch a youtube video and read the lecture note and write two paragraphs a

In this chapter, several axes concerning the quality and the safety of food will be discussed. It is important to clarify these axes if one should research this field. To start, clarifying what is the definition of food safety is a must and what is meant by food safety, according to its importance, and what are the stages of the development of food safety concept throughout the food chain. Likewise, shifting to the concept of ISO 22000, the date of issue, the urgent need that derived its issue and what it includes from the requirements of food safety is a must, also management systems and the fundamentals that the system is based upon. Due to the talk in this chapter about food safety, ignoring the main foundation of food safety system which is HACCP and its effectiveness as running system to hold the safety of food cannot be done. Talking about the ISO 9000 system also will be done, and why many institutions applied both HACCP and ISO 9000, and why the HACPP system did not hold on by its own keeping the quality of the food safety management system. Demonstrating the urgent need that lead institutions concerned with applying food safety systems to the necessity of running a system such as the ISO 22000 system instead of the HACCP system alone also will be done. The characteristics of applying the ISO 22000 system over the HACCP system alone will be demonstrated. The characteristic role of applying this system in the development and advancement of the institutions working with this system shall be demonstrated. In addition to the necessity of discussing the benefits of applying the ISO 22000 on the institutions running on this system as well as the fields of its applications starting from the farm till the serving dish including all the process such as transportation, circulating and supplying the institutions with food that is to be processed, as well as the different transportation process of this food throughout the whole stages of circulating and manufacturing. Therefore what is said earlier can be summarized and clarified by talking about the following axes: 1- Definitions of Food Safety 2- ISO 22000 Concepts 3- HACCP and ISO 9000 4- HACCP versus ISO 22000 5- ISO 22000 Advantages 6- ISO 22000 applications 3.2 Definitions of Food Safety “Food safety” is about the prevention, elimination, or control of food borne hazards at the point of consumption. Everyday around the world, people agree on this one point-consumers need and deserve assurance that the food sold for them is safe to consume. As the food safety hazards may be introduced at any stage of the food supply chain, every company in the supply chain must exercise adequate hazard controls. In fact, food safety can be only ensured through the combined efforts of all parties in the food chain. Organizations within the food supply chain range from primary procedures (e.g farmers, ranchers) through food processor, storage and transportation operators, subcontracts, and all the way to retail outlets (e.g., groceries, restaurants), as well as every point and company in between. And through their products are not parts of the food we consume, makers of processing equipment, packaging materials, cleaning agents, additives/ingredients, and even service provider (e.g., equipments testers) are also integral parts of the supply chain of food safety. Otherwise what do we mean by “Food safety” as a concept? “Safety” is an integrated concept, which comprises both quality factors, namely the extent to which it meets the needs of the people, and safety factors, the extent to which it may do harm to people¿½s health. Therefore, food Safety is a complex system engineering, which involves raw materials, activities of production and product test.(Zhu, et al., 2008), Food safety remains huge opportunity for improvement in preventing illness from known food pathogens and in responding to new and emerging food borne illnesses and threats (The ASQ the Quarterly Quality Report June 2007)(not mentioned in references). A similar description of food safety as protection of food against chemical, biological and physical factors which can endanger human health has been used by (Codex, 2003). Food safety as a concept means that foodstuffs should not be harmful to the consumer and recognizes that food safety hazards can be introduced at any stage of the food chain (GFSI Technical Committee – September 2007). The World Health Organization (WHO, 2003) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) define food safety as food that is free from all hazards, whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer. Food safety relates to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food and prevent contamination and food borne illnesses. Also we can conclude that food safety is related to how safe the food we eat is. Its mandate covers the transportation, manufacturing and processing, consumer safety, production of equipment for food safety, storage, delivery exportation and importation. (WHO,2003) define food safety as: ¿½all conditions and measures that are necessary during the production, processing, storage, distribution, and preparation of food to ensure that it is safe, sound, wholesome and fit for human consumption¿½. 3.3 ISO 22000 Concepts The process started in November 2001 with voting on the final draft in August 2005. All 34 national standard bodies that voted were positive and there were no rejections. The standard was published in September 2005 and subsequently translated for publication by national standard bodies, which are replacing national standards by ISO 22000. It has also been published as an European (CEN) standard: EN-ISO 22000 and is currently the standard in over 40 countries. ISO 22000:2005 provides a framework of internationally harmonized requirements for the global approach that is needed. The standard has been developed within ISO by experts from the food industry, along with representatives of specialized international organizations and in close cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the body jointly established by the United Nations¿½ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to develop food standards (ISO 22000 for safe food supply chains. ISO 22000:2005, Food safety management systems ¿½ Requirements for any organization in the food chain, aims to ensure that there are no weak links in the food supply chain. Since its publication in September 2005, the standard has been well received by the food industry and is clearly becoming a global standard to be reckoned with. ISO 22000 has been designed with flexibility to enable a tailor-made approach to food safety for all segments of the food chain. It does not take a ¿½one size fits all approach¿½ since the standards and procedures required for high risk areas in one food sector may not be appropriate in another. For this reason, unlike other schemes, the standard does not provide a checklist methodology. In 2005 ISO 22000 was published to be the first international food safety management standard applicable to the whole food supply chain. The aim was to ensure all parts of a supply chain, no matter their location or function, could be united under one standard. ISO 22000 requires an organization to demonstrate its ability to manage food safety hazards and provide consistently safe products that meet both customer requirements and food safety regulations. It was hailed as the ultimate opportunity to harmonies global food safety approaches. ISO 22000 standard is considered to be the first international quality standard designed to work with all cultural prescription, statutes and regulation.ISO 22000 is dedicated to improve consumer confidence in the food product and the process. It applies to every link in the food supply chain from the farm to the table.(Joee Carroll, 2008) . ISO 22000 is an international, auditable standard that specifies the requirement of food safety management by incorporating all the elements of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) together with a comprehensive management system. (Vel, et al., 2005) Food safety management system (FSMS) combining between Good Management Practices, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and effective supplier verification and validation, ensuring that all actions possible are taken, recorded and verified to ensure safe food, which is based on the HACCP principles. This requires a company policy definition and quality manual, with definition of responsibilities for management and employees, prerequisite programs and HACCP plan implementation, and preparing pre-request programs and measures for implementing the food safety program. Preparing the HACCP team and effective recording systems, and a combination of self assessment with application of internal auditing, management review, application of all legal requirements and supplier evaluation, are other concerns in this system. (Mehrdad, 2007).So food safety management systems principally control the specific food safety hazards associated with the product and ensure compliance with food safety legislation.(L. Manning , R.N. Baines,2004). In line with all other standardized management systems, the systemic approach adopted by the ISO 22000 standard is based on the application of process management principles. A number of management philosophies, such as TQM and Six Sigma, are also based on these principles (Hammer, 2002). Core element of process management is the concept of processes. In this context, the management system of an organization can be viewed as a single large process, which may be broken down to several sub-processes (Bhuiyan and Alam, 2005). Effective management of these processes ensures effective management of the whole organization (see Armistead et al., 1999). It should be noted that in the case of ISO 22000, as mentioned in ISO/TS 22004 (giving guidelines for applying the standard), processes are considered in terms of food safety (IOS, 2005b). A key tool for effective process management is the well known Deming cycle Plan-Do-Check- Act (PDCA). Plan concerns the design of processes, in a way that fully specifies which activities are to be done (when, by whom and how) so as to ensure repeatability and consistency. Do cover the implementation of these activities, in accordance with the plan. Measurements of end-to-end process performance and assessment of these measurements in order to facilitate targets setting are actually part of Check. Finally, Act refers to process improvement and ensures that the critical activities are executed in the most efficient and effective manner. Processes standardization is also an important issue (see Davenport, 2005). In order to apply the PDCA cycle, ISO 22000 has adapted a requirements presentation scheme directly analogous to the ISO 9001:2000 quality systems standard. Specifically, after three initial clauses (giving scope, references and definitions) the ISO 22000 requirements are grouped into five clauses: (1) Food safety management system; (2) Management responsibility; (3) Resource management; (4) Planning and realization of safe products; and (5) Validation, verification and improvement. Under the first clause, the organization establishes and documents a food safety management system and defines its scope (i.e. products, processes and sites). The management responsibility clause specifies requirements covering safety policy definition, safety planning (through objectives and targets), communication issues and management review. Provision of all resources necessary for the implementation of the system is the scope of the resource management clause. In the planning and realization of safe products clause, all production processes affecting products safety need be designed and the respective safety plans developed. In fact, this clause includes most technical requirements of classical HACCP (and is the only clause drastically different from its ISO 9001 counterpart). Finally, the last clause specifies requirements which ensure system verification (i.e. the system ability to reliably deliver expected safety outcomes) and continuous improvement.(Panagiotis, 2009) This International Standard specifies the requirements for a food safety management system that combines the following generally recognized key elements to ensure food safety along the food chain, up to the point of final consumption: – Interactive communication. – System management. – Prerequisite programmes. – HACCP principles. Communication along the food chain is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. This implies communication between organizations both upstream and downstream in the food chain. Communication with customers and suppliers about identified hazards and control measures will assist in clarifying customer and supplier requirements (e.g. with regard to the feasibility and need for these requirements and their impact on the end product). Recognition of the organization’s role and position within the food chain is essential to ensure effective interactive communication throughout the chain in order to deliver safe food products to the final consumer. An example of the communication channels among interested parties of the food chain is shown in Figure (2-1). Figure (2-1) – Example of communication within the food chain, (ISO 22000 International Standard, 2005) The most effective food safety systems are established, operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization. This provides maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties. This International Standard has been aligned with ISO 9001 in order to enhance the compatibility of the two standards This International Standard can be applied independently of other management system standards. Its implementation can be aligned or integrated with existing related management system requirements, while organizations may utilize existing management system(s) to establish a food safety management system that complies with the requirements of this International Standard. This International Standard integrates the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and application steps developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. By means of auditable requirements, it combines the HACCP plan with prerequisite programs (PRPs). Hazard analysis is the key to an effective food safety management system, since conducting a hazard analysis assists in organizing the knowledge required to establish an effective combination of control measures. This International Standard requires that all hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur in the food chain, including hazards that may be associated with the type of process and facilities used, are identified and assessed. Thus it provides the means to determine and document why certain identified hazards need to be controlled by a particular organization and why others need not. During hazard analysis, the organization determines the strategy to be used to ensure hazard control by combining the PRP(s), operational PRP(s) and the HACCP plan. This International Standard allows an organization (such as a small and/or less developed organization) to implement an externally developed combination of control measures. The aim of this International Standard is to harmonize on a global level the requirements for food safety management for businesses within the food chain. It is particularly intended for application by organizations that seek a more focused, coherent and integrated food safety management system. 3.4 HACCP and ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 quality management systems standards have become a major element of supplier management strategy for many multinational corporations (Birkenstock, 1999; Wasik, 1994a). Manufacturers implement the ISO 9000 standards with the intention of reaping the benefits, while customers perceive ISO 9000-registered plants as being more capable of delivering products of consistent quality (Adams, 1994; Pallett, 1994; Mehta and Wilcock, 1996). Both manufacturers and customers have indicated that companies using quality systems such as the ISO 9000 standards have several advantages over competitors that have not implemented such systems. These advantages include improved product quality and reliability, increased customer satisfaction, reduced scrap and rework, increased manufacturing efficiency, superior delivery times, rapid systematic response to change, and increased interdepartmental communication leading to increased teamwork (Adams, 1994; Bennet and Steed, 1999; Eyles, 1995; Newslow, 1997). ISO 9000 refers to a group of standards containing clauses directed at the quality management process of an organization. The standards define a quality framework within which a registered company must operate as a minimum criterion for a quality management system (Stringer, 1994; Surak and Simpson, 1994). To ensure their ongoing relevance, they are reviewed regularly, with the most recent revision having been published in December 2000. Attaining ISO 9000 registration does not equate with achieving a world class quality system since the ISO standards describe only the minimum criteria for a quality management system (Surak, 1999). HACCP/ISO transitions. The ISO 9000 standards are generic and can be applied to any industry. Their purpose is to establish the existence of a documented quality system. ISO 9000 standards do not describe how a company should manage its quality system, but focus on whether a company is complying with its own written policies and procedures. Both HACCP and ISO 9000 systems are management philosophies that rely on disciplined operator control and teamwork (Wasik, 1994b). Both focus on prevention rather than retrospective inspection. However, the major difference between the two systems is the scope. HACCP is process and product oriented. HACCP is totally focused on food safety therefore quality factors should not be part of a HACCP program (Newslow, 1997). In contrast, ISO 9000 is more systems-oriented and designed to manage quality (National Food Processors Association, 1992). ISO 9000 certification does not certify the product but merely provides confidence that a supplier¿½s quality system is capable of providing a stated product or service (Bennet and Steed, 1999). HACCP puts control mechanisms in place to ensure that the product is safe and manufactured to standards that are formulated internationally, whereas ISO 9000 requires that an organization define its own system and demonstrate that it can comply with it (Mayes, 1993). HACCP and ISO focus on prevention. HACCP assures food safety by controlling the process. ISO 9000 ensures system conformance to the standards. These two programs have complimentary systems that reinforce and strengthen an organization¿½s overall quality system (Newslow, 1997). To be maximally effective, these plans must be tailored to the manufacturing facility, requiring management leadership and commitment, expert knowledge in program development, employee training and operator control (National Food Processors Association, 1992). 3.5 HACCP versus ISO 22000 Food quality and food safety are immersing critical issues at the international level since outbreaks of food borne illness can damage trade and tourism, and lead to loss of earnings, unemployment and litigation. Food spoilage is wasteful, costly and can adversely affect trade and consumer confidence. To cope this issue, HACCP (Hazard analysis critical control points) in which was firstly established in the USA 3 decades ago as the preventive mechanism for safety control of foods has been worldwide adopted into the production and service food industries.( Prasert, 2007).Historically, based on end product testing strategic changes towards to more preventive approach to food safety management started as early as the 1920s (Mossel et al,1995),although this strategies were largely unsuccessful. Although there was a renewed emphasis on preventative food safety in 1930s, it is only since the 1970s.That this approach has been adopted leading to the use HACCP (Bauman,1994). The hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) was originally developed by the Pillsbury Company, working with NASA and the US Army Laboratories at Natick, to assure that food supplied to the manned space programme was microbiologically safe (Food Safety Through the Hazard Analysis

Case analysis

Case analysis. I need an explanation for this Law question to help me study.

Submit paper in Standard English using a 12-point format, 1-inch margins, and double spacing in MS-Word format in APA format. When analyzing the case you would have to use the seven MPA program core courses to identify and define the key problems/issues, desired short- and long-term goals, objectives, and outcomes; and key stakeholders (internal and external) with their motivating role(s) and agenda(s) which are; PA 6601 Research Methods, PA 6603 Economics for Public Management OR PA 6631 Program Evaluation, PA 6620 Theory of Organizations OR PA6646 Organizational Behavior, PA6624 Public Human Resource Management, PA6622 Public Policy Analysis, PA6650 Governmental Budgeting and Financial Management, and PA 6640 Intergovernmental Relations, PA 6644 Administrative Law, OR PA 6674 Ethics in Public Administration. I have attached the case you would be analyzing for this assignment and it is due tomorrow at 6 PM Central Time.
I need these questions answered within the article

Alternatives for actions
Selection of recommended alternative

I’ve attached the article and an example how the case analysis should be written and what to put in it
Case analysis

Solve attached

essay writing help Solve attached. Question Solve attached Image transcriptions Show all A = 6 4 4 i) find the spectral decomposition A. I.e. write A as A = CDC, where D is diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. ii) find the spectral decomposition of A and show that the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues is equal to the square of the matrix D found in part (i). ii) find the spectral decomposition of Aand show the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues is equal to the inverse of the matrix D found in part (i). The user equilibrium route selection is determined by: O Equating trip generation coefficients O Equating different routes’ travel time Maximizing a traveler utility function Reducing overall system travel time D Question 9 The following is not a resistance force: Tractive Aerodynamic O Grade O Rolling D Question 10 An exponential function is used in O System optimal routing O Poisson regression Linear regression O Trip generation Poisson Regression. You are given the following information for a fitted generalized linear model (GLM): Response Variable: Claim count Response distribution: Poisson The link Function: log Parameter df B Intercept 1 Rating class Standard O Preferred -0.25 Miles driven (000) 0.035 Calculate the probability that a preferred driver who drives 15,000 miles submits at least 1 claims. 1. Consider a continuous time Markov chain with state space S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and transition rate matrix 10 Q = 0 0 0 0 OF 8 (a) Write the transition probability matrix of the embedded discrete time Markov chain. (b) Find the positive recurrent, the null recurrent and the transient states of the chain. Justify your answer! Solve attached

Cost Benefit Analysis Economics Essay

Introduction Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a technique which seeks to bring greater objectivity into the decision making. It is a well known evaluation technique that is extensively engaged by both public and private organisations to support the decision making process. It can be useful to almost any kind of decision in any kind of field. It is helpful to identify all the relevant benefits and costs of a particular scheme and to quantify them in monetary terms. The practice arrived in the United Kingdom in 1960s for use in the transportation sector. CBA techniques were extended to cover a wide range of applications, such as water resource management, motorways, nationalized industries, airport locations, forestry, recreational facilities and a wide range of urban investment projects (Paul, 2000). Private sector, direct monetary costs and benefits determines the profitability and increases the output and investment. All costs and benefits in public sector, affected by an investment must be evaluated in some other way. Welfare economics helps to resolve such issues as how to assess costs and benefits of a non-monetary environment

Writer’s Choice

Writer’s Choice. Paper details This week you should begin working on the Term Project. (It is due at the end of Week 13. Please review the full project assignment located in the Modules/Term Project section.) This week’s assignment is to start the research for your term project: As a buyer for XYZ retail store (name your store) you will choose a classification of merchandise that you will buy. You will decide your store location and the type of store it will be. This information will be backed up by documented valid research and trend information. Please submit a description of the classification you have chosen and the location of your store as described in Part A of the Project. Use research to back up your decision and cite your sources in APA format. This should be a minimum of three full pages. see the attached document only part (A) is due today. will HAVE YOU WORKING you other parts NEXT WEEKWriter’s Choice

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