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Walden University How Supervisory and Leadership Skills Are Apply

Walden University How Supervisory and Leadership Skills Are Apply.

Directions:For this Assignment, review the Petrakis case study in this week’s video and note how supervisory and leadership skills are portrayed.Complete the following Journal entry:Identify attributes of leadership styles and approaches that facilitate quality supervision.Evaluate the supervisory and leadership skills demonstrated in the Petrakis case study by identifying which supervisory and leadership skills the supervisor demonstrated.Explain whether the supervisor in the video demonstrated quality supervision, and why. Provide specific examples to support your evaluation.Support your post with specific references to the resources. Be sure to provide full APA citations for your references.Resources:Laureate Education (Producer). (2014d). Sessions: Petrakis (Episode 4 of 42) [Video file]Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014a). Sessions: Case histories
Walden University How Supervisory and Leadership Skills Are Apply

Dinosaurs have captured the imagination since the very first fossils were discovered. The mystical creatures in many ancient cultures may be attributed to fossils weathering out of the earth. Nearly every culture had some form of dragon in their mythology, a uniformity best explained by fossilized dinosaurs. Some scientists believe the fossils of ceratopsians are the source of the mythological griffin. Part of the fascination with dinosaurs is their size. With few animals reaching such massive proportions, the creatures that produced single bones as tall as a human must have seemed other worldly to ancient peoples. They still draw fascination today; their features so different from anything living. As more and more fossils are found, explanations and extrapolations of the features, size, and behavior become more comprehensive. The unknown element of dinosaur life allows for wild projections and suppositions, and the drama of discovery and scientific discourse and hypothesis disproval continue to draw the interest of people. As more is discovered, more questions are raised. One field of questions pertain to sauropod size. Sauropods are distinct in their absolutely massive bodies. Far larger than anything known by living humans, they are fascinating to consider. Trying to imagine their size is in some ways like trying to imagine the vastness of space. Without actually standing next to a mounted skeleton, there is no living reference to fix the size of sauropods in the imagination. Some estimates place the largest sauropods at 80,000kg, or 170,000 lbs. Conservative estimates suggest weights of 40,000-50,000 kg. Sauropod height is in some specimens 60 feet, about 3 times the height of a two-story house. Some sauropods were a third of a football field in length! Such sizes are nearly unfathomable, raising the question of how they got to be so massive and how their bodies functioned. Modern herbivores are often much bigger than carnivores, because in general, their energy expenditure is less and the biomass of their food source is higher. The huge size of sauropods is definitely tied to their diet, and it is likely that their food source and digestive mechanisms were a major factor in their growth to such massive sizes. The food available to sauropods was not very nutritive. Before the evolution and diversification of angiosperms 125 million years ago, herbivorous animals had to rely mainly on gymnosperms and ferns. The best measure of plant nutritional value is in the concentration of nitrogen and nonstructural carbohydrates like sugars. Protein levels largely correspond to the nitrogen levels in leaves. Because non-angiosperm plants don’t have the xylem transport network that evolved, there is less nutrient flow, and therefore less nitrogen concentration. Ferns, cycads, and conifers, some of the main plant types available to the sauropod dinosaurs, were low in nutrition, and gymnosperms had secondary chemical defenses that made them unpleasant to eat and harder to digest (Midgley, 2005). A study by Zvereva and Kozlov (2006) found that the nitrogen concentration in gymnosperms drops in environments with elevated temperature and CO2 concentration, compared to the modern environment. Sugar levels tended to stay the same. The toughness of leaves increases when CO2 levels are higher. The carbon-nitrogen ratio is significantly increased by elevated CO2. It is well-known that the environmental conditions during the age of dinosaurs was both higher in temperature and higher in CO2 concentration. This would have produced plant material significantly less nutritious than the plant matter today. The lesser food quality supports the evolution of large sauropod dinosaurs, as the Jarman-Bell Principle states that larger species can feed on diets of lesser quality food, evidenced by the relatively large size of modern grazing mammals (Clauss, et. al., 2009). The physiology of the dinosaurs shows evidence of partitioning. Some sauropods, such as diplodocids, were low browsers, who were unlikely to life their heads higher than a couple meters (Stevens and Parrish, 1999). This separated their food source from the mid to high browsers, limiting their available food source in some ways, yet also preventing competition amongst sauropod species. The lower plant quality requires that herbivorous animals consume more material in order to meet their nutritional and energy needs. Given the quality of available plants, extended digestion would have been required. Of several methods to process plant material, sauropods digestion was extremely fermentation heavy. They had very little oral processing. Their teeth were either broad and leaf like, with serrations in the crown, or later more narrow and peg like. In most sauropods, teeth were present in the front part of the mouth but not the back. The body plan in the early Mesozoic seems to have been to maximize food intake through teeth adapted for cropping, stripping, and pulling plant material but with little oral processing. There is some evidence in the tooth replacement rate and wear that teeth farther back in the mouths of sauropods were not used in oral processing or food acquisition, but rather served the purpose of cheeks, to keep the food in the mouth (Schwarz, et. al., 2015). Prosauropods had some check development, but in the sauropod line, cheeks were lost early (Chure, et. al., 2010). There have been no teeth found in association with sauropods that had a large horizontal surface, indicative of use for chewing (Christiansen, 1999). The heads of sauropods were extremely small compared to their body size. Any dental batteries or cheeks would have increased the head mass and likely made it prohibitively heavy, especially at the end of a long neck. Christiansen also noted that the muzzle width in sauropod dinosaurs is proportionally wider than the width in herbivorous animals. This enables sauropods to intake more food per bite, increasing their intake rate. With relatively poor food nutrient quality, sauropods would need to consume a great amount of food to meet their daily needs. The length of the neck adds length to the digestive envelope, another way to maximize food consumption. The lack of oral processing, wide muzzle, and long neck work in conjunction to increase the consumption capability or sauropods, increasing their ability to meet their dietary needs and shortening their feeding time. With such high consumption and such little processing, digestion would be almost entirely focused in the gut. The particle size would be very large, making digesta harder to break down, and the longer it takes to digest. There has been some debate about the presence of gastroliths and a gastric mill in sauropod dinosaurs. Gastric mills certainly would help break down the plant material into smaller particle sizes and speed the digestion process. Unfortunately, the fossil record seems to rule out the presence of a gastric mill for most sauropod dinosaurs. Wings and Sander (2007) tested the hypothesis of sauropod gastroliths by testing gastrolith usage in farm ostriches. They found that rose quartz, which has the same properties as the white vein quartz found in association with sauropods, last the longest. Using granite cubes, they found that the general shape of the stone stays the same. They also found that the gastric milling process quickly roughens the face of the stone. None of the stones that he used in his test retained a shine, unlike those suspected to be sauropod gastroliths. He also found that gastroliths are about 1% of the total body mass. According to them, the largest mass of gastroliths found in association with a sauropod is 15kg, much lower than 1% of the estimated sauropod body mass. Gastroliths likely scale with body mass simply because organ size roughly scales with body mass. The stomachs of sauropods could have been proportionally smaller than expected, although it is unlikely with the amount of food that they are estimated to have consumed. Using projections from living herbivores, it is estimated that the large sauropods would consume several hundred kilograms worth of food (Englemann, et. al., 2004). This estimate accounts for the proportional decrease in required food consumption for successively larger and larger organisms. In another study focusing on the distribution of gastrolith stones amongst sauropod remains, it was found that gastroliths were found with about 4% of sauropod fossils. There are some species of sauropod that have strong evidence of gastric mills, but they are not widespread enough (Wings, 2014). With little to no processing of plant material, and with no evidence of any other break down processes, sauropods must have heavily relied on fermentation to digest their food. The relatively low density of nutrients in the gymnosperms at the time already required longer fermentation times. In order to achieve longer fermentation time, the gut size needs to increase, or the amount of food eaten needs to decrease. As the food particles must have been large, the time taken for fermentation would need to be even longer. With no internal soft tissues preserved in the fossil record, it is hard to determine where fermentation took place in the gut. Fermentation demands a large digestive tract. Larger intestines allow for longer digesta retention, pulling more nutrients from the food. The large torsos of sauropods could certainly fit and extensive gut. Estimates based on living animals gives a digesta retention time between 8 and 16 days. Galapagos turtles, which do not chew their food, retain theirs for 11 days (Franz, et. al., 2009). Sauropod dinosaurs could have evolved to be so large because those individuals with larger guts had better survival chances than those who had smaller guts. As stated previously, the amount of food needed in relation to the body mass would likely have been much lower than other, smaller herbivorous organisms. As sauropods’ heads were evolved to take in the maximum amount of food, the intake of food would likely not have consumed most of the sauropods’ time. This time advantage would have been especially needed in semiarid environments, like the Jurassic area preserved in the Morrison formation. Although there is lush vegetation in the Morrison fossil record, it is not widespread instead found in clusters. The Morrison Formation suggests that the environment during the time of sauropods was savannah-like. The dense vegetation found was likely due to seasonal rains, or centered around areas of water, such as lakes or streams. The vegetation likely moved, growing in different areas depending on rainfall (Englemann, et. al., 2004). Large herbivores would need to follow the seasonal changes, and migrate in search of new food sources. The size of the sauropods and the advantages of that size would have been a major edge in a semi-arid environment. Such sizes would have also made locomotion more efficient. Longer strides afforded by the overall large body size decreases the amount of energy per unit of distance. This, too, increases the ability of sauropods to migrate in search of food. Sauropod reliance on fermentation was so great that their methane production has been linked to the warm climate of the Mesozoic era (Wilkinson, et. al., 2012). Assuming a more reptilian metabolism, one paper puts the global biomass of large sauropods at 200,000 kg/km2. Their total estimated annual methane emission is about 520 million tons. For comparison, modern day ruminants produce about 50-100 million tons of atmospheric methane, and the total modern day global emissions are about 500-600 million tons a year. The author notes that their estimate could have been overstated by a factor of two, but also understated by the same amount, depending on assumed metabolic function and density of sauropods. Sauropods large sizes and reliance on fermentation to digest food was a major influence on their environment, and created a positive feedback loop, where the temperature increase would push nutritive values of plants lower. Massive sauropod bodies were well adapted to their environment and digestion. Of course, such large sizes bring their own challenges. The most debated question is whether or not dinosaurs were endothermic or ectothermic, and whether endothermy was even possible in mega dinosaurs like the sauropods. At body masses estimated between 20,000 kg and 80,000 kg, overheating would have been a huge problem in large sauropod dinosaurs. While it is unknown if they had special soft tissue adaptations in order to combat their size, it is speculated that their long necks and tails may have helped them keep cool by increasing surface area without adding too much internal volume (Eagle, et. al., 2011). The accelerated growth capable in endothermic animals is a major factor in favor of sauropod endothermy. Sauropods grew several size magnitudes, from hatchlings estimated to be about 10kg, to the hulking adult dinosaurs, in only a few decades (Sander
What Causes The Juvenile Delinquency Young People Essay. Freeway is a modern take on the fairytale “Little Red Riding Hood.” The movie depicts the struggles of Vanessa Lutz in school, her home life, and then as she tries to go to her grandmother’s home after her mother and stepfather were arrested for prostitution and drug possession. Vanessa Lutz is severely, delayed academically, due to the multiple school changes that she endured because of her unstable childhood. Her years of being raised in the ghetto with her mother and stepfather added to lack of schooling she received. Vanessa started her criminal career years ago with petty crimes but this current string of crimes started with handcuffing her social worker to the bed. She did not want to go to foster care again. Her last experience in foster care was far from beneficial to her mental as well as her emotional health and she did not want a repeat performance. Vanessa had heard of her paternal grandmother, but had never actually met her or her father, for that matter. Before leaving town, Vanessa went to see her boyfriend Chopper, an African American gang member. She wanted to tell him that she is leaving town and to ask him to go with her. Her plans are to find her grandmother, who lives in Northern California and who does not even know Vanessa exists. Vanessa dreams of a great life with her grandmother, but doesn’t even know if the grandmother is still alive or living in the same mobile park. When the car she is driving breaks down on the freeway and leaves her stranded, the person, who stops to help Vanessa, is Bob Wolverton, a counselor at a school for troubled boys. He talks Vanessa into accepting a ride from him and revealing intimate details of her life. When she realizes “Bob” is getting sexually excited as he learns the details about her molestation and rape by her stepfather, Vanessa gets mad and wants out of the car. Bob has removed the door handle from the passenger side door and Vanessa cannot get out the car. Vanessa realizes that Bob is the “I-5 Killer”, she heard about early in the afternoon on the Channel 5 news. Bob orders Vanessa to strip off her clothes. Vanessa says that she cannot get her pants off because of her boots. Bob allows Vanessa the freedom to get into the back seat to have room to remove her boots and pants. Once in the back seat, Vanessa pulls out a gun, the one her boyfriend gave her, orders Bob to pull off the next exit. She then asks him if he believes in God. When he says that he does, she orders him out of the car and shoots him in the head. She then vomits and shoots him three more times. Thinking that Bob is dead, Vanessa takes his money, credit cards, and car keys. Vanessa leaves Bob for dead and continues on her trip to her grandmother’s house. After a while, she is hungry and she stops at a little truck stop style café to get something to eat. When she walks into the café, she has blood on her hands from Bob and frightens the server. Vanessa goes to the bathroom to clean up and then she eats her meal. Immediately upon leaving the café, Vanessa is arrested for the attempted murder of Bob Wolverton. At the police station, a couple of police officers question Vanessa. Vanessa admits to shooting Bob Wolverton. She is cooperative and shocked that he did not die. She tells the police officers that Bob is the I-5 Killer, but they do not believe her. The police officers list her long list of petty crimes and tell her that Bob is a well-respected citizen with no prior criminal record or mental health issues. One of the officers starts teasing her and Vanessa becomes violent and starts hitting him, all the while spouting racial slurs at him. She is taken away in handcuffs and placed in a holding cell until her arraignment. Vanessa refuses to show remorse for her actions at her arraignment, insisting that Bob is the I-5 Killer. Vanessa makes fun of Bob because he has physical disabilities from the shooting and taunts him about his colostomy bag. The judge orders Vanessa out of the courtroom, no one acknowledging that Bob admitted he is the I-5 killer. She is placed in juvenile detention until psychological evaluations can be done. These evaluations are to determine her status of either an adult offender or juvenile delinquent. Juvenile delinquent status would be considered if it is felt she can she be rehabilitated otherwise she will be tried as an adult, if her mental capacity allows. Vanessa becomes friends with a drug-addicted lesbian and then confronted by the toughest girl in the prison, Mesquita. Before Mesquita has a chance to hurt Vanessa, Vanessa beats her to a pulp, an act for which Vanessa receives solitary confinement. One of the police officers, who was assaulted by Vanessa, has a gut feeling there was more to the story than he had gotten from either Vanessa or from Bob Wolverton. He returns to her hometown to find out more about Vanessa’s home life. He was surprised to find Vanessa’s boyfriend was an African American, which was interesting to him considering the racial slurs she had spouted at him. Upon returning to the crime scene, he found previously overlooked evidence collaborating Vanessa’s version of the crimes. While in solitary confinement, Vanessa constructs a shiv from a toothbrush, plastic wrap, and a lighter, a skill learned from her stepfather. After returning from solitary confinement, Vanessa learns the psychologists feel she would not be a suitable candidate for rehabilitation, so she will stand trial as an adult. She also sees Bob and his wife on television and is disgusted they have been elevated to celebrity status and praised for the way they have persevered in the face of the shooting by Vanessa Lutz. Vanessa, Mesquita, and a pair of twin girls plan to escape from prison. The opportunity presents itself while the group is being transported in a van to the state prison. Vanessa and Mesquita use the shiv to kill one guard and seriously injure the other. They steal the van and then find Mesquita’s boyfriend, where Vanessa is given a fake ID, clothes, and a gun. Vanessa and Mesquita share of moment of sisterhood, where Mesquita explains why she tried to intimidate Vanessa the first day she was in juvenile detention. Mesquita said that she had wanted Vanessa to “put out for her” and Vanessa states that she would “put out for her” any day. They share the joke and go their separate ways. The police officers finally conclude Vanessa was telling the truth about Bob Wolverton being the I-5 killer. They obtain a search warrant for Bob’s house and the small shed in the backyard. In the shed, they find his stash of child pornography, sex toys, and trophies from his victims is found. When confronted with some of the items, Bob’s wife, Mimi, realizes that her husband is a serial murderer and runs upstairs to commit suicide. Bob returns home from physical therapy to find his house surrounded by police cars, so he drives off to avoid capture. Using the clothes, she received from Mesquita, Vanessa poses as a hooker and lures a john into a back alley. Vanessa robs the john, forces him into the trunk of his car, and drives to where she thinks her grandmother lives. As luck would have it, the police officers realize where Vanessa might be going and decide to drive to her grandmother’s mobile home as well. Upon arriving at her grandmother’s home, Bob is dressed as Vanessa’s grandmother and is lying in bed waiting on Vanessa to arrive. Just like the wolf in the “Little Red Riding Hood” fairytale, Bob has killed Vanessa’s grandmother and waiting to devour Vanessa. They struggle with each other, firing a gun in the tussle. Vanessa manages to strangle Bob and emerges victorious in the battle for her life from the mobile home. The first words out of her mouth to the officers were, “Y’all got a cigarette?” (Bright, 1996). Freeway, the movie, was directed and produced by Matthew Bright in 1996. What causes Juvenile Delinquency? Introduction Juvenile delinquency has increased thirty-three percent over the last decade (Loeber, Farrington,What Causes The Juvenile Delinquency Young People Essay

DVC The History of Slavery in America Saum Song Bo & Liberty in The US Discussion

DVC The History of Slavery in America Saum Song Bo & Liberty in The US Discussion.

Instructions: Complete all of the following questions: 1, 2, and 3. Your answers need to be primarily in your own words. Yours answers must be based on the reading and module only. In this assignment, include at minimum 1 quote and 1 Chicago Style footnote.Preview the document A bibliography is not needed in this assignment. Use a quote as evidence in your answer. Do not use a quote alone as an answer; points will be deducted if you do. Be detailed in your answers. When you bring a point up explain the point thoroughly. Using an example is a good way to further clarify a point. Write in complete sentences. 1. Read the Voices of Freedom in the Foner textbook on pages 498 and 499: From Speech of Chief Justice of the Nez Perce Indians, in Washington D.C. (1879), and From Letter by Saum Song Bo, American Missionary (October 1885). Answer the following questions:a. What are Chief Joseph’s complaints about the treatment of his people?b. Why does Saum Song Bo believe that the Chinese do not enjoy liberty in the United States?c. What are the similarities and differences in the definition of freedom in the two documents?2. Read in the Foner textbook, Give Me Liberty!, pages 493 and 496 (Subjugation of the Plains Indians – The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee). Read the following article about Wounded Knee (Links to an external site.). Click the following link to read the Dawes Act.Preview the document Answer the following questions:a. What is the main point of Section 1 of the Dawes Act?b. What are the stipulations Native Americans must abide by in Section 6 of the Dawes Act?c. Evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act on Native Americans?3. Read in the Foner textbook, Give Me Liberty! pages 478-481 (Freedom in the Gilded Age – Liberty of Contract and the Court). Then click the following link to listen to the video Gilded Age Court Decisions (Links to an external site.). Answer the following questions:a. How does the use of the 14th amendment begin to change and why?b. Explain the struggle between state laws, the Supreme Court and corporations.c. Evaluate the impact of these decisions on African Americans, corporations and the average worker.
DVC The History of Slavery in America Saum Song Bo & Liberty in The US Discussion

Realism vs. Liberalism Essay

term paper help Turn Memo 1: In international relations, two theories are mostly employed in analyzing major issues in politics. Realism and idealism are the two major theories. Idealism is a theory that was first supported by the US president after the Second World War. The theory observes that there are many actors in the international system. The state is not the only actor because other units, such as religious organizations, Multinational Organizations, and supranational organizations exist. The state does not have massive powers as far as policy formulation is concerned. For instance, Multinational Organizations influence the policy formulation among the Less Developed Countries. Moreover, religious organizations are known to influence the behavior of states in a number of ways (Lamy 78). An example is given in Poland during the Cold War when John Paul II influenced leaders to abandon communism in favor of capitalism. In this regard, it can be observed that Catholic played a critical role in influencing leaders to keep off from the communism. In the international system, the United Nations plays an important role in influencing the foreign behavior of states. For instance, the UN Security Council can impose sanctions to a sovereign state. In Libya, the UN Security Council imposed a no fly zone sanction to the sovereign state because it is the main actor. In contrary, realists observe that the only actor in the international system is the state. The state has the power to formulate foreign policies without consulting any other entity. For instance, the state should not consult the populace before making foreign policies because foreign policy formulation process is considered high politics. In this case, other actors exist to temper with the sovereignty of the state because they should not be involved in the process. Realists claim that states have the powers to either support or oppose global decisions. It is the responsibility of the state to decide whether to support a policy or not. Moreover, the state confers nationality to individuals. Without the state, an individual cannot move from one corner of the world to the other. The state has established structures that facilitate world security. Turn memo 2: Liberalists observe that there are many actors in the international system. The international system is a community of both states and human beings. The foreign policy should recognize all actors. In this case, the role of other actors must be recognized. As states struggle to accomplish their missions, they must prioritize their goals. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those goals that aim at fulfilling the common interests should be pursued first as opposed to the goals that accomplish individual interests. Foreign policy formulation should be based on morality. Moreover, it must be based on internationally recognized codes and morals. This is the reason why states intervene militarily whenever human rights are violated. This shows that liberalists value universal interests as opposed to national interests. Hoffman noted that states have a duty beyond their borders. For instance, a state should ensure that the rights of other individuals are not violated, irrespective of whether the individuals are citizens its citizens. Liberalists emphasize human rights meaning that they must always be taken into consideration whenever foreign policies are formulated. To liberalists, the end does not justify the means because leaders must be held accountable at every decision they make. Liberalists are prescriptive implying that foreign policy should be reflective (Mansbach 89). On the other hand, realists observe that the unit of analysis is the state. The international system dictates to the state what should be done. In other words, changes in the international system dictate foreign policies. In this regard, the international system is anarchic meaning that it lacks the central authority. Each state is concerned with its own security. States are preoccupied with national interests, not collective security. Therefore, the state will always prioritize its interests. Realists believe that the end will always justify the means. Turn memo 3: To liberalists, the international system is characterized by cooperation. This explains why the US could provide aid to its adversaries such as Japan and Russia during calamities. In the international system, law is respected because it dictates what ought to be done. For instance, states will always cooperate to fight the common enemy. For example, states struggle to achieve peace through nuclear disarmament programs. In the current international system, many states are members of world organizations such as the World Trade Organizations and the Atomic Agency. The main aim is to achieve peace and order (Masker 12). To realists, the international system is characterized by brutality and mistrust. In this case, the international system is anarchic implying that some states are powerful than others. The less powerful states are usually subjugated and oppressed. The powerful states control policy formulation at the global arena. For instance, the powerful states control important organizations such as the World Trade Organization and the United Nations. The powerful states use the world organizations to achieve their national interests. The United Nations and the World Trade Organization exist as far as the US would permit. We will write a custom Essay on Realism vs. Liberalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Lamy, Steven. Introduction to Global Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print. Mansbach, and K. Rafferty. Introduction to Global Politics. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007. Print. Masker, John . Introduction to Global Politics: A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.

The Life Span Developmental Perspective Psychology Essay

The first chapter was very interesting from start to finish. However, out of all the concepts covered in this chapter the original sin, tabula rasa, and innate goodness views were the concepts that really fascinated me. The reason for this is that I am a Roman Catholic, therefore as part of my faith I am supposed to believe that we are all born with original sin. After reading the Tabula Rasa View and dwelling on my basic knowledge of human behavior, I leaned more towards English philosopher John Locke’s theory. I believe that children are not born innately bad. It has been said that a child’s brain is like a sponge therefore it absorbs everything. With that being said, it is obvious that a child develops characteristics through experience. This would also mean that I agree with nurture as oppose to Nature for child development. However, I do believe that genetics and disorders such as mental illness that one might acquire through birth can impact the way they are developed. Chapter 1 gave me a basic understanding of Life Span Developmental Psychology as well as an idea of what I can expect to learn and study in later chapters. Chapter 2 : The Science of Life Span Development introduced me to theories of development, such as Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, and Ethological. In addition, the different research methods used by scientists such as standard tests and correlation research. As well as the challenges ethics, gender, and culture have on the research. This chapter also informed me on the different theories developed by scientists such as Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, and B.F. Skinner and the impact they had and still do have on life span development. As chapter 1 grabbed my interest with the ideas and concepts of Life Span Development being predominantly environmental as oppose to biological, so did chapter 2. Not only did I agree with the view of Social Cognitive Theory being that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development, I was fascinated on how the book related Bandura’s model to a college student’s achievement behavior. The example stated that a college student who studies hard and gets good grades produces positivity in their thoughts and abilities. If the college provides a study skill class and the students succeed, then this is an example on how environment influenced behavior. In return, if the college expanded their study skills program based on the success of its past students, then this is an example of behavior changing the environment. The most interesting part of Chapter 2 was the role ethics play in Life Span Development research. Obviously people are entitled to rights of privacy and do not like the intrusive vibes that some researchers might give off during an experiment. However I do believe that in order to obtain the greatest amount of useful information, flexibility and professionalism by the scientists and subjects are needed to produce the best result. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Biological Beginnings examined the concepts of evolution and the early stages of Life Span Development. Genetics, DNA, chromosomes, and the effects of biological make up have on development were introduced. In addition, the relationship and importance of hereditary and environmental interaction were examined. Essentially, this chapter was everything you would have learned from fifth grade sexual education, but on a larger more in depth scale. I am one of six children and hope to be a father someday. With that being said, I found the section on infertility the most interesting as well as the most useful concept revealed in this chapter. I was already aware of the fact that drugs such as cocaine and marijuana can affect the sperm count in men, but I was not aware that it was reversible after approximately one year. With all the shows on TV such as John and Kate Plus Eight or the Octo-Mom craze, it was interesting to learn how infertility drugs have caused super ovulation, meaning to produce three or more babies at a time. While the infertility section was useful and informative, I would have liked to learn more about preventative actions that could be used against problems such as immobile sperm, and Pituitary or ovarian tumors. The chapter only covered possible causes and treatments for fertility disorders, not the acts that could save someone from the pain, suffering, and expense that infertility brings. Even if it were small common known facts like wearing boxers over briefs. It’s a simple yet effective way of eliminating low sperm count and ultimately infertility. I feel that this type of information could decrease the ten to fifteen percent of couples who face infertility in the United States as stated by the book. Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth covered anything and everything there is to know about pregnancy before, during, and after. Prenatal developmental subjects such as cultural beliefs, teratology and prenatal hazards were introduced as well as the three periods of prenatal development. These three periods are germinal, embryonic, and fetal. Following the three periods of prenatal development, the book described the three stages of birth which are contractions, movement of the baby’s head to the cervix, and finally the afterbirth where the placenta and umbilical cord are removed. The chapter ended with the post-partum period, where the woman returns to pre-pregnancy state as well as her adjustments and relationship with the baby. With such an informative and interesting chapter, it is difficult for me to choose a topic that intrigued me more or left me with doubt and unanswered questions. Perhaps the section that I absorbed the most information from was the post-partum period. The information given about the physical, emotional, and psychological adjustments that a woman goes through after pregnancy will be useful for me with the future mother of my children. A part of post child birth that this chapter exposed me to that I never really gave much thought, was the fact that the men go through difficult adjustments in the post-partum period as well. Apparently, men suffer from a jealousy of the baby’s attention which I felt was ridiculous. However, I do believe that time set aside for the couple is very important for their sanity and will ultimately lead to better parenting. So if my wife is suffering from excessive worrying, depression, extreme changes in appetite, crying spells or inability to sleep, I will know from chapter 4 of Life Span Developmental Psychology, that she might require professional help. Chapter 5 As stated in the title, chapter 5 covered the Physical Development in Infancy. The physical growth aspects of infancy such as Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal patterns, height weight, nutrition, and even toilet training were described. Following the physical developments, motor, sensory and perceptual development was defined through definitions such as sensation, when information interacts with sensory receptors, and the five different forms of reflexes. Chapter 5 alone can be a useful tool for parents who have any questions on the development of an infant. Out of the many topics covered in this chapter, I of course identified most with the toilet training. For years I had pride myself on the notion that I was some sort of baby genius because I learned to “potty train” at the age of four. After reading that children have the physical and motor skills to use the toilet as oppose to their pants, I realized that I was not a baby genius but a late bloomer. Besides destroying my ego, I did learn that one of the main reasons I have been underweight my whole life is due to the fact that I was not breast fed. The book states the breast feeding allows appropriate weight gain, fewer allergies, less diaherria and many other benefits that I did not have the opportunity to experience. This chapter had me realize how the physical development in infancy can affect the physical developments of adolescence and adult hood. Ultimately, this chapter reinforced the importance of proper nutrition, continuous stimulation of the mind and body are crucial during infant development. Chapter 6 The memory, sensory, and language of infants were all described in Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy. A name that was mentioned numerous times throughout the chapter was psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget developed a theory on Cognitive Development after meticulously observing of his own children; Laurent, Lucienne, and Jacqueline. Piaget believed that a child passes through different stages of thought from birth to adolescence. An important concept of his theory is scheme, which helps individuals organize and understand their experiences. The most fascinating part of chapter six for me was the defining, of language and a child’s development of vocabulary. An interesting fact I learned was that children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time developmentally despite vast variation in language input. The chapter also offered helpful strategies to develop an infant’s language and those are recasting, echoing, expanding, and labeling. An example for recasting is if the baby says “the bell rang” the parent should respond by saying “where did the bell ring”. This allows the infant to learn the language by elaborating on an interest they had already stated. Perhaps the most common method is labeling, which is just basically naming objects and having the baby repeat them such eyes, and ears. The chapter ended by stating that parents should not use any deliberate method to teach their children to talk and that if the child is a slow learner intervention should happen naturally with the goal of being able to convey a meaning. Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Socioemotional Development in Infancy defined what emotional and personality development are in addition to the definition of attachment and infants in social contexts. The vast emotions an infant contains from crying to smiling were detailed such as the differences between an anger cry and a pain cry, as well as the difference between a reflexive smile and a social smile. Other concepts introduced were defining temperament, which psychiatrist have argued that there are three types an easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up child. The chapter ended focusing on the importance of a child’s surrounding such as family and day care. These concepts were the transition to parenthood, the family as a system, and maternal/parental infant care giving. What captivated my attention the most from this chapter was the section on attachment, because it is something that I believe is very crucial in a child’s development, however there are many different ideas and methods that can sometime cause debate or conflict between parents. Something I learned new about attachment from the chapter was that attachment does not emerge suddenly but rather develops in a series of phases. The first phase starts from birth to two months where infants are instinctively directing their attention to any human being, family or stranger. The second phase is from two to seven months in which the attachment becomes focused on one figure usually the primary caregiver, and learns the difference between familiar and unfamiliar faces. From seven to twenty-four months in phase three the infant makes specific attachments to their main caregivers. Finally, in phase four a “goal corrected partnership is formed which the child becomes aware of others and takes this into account when deciding their actions. Chapter 8 The early childhood section of the book started in Chapter 8 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. The physical development was defined by body growth and change, motor development, nutrition, and illness/death. The concepts described in the cognitive development, were Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of development, information processing, language development, and early childhood education. In addition, to information processing, language development, and early childhood education. The most alarming information listed in this chapter was the leading causes of illness and death for young children in the united states. Out of all the diseases that could potentially harm a child, accidents are still the leading cause of child fatality. Accidents such as motor vehicle, drowning, falls, and poisoning are higher risks than cancer, meningitis, measles, and even chicken pox. One of the many useful tips listed in this chapter were the descriptions of young children’s education programs. Such as the difference between Montessori and child centered kindergarten. In kindergarten, the instructor focuses on the process of learning, rather than what is actually being learned. Montessori instructors serve as more of a facilitator allowing children to practice freedom and spontaneity. I learned that Montessori offers way more than what I thought was just a glorified day care. Studies have shown that while early childhood education is good, it is important to not add too much stress on a child early, for they can develop a pattern of stress. Chapter 9 The theme for chapter 9 was Socioemotional Development in early childhood development. This included emotional and personality development, families and peer evaluations. The emotional and personality development covered self understanding, emotional development, moral development and gender identity. The family section of this chapter consisted of different styles of parenting which included authoritarian, authorative, neglectful, and indulgent. In addition to sibling influence, relationship, and the affect working parents have on a child’s development. Finally, the funnest part of the chapter was all about the different aspects of child’s play such as games and television. As I stated earlier, I really enjoyed the different descriptions of child playing listed in this chapter. According to Mildred Parten, there are four classifications of children’s play which include unoccupied, solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative. Each different classification offers the child different skills of learning and drawbacks. Unoccupied play, solitary, onlooker, and parallel play are generally practiced by children between the ages of 3 to 7, preschool kindergarten years. Associative and cooperative play is generally more structured and is aimed towards competition and winning therefore they are aimed for 7 years and beyond. A shocking statistic that the book offered was the effects of television on Children’s Aggression and prosocial behavior. In on longitudinal study, the amount of violence viewed on television at age 8 was significantly related to the seriousness of criminal acts performed as an adult. The chapter contained a chart that exposed the percentage of 9 year old children who report watching more than five hours of television per weekday, the chart revealed that the United States led all countries in the 21.3 percentile. Chapter 10 Chapter 10 opened section 5 of the book which covers middle and late childhood. The chapter covered the Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood. The physical development section covered body growth and proportion, motor development, exercise and sports, health, illness, diseases, and children with disabilities. The cognitive development section consisted of Piaget’s theory, information processing, intelligence, creativity, and language development. Being a firm believer in the importance of exercise and sports, I identified with that aspect of the chapter. As I was completely already aware of, the book stated that American children do not receive enough exercise in their development. According to a 1997 study, only 22 percent of children between the ages of 9 to 12 participate in thirty minutes of physical activity a day. The parents of the other 78 percent said their children were too busy playing video games, watching TV, or wasting time on the computer. I really liked how the chapter brought up the issue of school sports programs not facing enough moral questioning. I am a firm believer in the costiveness that sports have on students. I believe it raises their confidence, teaches them to work hard and push themselves. However, often times the school sport programs interfere with a child’s academic, which is by far the most important aspect of human development. There needs to be better regulation of these programs to ensure the success of its student-athletes. Chapter 11 The Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood. The following concepts were Emotional and Personality development, families, peers, and schools. Like in previous chapters, emotional and personality development consisted of the self, emotional, moral and gender identity and development. Family section covered parent child issues such as the issue of changes in discipline. The peers section dealt with concepts of peer statuses, bullying, social cognition, and friendship. I enjoyed the peer section of this chapter. It was interesting to read their definition, and reasoning behind social statuses such as popular children, neglected children, rejected children, and controversial children. According to the book, popular children are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers. Popular children give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain open lines of communication with peers, are happy, act like them, show enthusiasm and concern for others, and are self-confident without being conceited. I disagree with this definition. From my understanding, popular children are usually popular based on superior athletic abilities, good looks, charm and charisma. Most of the time they are very conceited and show very little concern for others, speaking as a former popular child, I was an asshole. The section on bullying was very informative. I particularly enjoyed their suggestions on the reducing of bullying which were to get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place, form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers, incorporate the message of the anti-bullying program into church, school, and other community activates where adolescents are involved. Chapter 12 Section 6 Adolescents opened up with Chapter 12 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence. The concepts covered in this chapter were the nature of adolescence, puberty, adolescent sexuality, adolescent problems and health, adolescent cognition, and schools. Puberty was defined by puberty’s boundaries and determinants, hormonal changes, height, weight, sexual maturation, body image, early and late maturation. Adolescent sexuality consisted of developing a sexual identity, the progression of adolescent sexual behaviors, risk factors for sexual problems, contraceptive use, sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Adolescent health and problems covered substance use and abuse, eating disorders, and general adolescent health. Adolescent cognition was defined by Piaget’s theory, egocentrism, and information processing. Finally schools impact on adolescence went over the transition of middle school, effective schools, high school dropouts, and moral education. Without a doubt chapter 12 was by far the most interesting and informational chapter yet. With such well written, intelligent facts on the changes that adolescence brings, I almost felt as if I was reliving that time in development myself after reading this chapter. Perhaps one of the more interesting facts listed was the progression of adolescent sexual behavior. According to a survey done in 1998, the majority of adolescent females first voluntary sexual partner are 27 percent of the time to be 3 or four times older and 12 percent are 5 or more years older. The average age children lose their virginity is 17, this means that 12 percent of the time, 22 year olds or older are engaging in sexual intercourse with teenagers. I found that to be very distributing. Chapter 13 Following the books typical pattern, the second chapter in the section of Adolescence dealt with the Socioemotional Development in Adolescence. The chapter’s concepts were identity, families, peers, culture and adolescent development, and adolescent problems. Identity discussed contemporary thoughts about identity, identity statuses and development, family influences on identity, cultural and ethnic aspects of identity. The Families section had two major concepts which were autonomy and attachment as well as parent adolescent conflict. The peers section was defined the three concepts of Peer groups, friendships, and dating/romantic relationships. Culture and adolescent development consisted of the cross cultural comparisons and rites of passage and ethnicity concept. Finally, the adolescent problems section of the chapter discussed concepts of juvenile delinquency, depression and suicide, in addition to the interrelation of problems and successful prevention/ intervention programs. After reading this chapter I realized that I am more intrigued by the Adolescent development stage rather than early childhood. I think this could be because I am closer to it age wise, but mostly due to the fact that it is such an intense, and complex part of a person’s life that it can affect their future. Speaking from a former delinquent, I felt that the chapter described the causes of delinquency being partially hereditary, identity problems, community influences, and family experiences all just factors. Chapter 14 Section 7 Early Adulthood was opened with Chapter 14 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood. The chapter dealt with the transition from adolescence to adulthood, physical development, sexuality, cognitive development, careers and work. The section on the transition from adolescence to adulthood consisted of two concepts being the criteria for becoming an adult, and the transition from high school to college. Physical development included the peak and slowdown in physical performance, eating and weight, regular exercise, and substance abuse. The sexuality section was defined by sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, forcible sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Cognitive Development focused on cognitive stages and creativity. The most intense section was careers and work because it consisted of the following concepts; developmental changes, personality types, values and careers, monitoring the occupational handbook, the skills employers want, finding the right career, and just work in general. Since I could be considered an early adult, I found this chapter to be very relatable and interesting. Of course the most interesting section of this chapter was sexuality. What was so interesting about this section were once again the survey’s results. According to this survey Americans tend to fall into three categories, one third have sex twice a week or more, one third have a few times a month, and the other third has it a few times a year or less. A result from the essay I did not agree with or thought perhaps is out dated, was that America believes strongly in sexual behavior between married couples and monogamy. There have been many other studies and surveys that proved opposite that we are one of the many non-monogamous countries in the world today. Chapter 15 Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood was what was covered in chapter 15. Topics included Continuity and Discontinuity from Childhood to Adulthood, Attraction, Love and Close friendships, Marriage/Family, The Diversity of Adult Lifestyles, Gender, Relationships, and Self Development. Temperament and Attachment were covered in the Continuity and Discontinuity from Childhood section of the chapter. Attraction, Love and Close Friendships was divided into three sections of attraction, the faces of love, and loneliness. Marriage and Family consisted of the family life cycle, marriage in general, the aspects of gender and emotion in Marriage, as well as parental roles. Single, cohabiting, divorced, remarried, gay and lesbian adults were examined in the diversity of adult lifestyles section of this chapter. The last section, Gender, Relationships, and Self-development consisted on the development of men and women. I enjoyed the section on marital expectations and myths because it gave me a good sense of what I can expect if I ever do get married. According to the book, the reason for our nation’s high divorce and dissatisfaction of marriage is due to the fact that we have too high of expectations. We expect our spouse to simultaneously be a lover, friend, a confidant, a counselor, a career person, and a parent. The myths of marriage were the most interesting part of this concept. Apparently, avoiding conflict does not save marriages, sex is not the main cause of affairs, and men aren’t all philanderers. After reading this chapter all I could say was, AMEN! Tools that make marriage work are establishing love maps, nurturing fondness and admiration, Turning toward each other instead of away, letting your partner influence you, and solving solvable conflicts. Useful tool were provided in this chapter. Chapter 16 Section 8 Middle Adulthood began as all other sections with Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood. Topics included in chapter 16 were changing middle age, physical development, cognitive development, careers, work, and leisure, religion and meaning of life. Physical development included physical changes, health and diseases, culture, personality, relationships and health, morality rates and sexuality. Cognitive development was described through the concepts of intelligence and information processing. Job satisfaction, career challenges and changes, and leisure were what was covered in the careers, work and leisure section. Finally, Religion and meaning of life consisted of the affect religion has on the health and psychological development of middle adult hood. This chapter was kind of depressing to read. It made me realize that middle adult hood is usually spent wishing that you were still in early adult hood and are constantly fearing for late adulthood. With middle adult hood comes a terrible physical change like wrinkles, aging spots, decrease in height, increase in weight and the more likelihood of containing a serious disease or illness such as cardio vascular disease. An interesting part of the chapter was the description of leisure in middle adult hood. Leisure refers to the pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing. One aspect of middle adulthood to look forward to be the fact that most adults have more money therefore they can do hobbies such as traveling. He book states that traveling is very important to the well being of a middle adult because it gives them a chance to distress and get away from the typical routine aspects of life. Adults who vacation can live up to nine years longer than those who don’t. Chapter 17 Chapter 17 was about the Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood. Personality theories and development in middle adult hood, which consisted of adult stage theories, the life events approach, and contexts of midlife development, were the first section of this chapter. Stability and Change was described by two concepts of longitudinal studies and conclusions. The last part of the chapter discussed close relationships which was described by love/marriage at midlife, the empty nest and its refilling, parenting conceptions, sibling relationships and friends, and intergenerational relationships. My mother’s relationships with her siblings and parents are complex. Therefore the sibling relationships and friendships section of this book was what I felt I could identify with the most because I wanted to learn more about the dynamics of those relationships and how they change when you reach midlife. Unfortunately, the chapter didn’t really cover anything it just said some stay close some grow apart. I would have like to know why some siblings stay close and some grow apart. In addition to maybe some strategies to keep those relationships close would have been nice. One interesting aspect of this chapter was the empty nest syndrome. According to the book the empty nest syndrome is the marital satisfaction decreases because parents derive considerable satisfaction from their children and the children’s departure leaves parents with empty feelings. Parents who live vicariously through their children suffer from emptiness syndrome. On the other hand, other couples greater marriage satisfaction when the children leave because they are able to live as they did before there was children, like more time for each other and other pursuits. Chapter 18 Finally I’ve reached the last section which is the inevitable Late Adulthood. As always, The physical Development in Late Adulthood was examined first. The topics were Longevity, The course of physical development in late adulthood, and health. Longevity consisted of life expectancy, life span, the young old, the old old, and the oldest old and biological theories of aging. The course of physical development in late adulthood is the aging brain, physical appearance, sensory development, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and sexuality development. As if all that wasn’t enough, the book discussed late adulthood health, with topics of health problems, the robust oldest old, exercise, nutrition, weight, and finally health treatment. This chapter was depressing, informative, and interesting all at once. The depressing aspect of this chapter was the descriptions of the physical changes you face with late adulthood development. You become more vulnerable to diseases, we lose considerable muscle mass, contain a more “sagging” look, as well as loss of hearing, smell, taste and just about every other aspect of our physical being is worsen. Not to mention you become more asexual, due to diseases such as erectile dysfunction and societal views of disgust towards senior citizens engaging in such acts. Some of the more informative information in this chapter was the growing controversy over vitamins and aging. My grandparents take several vitamins because they were instructed that it was crucial to their health. According to the book, some researchers believe that just a balance diet is all that is needed to achieve health at an old age. Why this is true and important, other studies have shown that other factors such as pollution, smoking, and poor food quality can make it difficult, therefore those who took antioxidants like vitamin E reduced their chance of heart disease. Chapter 19 Chapter 19 was the Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood. The topics Cognitive functioning in older adults, work and retirement, the mental health of older adults, and religion in late adulthood were discussed. Cognitive functioning in older Adults consisted of the descriptions of the multidimensional, multidirectional nature of cognition, education, work, and health links to cognitive functioning, the “use it or lose it” approach, and the training of cognitive skills. Work and retirement talked about work for senior citizens in general, retirement in the united states and other countries and their adjustment to it. The mental health of older adults discussed its nature, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and other afflictions. As well as fear of victimization, crime, elder maltreatment, and meeting the mental health needs of older adults. I was very intrigued by the story of ninety-two year old Russell “Bob” Harrell. Apparently, this man puts in twelve hour days at Sieco Consulting Engineers in Columbus Indiana, as a highway and bridge engineer designing and planning roads. I

BUS 309: Business Ethics

BUS 309: Business Ethics.

Assignment 3 Persuasive Essay TemplateIn the land of free trade, the public does not view all industries as equal. Do you believe that is ethical? Do you believe that some industries are unfairly targeted? Should it be consumers’ choice to partake in products that are not healthy for them, or do those companies have an ethical obligation to protect people? In this assignment, you will choose from one (1) of the following industries to write about: The pharmaceutical industry The payday loan industry Cloning for medical purposesOnce you’ve gone through the worksheet and answered all the questions you will take that information and write your paper. It will basically be a transfer of information from the worksheet to a paper format.DO NOT just turn in the worksheet. It will be sent back for a rewrite.1. Choose an industry. 2. Will you be an advocate for the consumer or the industry?3. Develop 3 reasons why you support the consumer or the industry. Reason 1o Supporting evidence for that reason Reason 2o Supporting evidence for that reason Reason 3o Supporting evidence for that reason4. Is it possible for a company to cater to both its best interest and that of the consumer conjointly or if one always has to prevail? Reason 1o Supporting evidence for that reason Reason 2o Supporting evidence for that reason Reason 3o Supporting evidence for that reasonUse at least two (2) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources.Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
BUS 309: Business Ethics