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Walden University Conceptualizing Culture in Conflict Resolution PPT

Walden University Conceptualizing Culture in Conflict Resolution PPT.

Based on the attachment here make 5 to 8 slides powerpoint based on the chapter 5 here and the recommendation reading I attach here.Using APA Style, In order to do the powerpoint slides you have to read the book chapters (5) I attach here.In each powerpoint slide put a summary in the add note what each slide powerpoint is about.Instructions1. Time: 5 minutes per individual for presentation on the assigned readings. Preparation.a) Read the assigned required material (e.g. readings, audiovisual material). Identify the author’s main argument or overall point, the overall question the author’s main argument answers, the reasons and evidence the author gives to support their argument, and the aspect of conflict (or violence, conflict resolution or peace) that is the author’s focus.A good way of addressing these main elements of a text is to ask questions and jot down answers. For example, ask: What does the author argue in this chapter (book, video, podcast, article, etc)? What overall question is the author’s argument responding to? What reasons and evidence does the author give to support their main argument? What specific thing about conflict (violence, peace, conflict resolution, etc) does the author focus on or highlight? What is the purpose of each section? What does the author want the reader to know and understand well?b) State your position clearly and concisely. What do you say in response to the author? Demonstrate your ability to read, reflect and contribute a thoughtful response. Your answer may be either one of the following: “I agree that/with….”; “I disagree that/with…….”; “I agree that….., however, I disagree that_____.” It is not enough to merely agree or disagree. Support your answer with one good reason. 2. Finally pose ONE good question. Yes, several questions come up as you read and worked on the assignment. Please note them down. However, notice you do not have much time and you do not want to overwhelm your audience with so many questions or throw them off! So, please look at the many questions you had and select one that is clear, brief (not long winded) and compelling. Tell your audience why you think it is important for them to consider or worth discussing. You can always return to what you wanted to explain in greater detail during the Q&A.On the matter of a good question. Learning to pose a good question is an important conflict resolution skill. A good question is one that advances discussion or debate in a way that invites the audience to join you in thinking again about a conflict issue, or, generating new knowledge or insights, or expanding existing understanding and knowledge. It gets your audience’s attention. Engages them. Provokes thought and motivates participation.So, how do I get to do this you may ask? A good way is to read your assigned readings carefully for the way the authors pose questions and/or respond to question posed by other scholars and practitioners in the conflict resolution field. Observe how they pose questions. Consider their questions carefully, especially their “fruitfulness” or potential to advance debate on a phenomenon of concern to a broader community of scholars and practitioners. Not all questions advance debate or open up new avenues of inquiry. For example, rhetorical questions, questioning the obvious, and questions that elicit an automatic NO or Yes. Think carefully about the questions you ask. Required readingAvruch, K. (2013). Context and Pretext in Conflict Resolution: Culture, Identity, Power, and Practice. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers. Chapter 5.Brigg, M. and Muller, K. (2009). Conceptualizing Culture in Conflict Resolution. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30(2), 121-140. RecommendedBusch, D. (2012). Cultural Theory and conflict management in organizations: How does theory shape our understanding of culture in practice? International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 12 (1), 9-124. Busch, D. (2010). How does Culture Affect Conflict Mediation? Disentangling concepts from Theory and Practice, In D. Busch, C-H. Mayer, and C.M. Boness (Eds.), International and Regional Perspectives on Cross-Cultural Mediation (pp.15-47). Peter Lang.
Walden University Conceptualizing Culture in Conflict Resolution PPT

Uses Of Peroxidases Enzymes. Peroxidases are oxidoreductases produced by number of plants and microorganisms. Reduction of Peroxidases in presence of electron donating substrate makes Peroxidases useful in many commercial applications. Peroxidase enzymes such as manganese and lignin peroxidase both associated with lignin degradation, which is successfully used for biobleaching and biopulping in the paper industry, and can produce oxidative break down of synthetic azo dyes. Peroxidase based biosensors are widely used in analytical systems for determinations of hydrogen peroxide, and co immobilized with hydrogen peroxide producing enzyme which are used for determination of glucose, alcohols, glutamate and choline. Peroxidase has also been used for practical analytical applications in diagnostic kits, such as quantitation of uric acid, glucose, lactose, cholesterol, etc. Enzyme linked immunorbent assay (ELISA) tests on which peroxidase is the most common enzyme used for labeling an antibody, are a sample and reliable way of detecting toxins, pathogens, cancer risk in bladder and prostate. Peroxidase is potential has potential for soil detoxification while Horseradish peroxidase is widely used in waste water treatment in order to remove the pheonlic, cresol and chlorinated phenols. With uses of peroxidases enzymes for commercial uses in various fields and there potential of large scale production also gained major importance as the main source of horseradish peroxidase is produced from horseradish, latest research shows many plant and microbial source for the production of peroxidases enzymes. Key words: Immunoassays, peroxidase, diagnostic kits, biosensors, bioremediation. Introduction: The term peroxidase enzyme represents group of specific enzymes, divided into plant and mammalian Peroxidases. Most Peroxidases are heam proteins and contain iron (3) protoporphyrin 1x (ferriprotoporphyrin 1x), as prosthetic group (Carlos et al., 2004) they have a molecular weight ranging from 30000 to 150 000 da. Peroxidase activity has been identified in plants, animals and micro organisms. In plants they play a major role in lignifications process (wakamatsu and Takahama, 1993) and in the mechanism of defense in physically or infected tissues (Biles and Martin, 1993). Peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of substrates, using H2O2 or other peroxides. The peroxidase catalytic cycle involves distinct intermediate enzyme forms (Wong, 1995). In the initial step the native ferric enzyme is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to form an unstable intermediate called compound I (CoI), which has a heme structure of FeIV=Oporphyrin π-cation radical, and the consequent reduction of peroxide to water. Then, CoI oxidizes an electron donor substrate to give compound II (CoII) (same oxyferryl structure, but protonated), releasing a free radical. CoII is further reduced by a second substrate molecule regenerating the iron (III) state and producing another free radical. (Carlos et al., 2004). Reduction of peroxides at the expense of electron donating substrates, make Peroxidases useful in number of industrial and analytical applications. peroxidase is the most well suited enzyme for the preparation of enzyme conjugated antibodies which are used in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test (ELISA) ,due to its ability to yield chromogenic products at low concentration (Krell,1991). Peroxidase coupled with other enzymes in polyenzymatic systems producing hydrogen peroxide is also used in the determination of many compounds, such as glucose in blood. Because of the oxidative nature of Peroxidases, there are several areas where it could replace current chemical oxidant techniques. Horseradish (Armorica rusticana L.) roots contain peroxidases currently used for the commercial production of reagents for clinical purposes and enzyme immunoassays (Agostini et a., 1996). But research shows there are many other sources for the production of peroxidase enzymes. Agostini et al., 1996 has successfully produced peroxidase enzymes from hairy roots of Brassica napus. These are successfully used in commercial kits. Soudek et al., were optimized in production of peroxidase by tissue culture from horseradish. COMMERCIAL USE OF PEROXIDASE ENZYMES Application in analysis and diagnostic kits Galactosemia is genetically inherited metabolic disorder characterized by an inability of the body to utilize galactose (Jie et al., 2002) galactose is a type of food sugar found mainly in dairy products and produced within the human body. The main source of galactose is milk products. Milk contains sugar called lactose (disaccharide sugar), which will hydrolyzed into glucose and galactose (monosaccharide sugars) (Sharma et al., 2004) glucose is utilized as source of energy. In presence of enzymes galactokinase, galactose -1-phosphate uridyl transferase and galactose 6- phosphate epimerase galactose ifs further metabolized (Petry and Reichardt, 1998) deficiency of any of these enzymes leads to galactosemia which results in cataracts in infants, liver disease and kidney problems, if galactosemia is not treated. High levels of galactose and galactose 1-phosphate can cause brain damage may lead to death (Sharma et al., 2004). It is very important for the people with galactosemia to avoid food contain galactose/lactose in the diet. Sharma et al developed an immobilized enzyme based Biostrip for estimation of galactose in food products. The enzymatic method for determination of galactose is based on oxidation of galactose by galactose oxidase to form D-galacto-hexodialdose and hydrogen peroxide .In presence of peroxidase form colored complex with o-dianisidine or o-tolidine (S.K. Sharma et al .,).the Biostrip was dipped in milk or a milk product and color developed from an added chromogen . The test is mostly used in dairies, hospitals, and homes. Principle of the Biostrip Detection of cholesterol level in serum In human monitoring cholesterol level in serum is very important, increase are decrease in level of cholesterol in serum is associated with diseases (Hirany, Li, and jialal,1997), thus there is need for analysis , Malik and Pundir (2002) developed a new diagnostic kit. In this method cholesterol ester is hydrolyzed by cholesterol esterase to free fatty acids and cholesterol, which is oxidized by cholesterol oxidized to cholestenone and H2O2. H2O2 Is determined using HRP the following equation .where the resultant quinoneimine is measured at 520 nm .This method is most employed in commercial kits (Mohsina et al., 2009). HRP is used in identifying bladder and prostate cancer by detecting 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and its analogs in urine. (Carlos et al., 2004) In the latest research by J Tupper (2010) reported HRP is used in gene therapy of cancer. Gene -directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of targeted cancer therapy, in which an enzyme is used to convert a non toxic prodrug to a cytotoxin within the tumor .Horse radish peroxidase, is able to convert the indole prodrugs indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the halogenated derivative 5-bromo-iAA (5br-IAA) to toxic agents able to induce cell kill in vitro. Peroxidase immunoassays ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assays are tests designed to detect antigens or antibodies by producing an enzyme triggered change of color. To this an enzyme labeled antibody specific to antigen is needed, as well as chromogenic substrate, which in presence of enzyme changes color. The amount of developed color is directly proportional to the amount of antigen in the test specimen. HRP is probably the most common enzyme used as an enzyme labeled antibody in the enzyme immunoassays. Peroxidase based ELISA test are used for labeling an antibody, is used for screening of monoclonal antibodies against mycotoxins. (Kawamura et al., 1989). Mycotoxins are dangerous toxins released by fungi. Mycotoxins are mostly found in cereals and their detection is necessary to avoid risk of consumption. Peroxidase biosensors One field that offers great potential for peroxidase application is that comprising electrochemical biosensors. Recently, peroxidase based electrodes have had widespread use in analytical systems for determination of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides (Jia et al., 2002). When co-immobilized with a hydrogen peroxide producing enzyme, they may be exploited for determination of glucose, alcohols, glutamate, choline (Ruzgas et al., 1996). Peroxidase first catalytic cycle involves reaction of the active site with hydrogen peroxide FeIII H2O2 → [(FeIV = O) − R •] CoI H2O Then, CoI oxidizes a substrate to give a substrate radical and CoII, which is reduced by a second substrate molecule, regenerating the native ferric enzyme. When an electrode substitutes the electron donor substrate in a common peroxide reaction cycle, the process is denominated as direct electron transfer (Freire et al., 2003). Enzymes immobilized on an electrode can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (equation 2) and then reduced by electrons provided by an electrode [(FeIV = O) − R •]CoI 2e− 2H → FeIII H2O When an electron donor (A) is present in a peroxidase-electrode system, the direct process ca occur simultaneously, with reduction of the oxidized donor A• by the electrode (Liu and Ju, 2002; A• e− H →AH During direct electron transfer, electrons act as the second substrate for the enzymatic reaction, resulting in a shift of the electrode potential, with the measured current being proportional to the H2O2 concentration (Everse et al., 1991). This technique can also be used to quantify other metabolites, especially combined with another oxidase enzyme. Peroxidase can also interact with an electrode by mediated electron transfer, where a mediator (an electron donor, A) is transporting the electrons between the enzyme and the electrode. In this system, the enzymatically oxidized donor (A•) is thus electrochemically reduced by the electrode. Application in the paper pulp industries The biopulping is a process where the extra cellular enzymes produced by a white rot fungi remain absorbed on the wood chips degrading lignin .after pulping process, about 10% of the lignin which is responsible for characteristic brown color (carols regalado et al.,).lignin can be enzymatically degraded using enzymes like manganese Peroxidase (Hatakkaet al.,) .thus manganese Peroxidase is potentially use full in biobleaching (Carlos regalado et al.,) Decolorization of synthetic dyes Dyes are used extensively for paper printing , color photograph ,textile dyeing and as additive in petroleum industries .they have synthetic origin and complex molecular structure .the used synthetic dyes are discharged in to waste water causing environmental problems .It is very important to treat dyes before discharging . Bhunia et al ., showed the horse radish peroxidase HRP can be effective in degrading and precipitating industrially important azo dyes such as remazol and cibacron red. Deodorization of swine manure: Pork meat production is considered as one of the major food industries .In practice pork farms face major challenge in storage and processing of large amount of swine manure, which becomes a serious management and environmental issue, swine manure consist of concentrated organic materials, decomposition of which result in the production of malodorous, volatile low molecular weight compounds such as volatile fatty acids and aromatic compounds such as phenol, indoles and cresols as well ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.(fen xia ye et al.,2009) which are odorant compounds. Elevated odor level in buildings can reduce live stock growth rate and increase the out breaks of infections and adversely affect farm workers. HRP has been proven as an effective alternative for deodorization of manures. Minaced horseradish with calcium peroxidase reduced concentration of phenols by 70% and volatile fatty acids for 45% (Gover et al., 2007).A 100% reduction in the concentration of phenol odorants without reoccurrence within 72% h was achieved by using HRP (Gover et al.,2005). Commercial uses of lactoperoxidase: Dairy products provide high quality protein rich food for human consumption. However raw milk is very perishable food stuff special measure are taken in order to stop the growth of microorganisms, while transporting milk from farmers to dairy industries over a longer distances. To solve this problem storage for longer time naturally occurring antimicrobial system in milk know as lactoperoxidase system, which is activated in milk by increasing the concentration of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide. The lactoperoxidase (LP) system consists of three components: Lactoperoxidase, thiocyanate, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and it is active only in the presence of all these three components. Lactoperoxidase catalyses the oxidation of thiocyanate (SCN−) by H2O2 and generates intermediate products with antibacterial properties. These products have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial effects against bacteria, fungi and viruses (de Wit and van Hooydonk, 1996). Guthrie (1992) reported the application of the Lactoperoxidase system for preservation of cosmetics and concluded that the Lactoperoxidase system can provide a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and moulds when it is composed of Lactoperoxidase, H2O2 and SCN at carefully selected weight ratios. Optimum results were obtained when H2O2 was generated enzymatically by the glucose oxidase-glucose system. By his method cosmetics can be preserved for 2 to 4 months. A report by van Hooijdonk, Kussendrager, and Steijns (2000) indicated the potential of the lactoperoxidase system for use in fish farming, oral hygiene and functional foods. The LPsystem can also be used to eradicate L. monocytogenes from surfaces of fresh fish fillets and meat (Ramet, 2000). Table1. Reports on the the development of enzyme immunoassays using peroxidase as a reporter enzyme to detect toxins , pathogens and other analytes (Carlos et al., 2004) Pathiogen/analyte product immunoaasy Immuno assay Goynyautoxins shellfish tissue Direct competative ELISA T-2 toxin maize,wheat, rye,barley Flow-Through Enzyme Immunoassay Ochratoxin A Corn, barley, soybean Direct competitive ELISA Zearalenone toxins Different cereals Direct competitive ELISA Fumonisin B1 Corn-based Competitive EIA Dengue virus proteins Human serum Immunoblots Hepatitis-E virus Human serum ELISA Alkaline Milk Cotton seed Competitive indirect Streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin Milk Double antibody solid phase EIA Gossypol Cotton seed Non-competitive ELISA Horseradish peroxidase in removal of phenol from waste water. Phenolic compounds contaminate industrial waste water streams, mostly from the fibre industries, oil refineries and polymer processing industries. These are potential danger to human health because of toxicity and suspected to be carcinogenic (Sakurai et al., 2003). (Villalobos and Buchanan, 2002), has reported conventional methods such as chemical, physical and biological process are not always suitable. Enzyme based treatment methods have several advantages because of their specificity, and are very efficient in removing targeted compounds and enzymes are easy to handle and store (Wilberg et al., 2002). (Klibanov et al., 1983) The use of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) to eliminate phenol, was successfully demonstrated and proved enzymatic treatment was effective. In presence of enzyme peroxidase, phenols are oxidised to form the corresponding radicals through addition of hydrogen peroxide the radicals spontaneously react to rapidly form insoluble polymers, which can be easily precipitated from the waste water (A. Bodalo et al., 2005). In this case (HRP) is inactivated during enzymatic reaction due to interaction between the phenoxy radicals and/ or polymers produced to enzyme active site (A. Bodalo et al., 2005). The enzyme inactivation is minimized by addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) it decreases the absorption of polymers onto the enzyme active site (A. Badalo et al.) Production of peroxidase by hairy roots of Brassica napus: The largest amount peroxidase is used in human medicine in clinical biochemical tests. Peroxidase production from (Brassica napus) is reliable source of commercial production of peroxidase. Agostini et al., 1996 produced peroxidase by hairy root cultures of turnip. Seeds of Brassica napus were surface sterilized in a 30% solution of domestic bleach for 2 mins .they were vacuum filtered and washed with three changes of sterile distilled water followed by soaking for 1 min in 70% ethanol .seeds were transferred to 50 % solution of domestic bleach containing 50 µl of tween 80 and were soaked for 15 to 20 min. Then they were washed three times with sterile distilled water and were placed on a MS Murashige and skoog medium containing 0.9% w/v (oxoid). They were incubated for 30 days at 25 in dark /light regime of 16/8 hours under a light intensity of 15 µmoles m-2s-2. Leaves of the resulting seedlings were used to produce hairy roots, obtained by inoculation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain. Infected explants were placed on solid MS medium containing vitamins and a 1 gm of ampicillian. Fifteen to eighteen days later adventitious roots appeared on the infected areas were excised and transferred to 125 ml flasks containing the same medium (without agar) for 25 to 30 days .terminal apices of the growing hairy roots were sub cultured to the same medium but without antibiotic and kept in orbital shaker at 100 rev/min and at 250c in the dark. Complete hairy roots developed in the flask at each time sampling were vacuum filtered and dried between two sheets of filter paper .roots were homogenized in a mortar with 10mM acetic acetic buffer ph 4, containing 1 M nacl (1 g fresh weight per 10 ml buffer) at 40c .homogenates were centrifuged at 5000 g for 5mins and supernatants were used for enzyme assays. Production of Peroxidase The isolation of Peroxidase enzymes from field grown plants made difficult by the fact plants do not produce seeds and must therefore be propagated vegetatively (P.Soudek et al., 2005) Seeds of Armorica rusticana L. were surface sterilized in 5%(m/v) sodium hypochlorite for 2min, soaked in sterile water three times for 10 mins, and germinated on hormone free Murashige and skoog (ms) medium at 27 0c, 16 photoperiod .after emergence of the second pair of leaves and nodel cuttings were transferred to fresh medium, and sub cultured at intervals of four weeks. Callus was cultured on hormone free MS medium at the same temperature and photoperiod. Hair root cultures were obtained by inoculation of the callus cuttings with suspension of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hair root cultures were incubated on ms medium with o.6 µm of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 4.44 um of -benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 500 mg ticarciline. Ticarciline was used for three subcultures cycles (2 weeks per cycle) to prevent growth of bacteria. In the second and third cultures cycle ms medium was either supplemented with o.5 um Four weeks old horse radish callus or tumors tissues grown in vitro were used as source for Peroxidase extraction. Complete hairy roots developed in the flask at each time sampling were vacuum filtered and dried between two sheets of filter paper .roots were homogenized in a mortar with 10mM acetic acetic buffer ph 4, containing 1 M nacl (1 g fresh weight per 10 ml buffer) at 40c .homogenates were centrifuged at 5000 g for 5mins and supernatants were used for commercial uses. Conclusion It was practically know that peroxidases have many possibilities for applications in clinically. Like In Diagnostic kits, antibody labellling, waste water treatment and in food and paper industries. Peroxidase can be an efficient biocatalyst for the production of industrially relevant compounds. As peroxidase is produced by number of micro organisms and plants, plants source is used for commercial production. Uses Of Peroxidases Enzymes
This research paper will describe the life of J.S. Bach, including his biography, career and personality. Johann Sebastian Bach is considered one of the greatest composers in the music history and a very talented person. That is why it would be interesting to find out more about his life in detail. Johann Sebastian Bach (March 31, 1685 – July 28, 1750) – is a German composer and organist. Bach is also considered a representative of the Baroque period. During his life, Johann Sebastian Bach has written more than 1000 works, where were shown all the important genres of that time. The composer has also summarized the achievements of musical art of the Baroque period. As a fact, Bach was the master of polyphony. His work has had a profound influence on subsequent music composers, including those in the XX century. Johann Sebastian Bach was the youngest, the eighth child of Johann Ambrosius Bach musician and Elizabeth Lemmerhirt. Rod Bach is known for his musicality from the beginning of the XVI century: many of the ancestors of Johann Sebastian were professional musicians. During this period, church, local government and the aristocracy supported the musicians, especially in Thuringia and Saxony. Father of Bach lived and worked in Eisenach. At this time the city had about 6000 inhabitants. The work of Johann Ambrosius included the organization of secular concerts and performance of church music. When Johann Sebastian was 9 years old, his mother died a year later – the father shortly married again. The boy was taken to his elder brother, Johann Christoph, who served as organist at the nearby Ohrdruf. Johann Sebastian enrolled in high school, and brother taught him to play the organ and piano. Johann Sebastian was very fond of music and never missed an opportunity to do it or learn something new. Johann Christoph in the closet kept a notebook with notes of famous composers at the time, but, despite requests from Johann Sebastian, he did not give him to look at it. Once the young Bach was able to extract from the always locked cabinet brother’s notebook, and in six months on moonlit nights, he copied its contents himself. When the work has already been completed, brother found a copy and took notes. Perhaps the strain of view during the rewriting of the music at night was the cause of later development of cataracts, which played a fatal role for the composer. Trained at the Ohrdruf led him to become acquainted with the work of contemporary composers from South Germany – Pachelbel, Froberger and others. It is also possible that he became acquainted with the works of composers in northern Germany and France. In 15 years, Bach moved to Lüneburg, where in 1700-1703 he studied at the singing school of St. Michael. During his studies, he traveled to Hamburg – the largest city in Germany and Celle (where the premium was a French music), and Lübeck, where he got the chance to become acquainted with the works of famous musicians of his time. These are the same age and the first works of Bach for organ and harpsichord. In addition to singing in the chorus a cappella, Bach probably played the organ and on the harpsichord. Here he received his first knowledge of theology, Latin, history, geography and physics, but also, possibly, he began to teach French and Italian. At school, Bach was able to communicate with the sons of famous northern German aristocrats and the well-known organists, especially with George Bemom in Lüneburg and Reynken in Hamburg. With their help, Johann Sebastian, possibly gained access for the largest of all the instruments on which he ever played. During this period, Bach expanded his knowledge of the composers of the era, above all, the Dietrich Buxtehude, whom he greatly respected. Bach wrote over 1000 pieces of music. Today, each assigned number of famous works BWV (short for Bach Werke Verzeichnis – catalog of Bach). Bach wrote music for different instruments, both spiritually and worldly. Some of the works of Bach are the treatments of works by other composers, and some – reworked versions of his works. Organ music in Germany at the time of Bach has had a long tradition established by predecessors of Bach, Buxtehude and other composers, each in its own way influenced by it. With many of them Bach was personally acquainted. Over a lifetime, Bach was best known as a first-class organist, teacher and writer of organ music. He has worked in both traditional for that time of “free” genres, such as the prelude, fantasia, toccata, passacaglia, and in more severe forms – chorale prelude and fugue. In his works for organ Bach skillfully combined the features of different musical styles, with whom he became acquainted during his life. The composer’s music was influenced by both northern German composers (Georg Böhm, with whom Bach met in Lüneburg, and Dieterich Buxtehude in Lübeck), and southern music composers: Bach transcribed his works of many French and Italian composers to realize their musical language, he later even transcribed some of Vivaldi violin concertos for organ. During the most fruitful period for Organ Music (1708-1714), Johann Sebastian, not only wrote many pairs of preludes and fugues, and Toccata and Fugues, but also wrote an unfinished organ little book – a collection of 46 Short Chorale Preludes, which demonstrate various techniques and approaches to composing choral works on the topic. After his departure from Weimar Bach became less writing for organ, however, after the Weimar were written many well-known product (6 trio sonatas, a collection of “Clavier-Übung” Leipzig chorales and 18). Throughout his life Bach not only wrote music for organ, but also engaged in consulting in the construction of instruments, checking and setting of new organs. Bach also wrote a number of pieces for harpsichord, many of which could carry clavichord. Many of these creations are encyclopedic collections, demonstrating the various techniques and methods of composing polyphonic compositions. Most of the clavier works of Bach, published in his lifetime, were held in the collections under the name “Clavier-Übung” (“clavier exercises”). “Well-Tempered Clavier” in two volumes, written in 1722 and 1744 respectively – is a compendium of each volume of which is contained on the 24 preludes and fugues, one for each frequently used key. This cycle was very important in connection with the transition to a system configuration tools that allow equally easy to play music in any key – especially for the modern evenly tempered scale. Two voiced 15 and 15 three-part invention – small works, arranged in order to increase the number of characters in the key. Meant (and still used today) to learn to play keyboards. Three collections of suites: The English Suites, French Suites and Partitas for harpsichord. Each cycle is contained in 6 suites, built on a standard scheme (Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Jig, and an optional part between the last two). Goldberg Variations (about 1741) – is the melody with 30 variations. Cycle has a rather complicated and unusual structure. Variations are rather based on the tonal plan of themes than on most tunes. There is a variety of pieces such as “Overture in the French style”, BWV 831, “Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue”, BWV 903, or “Italian Concerto”, BWV 971. Bach wrote music for individual instruments, as well as for ensembles. His works for solo instruments are 6 Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin, BWV 1001-1006, 6 Suites for Cello, BWV 1007-1012, and the Partita for solo flute, BWV 1013 – many consider one of the most profound works of the composer. In addition, Bach composed several pieces for solo lute. He wrote also trio sonatas, sonatas for solo flute and viola da gamba, accompanied only by bass-general, as well as a large number of canons, mostly without the tools for implementation. The most significant examples of such works are the cycles of “Art of Fugue and The Musical Offering”. The most famous works of Bach for Orchestra – are Brandenburg Concertos. They were named so because Bach, sending them Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Swedish in 1721, thought to get a job at his court, but this attempt was unsuccessful. Six concerts were written in the genre Concerto Grosso. Other extant works by Bach for orchestra include two violin concertos, Concerto for 2 Violins in D minor, BWV 1043, and also concertos for one – four harpsichords. Researchers believe that these concerts for harpsichord were merely adaptations of older works of Johann Sebastian, now lost. As a fact, Bach has also written four orchestral suites. Among the chamber works should highlight the second Partita for violin, in particular the last part – chaconne. Vocal works. Cantatas. In the long period of his life, every Sunday Bach visited the Church of St. Thomas led the performance of the cantata, the theme was chosen according to the Lutheran church calendar. Although Bach performed a cantata and other composers, in Leipzig he composed at least three full annual cycles of cantatas, one for each Sunday, and every religious holiday. In addition, he composed a number of cantatas in Weimar and Mulhouse. Total Bach wrote more than 300 cantatas on spiritual issues, of which only about 195 have survived. The cantatas of Bach differ a lot in form and instrumentation. As a fact, some of them are written for one voice, some – for chorus, some call for the execution of a large orchestra, and some – only a few instruments. However, the most commonly used model is as follows: Cantata offers the solemn choral entry, then alternate recitatives and arias for soloists or duets, and completes the entire chorale. The final chorale is often anticipated by the chorale prelude in medium-sized parts, and is sometimes included in the introductory part as a cantus firmus. The best known of Bach’s cantatas are religious “Christ lag in Todesbanden” (No. 4), “Ein ‘feste Burg” (number 80), “Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme” (Room 140) and “Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben” (Room 147). In addition, Bach composed a number of secular cantatas, usually confined to some events, such as a wedding. Among the most famous secular cantatas by Bach are Two wedding cantatas and humorous Coffee Cantata. St John Passion (1724) and St. Matthew Passion (c. 1727) – a work for chorus and orchestra to gospel theme the sufferings of Christ, intended to be executed on the evening of Good Friday in the church of St. Thomas and St. Nicholas. Passion is one of the most large-scale vocal works of Bach. It is known that Bach wrote 4 or 5 of Passion, but these are two completely reached our days. Oratorio and Magnificat. The most famous Christmas Oratorio (1734) – is a cycle of six cantatas for performance during the Christmas period, liturgical year. Easter Oratorio (1734-1736) and the Magnificat are more extensive and carefully designed cantatas and have a smaller scope than the Christmas Oratorio or the Passion. Magnificat exists in two versions: the original (E-flat Major, 1723) and later and the famous (in D Major, 1730). Masses. The most significant mass Bach – is Mass in B minor (completed in 1749), a complete cycle of the ordinary. In this Mass, as in many other works by the composer, came reworked early compositions. Mass never performed entirely in the life of Bach – the first time this has happened only in the XIX century. Furthermore, this music is not performed on purpose because of the duration of sound (about 2 hours). In addition to the Mass in B minor, come down to us 4 short two-part Mass by Bach, as well as individual parts, such as the Sanctus and Kyrie. Others vocal works by Bach include several motets, about 180 chorales, songs and arias. Today, performers of Bach’s music are divided into two camps: those who prefer authentic performance (or “historically oriented performance”), that is, using the tools and methods of the era of Bach and performing Bach on modern instruments. In times of Bach did not have such large choirs and orchestras, such as in times of Brahms, and even the most ambitious of his works such as the Mass in B minor and the Passion, do not involve performance of large groups. In addition, some chamber works by Bach did not specify instrumentation, and therefore are known today are very different versions of the execution of the same products. Of the stringed keyboard instruments Bach preferred the clavichord. He met with Zilberman and discussed with him a device of its new tool, contributing to the creation of the modern piano. Bach’s music for one instrument often is left up to others, for example, Busoni transcribed organ Toccata and Fugue in D minor and other works for piano. In popularizing the music of Bach in the XX century have contributed to many “lightweight” and “modernized” versions of his works. Among them – is widely known today melodies, performed by Swingle Singers, and recorded Wendy Carlos in 1968 “Switched-On Bach”, where was used the recently invented a synthesizer. In the last years of his life, and after death of Bach his fame as a composer began to diminish: his style was considered old-fashioned compared to the burgeoning classicism. He was better known and remembered as a performer, teacher and father of Bach, Jr., primarily Carl Philipp Emanuel, whose music was known. However, many of the major composers such as Mozart, Beethoven and Chopin, are known and loved works of Johann Sebastian. For example, when visiting the school of St. Thomas, Mozart heard one of motets (BWV 225) and exclaimed: “There is much to learn!” – And then, asked the notes, and was long and happily studying them. Beethoven greatly appreciated Bach’s music. As a child he played the preludes and fugues from The Well-Tempered Clavier “and later called Bach “true father of harmony”. Chopin before concerts locked in a room and played music by Bach. The works of Johann Sebastian’s had an effect on many composers. Some themes from the works of Bach, for example, the theme of the Toccata and Fugue in D minor, were reused in the music of the XX century. Biography, written in 1802 by Johann Nikolaus Forkelem, spurred public interest in his music. More and more people are discovering his music. For example, Goethe, rather late in life acquainted with his works (in 1814 and 1815 in Bad Berka were performed some of his clavier and choral works), in a letter in 1827 compared the feeling of the music of Bach with the “eternal harmony in dialogue with itself “. But the current revival of Bach’s music began with the performance of the Passion of St. Matthew in 1829 in Berlin, organized by Felix Mendelssohn. Hegel, who attended the concert, later called Bach a “great, a true Protestant, strong and, so to speak, erudite genius which we have just recently re-learned to appreciate in full measure”. In subsequent years, he continued to work on Mendelssohn’s promotion of Bach’s music and growing popularity of the composer. In 1850, the Bach Society was founded, whose goal is to collect, study and dissemination of works of Bach. In the next half-century that society has undergone extensive work on compiling and publishing the body of the composer. The major forms in which the composer worked are: Toccata and Fugue in D minor; Joke – Suite for Flute and Strings; Musical Offering*; St. Matthew Passion; Invention; Goldberg variations*; Brandenburg Concertos; Magnificat* Chorale Preludes. In XX century, continued awareness of the musical and pedagogical value of his works. Interest in music of Bach has created a new movement among performers: a widespread idea of an authentic performance. These artists, for example, use a harpsichord instead of a modern piano, and choirs smaller than it was made in the XIX and early XX century, wanting to exactly recreate the music of Bach’s era. Some composers have expressed their respects to Bach, including the themes of their works motive BACH. For example, Liszt wrote a prelude and fugue on BACH, Schumann wrote six fugues on the same topic. The same subject has used Bach, for example, in the XIV counterpoint of the “Art of Fugue.” Many composers took the example of his work or have used the theme of them. Examples are variations on a theme by Diabelli Beethoven, whose prototype is “Goldberg Variations”, 24 Preludes and Fugues by Shostakovich, inspired by the Well-Tempered Clavier, and the Sonata for Cello in D Major by Brahms, which are inserted in the final musical quote from Art Fugue. Bach’s music is among the best creations of mankind is recorded on golden disc “Voyager”. All in all, the research has shown me the path of life of Johann Sebastian Bach, his success, talent and possibilities. He has made many efforts to show his talent to the world, to make people appreciate what he was doing and to leave the indispensable heritage to the humanity.

Write a public safety speech

Write a public safety speech. I’m studying and need help with a Social Science question to help me learn.

You have been asked by a state senator to come to the senate and give a five-minute briefing on the topic of funding and building disaster resilient communities.The senate has allocated $100,000,000.00 dollars for public safety and several areas within the public safety professions are being asked to make the case for funding in their specific areas. This posting will be your elevator speech. What will you discuss? Will you invoke a more emotional tone, concentrating on humanity and reducing suffering or will you choose to appeal to the self-interest of individuals, or will you take it into another direction entirely.
This is your speech…it is up to you to mold it the way you would want to say it.
Discussion rules…posts need to be intelligent and thoughtful, rich in cited academic sources to support opinions, and synthesized with the course readings, video, etc. for this lesson. Excluding sources, initial posts should be at least 500 words and you will need to substantially respond to at least two of your fellow students.
Write a public safety speech

New techniques for harnessing solar energy Essay

essay writer Table of Contents Introduction Harnessing solar energy Conclusion References Introduction Solar energy is a renewable source of limitless energy, which is expected to last about another five billion years or so according to scientific research (Sherman, 2003). There are about three different modes of harvesting solar energy, but the two most popular are orienting a structure towards the sun to enable maximum utilization of the sun’s energy, and the other is the use of photovoltaic cells and solar panels to harvest solar radiations into electrical or mechanical energy (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2007). Credit is given to the most famous scientist, Albert Einstein, for establishing the close relationship between photochemistry and photoelectric effect. It is due to his research in the early 20th century that we set the laws of photochemistry that represent the starting point for understanding and exploiting solar energy. Due to the scarcity of fossil fuels and the expenses incurred in the mining of fossil fuels, it is important that we find a new source of energy to fulfill the energy needs of the world. Harnessing solar energy People have been using sun’s energy in countless ways since time immemorial and it is practically impossible to determine who actually discovered solar energy. We can however appreciate milestones in the use of sunlight in the previous inventions such as the sundial and the utilization of solar energy by Auguste Mouchout to power the world’s first solar-powered motor engine. Moreover, Charles Fritz set a milestone when he invented solar cells which converted sunlight (around 1 to 2 percent) to electrical energy. Silicon is used in most solar panels as a semi-conductor though recent development of cheaper-to-produce silicon crystals which has not outdone the previous original silicon crystals (Sherman, 2003). The crystals are however fit into larger panels which produce about the same amount of electricity or more for the same investment. However, only about 30% of the sun’s light is absorbed and optimum efficiency is reached when the solar panel is oriented at 90o to the sun. Nevertheless, a new trend has emerged which involves making semi-conductors out of plastic and allows cheaper and more durable cells instead of silicon. It is done using a juxtaposition of two different polymers where each takes in a different charge after absorption and the charge is collected to give a working cell. With photovoltaics generally, there is a need to prevent fluorescence after absorption thereby, maximizing energy conversion (Sherman, 2003). There has been a new replacement for the lowering supply of silicon crystals. This is the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) which, utilizes relatively inexpensive organic dye molecules as light harvesters which carry away charge in inorganic nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide (Institution of Engineering

Soil Paper

Soil Paper. I don’t know how to handle this Geography question and need guidance.

Consider the following: Imagine that you work for the United States Department of Agriculture. One of the farmers in your geographical area asks you what kind of crop would grow most effectively on the farm. Provide advice for this farmer. Write at least a 700-word paper on soil composition in your geographical area. Address the following in your paper: The composition of soils How soils are formed The uses of soils The kinds of crops that grow most effectively in your geographical area Include photos, diagrams, or graphs as appropriate. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines
Soil Paper

In this assignment, read section 2, pages 6 to 9 in your textbook. Then write a short essay of Essay

In this assignment, read section 2, pages 6 to 9 in your textbook. Then write a short essay of 300 to 450 words that answers the questions listed below. Study each question carefully in order to be able to thoroughly explain the main characteristics and performance of these systems. What is the purpose of interactive systems? What is the difference between an isolated system and an interconnected system to the network? When you install a system on grid you can make it through two modalities; which of them is the most used? Microinverter-based systems have different configurations than central inverter systems; which of them do you prefer to install? Mention a central inverter system that represents a degree of efficiency. According to the NEC, what is the maximum dump that an interactive system can have installed? According to the NEC, which are the recommended conductors to install an interconnected photovoltaic system? When I decide to install a supply side system, which percent capacity do I have to reduce to the general breaker? If I decide to perform the load side connection, which capacity must have the disconnection of current? Which diameter requires drivers to be used for PV array strings according to the NEC in their article 690?