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Waiting Time Reduction in the US Emergency Rooms Research Paper

Abstract This paper issues an analysis of best practices for promoting flow, minimizing wait times, and optimizing the quality of care of patients in the emergency department. This paper discusses the problems linked to long waiting times in the emergency department. This paper will show that crowding, long wait times as well as poor conditions in the waiting room compromise the quality of the patient satisfaction. This study begins by investigating the relationship between patient satisfaction and wait times. Best practices towards minimizing wait times are identified. The objective of this research is to identify the varied approaches that healthcare providers can use to minimize waiting times. The literature review provides a proposal to act as a guide for the National Health Care Reform in the United States. This article proposes the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) as a useful framework for lowering the costs of healthcare and improving patient care. The last section focuses on the implications of the study and provides an analysis of learned lessons. Time frame The search for related sources took one month. Introduction Patients in a hospital expect that their medical needs will be addressed thoroughly since it has been an assumption that health is the number one priority of hospitals. However, even if the hospitals would like to address these needs thoroughly, they have been limited due to their resources and some other factors like inefficiency in the reception of patients. Such inefficiencies in receiving patients would be more detrimental if this is true for the emergency room department. In a bid to minimize waiting time in emergency rooms, it is imperative to highlight and understand the factors that contribute to delays. A delay may come because of the absence of a specialist. A majority of the medical professionals specialize in specific areas. Thus, the absence of a specialist that can handle a certain health condition may lead to a patient spending a lot of time in the emergency room. In the United States, emergency physicians are always available to handle different cases. Nevertheless, medical specialists like cardiologists, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons are summoned in the case of an emergency. Thus, a patient might be forced to wait while the emergency physicians try to reach the available specialist. Many patients who visit emergency rooms end up being admitted. Inpatient, services are a major cause of the increase in waiting time in the emergency rooms. Medical practitioners monitor the admitted patients regularly. Thus, they do not get adequate time to attend to the incoming patients resulting in overcrowding. Indeed, patients wait for approximately four hours in the emergency rooms in the United States. Handling the factors that contribute to increasing waiting time in emergency rooms can go a long way towards reducing delays and enhancing service delivery. The majority of the hospitals in the United States have managed to reduce waiting times. For instance, at Queens Hospital in New York, the waiting time has gone down from 146 minutes to 60 minutes over two years. This decline is largely attributable to the emergence of online booking services since they assist in predicting the number of patients expected in a particular day. Despite the progress, the level of patient satisfaction is still low. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most patients continue to complain that they do not receive emergency services on time. On average, in most hospitals across the U.S, patients wait for at least 45 minutes before they receive emergency services (Atkinson, 2009). Thus, it is the focus of this paper to address the long waiting times in the respective emergency room departments of hospitals. The paper will discuss the possible measures that can be taken to mitigate the problem. Background Information Overcrowding of patients in the hospital’s emergence departments is an emerging threat to patient health and the health sector globally. Ding et al. (2010, 819) define crowding as “a condition in which the determined need for intervention services overwhelms the available resources for patient care in the emergency room”. In today’s changing scenario of health care, emergence rooms are not only a source of care for the sick, but they also act as a rescue point to offer care to patients regardless of their capability to pay. The emergency rooms have been seen as convenient compared to family doctors due to poor timely appointments. This factor has led to a substantial increase in the number of patients visiting the emergency rooms. There are many causes of crowding most of which are related to the availability of resources, patients perception about emergency services, and response from other hospital departments. Consequently, the concerned institutions have focused on improving the patient experience. Emergency room wait times is a prevalent concern across the globe with report emanating from all corners about escalating capacity and prolonged wait times for patients. With the increasing rate of crowding in the emergency rooms, the U.S government sought to understand the factors that influenced patient care, and identify major practices that could be adopted in the emergency divisions. Since it seems there may be no perfect solutions available to this complex situation, an increase in waiting time will lead to a high mortality rate since most patients leave the emergency rooms without being treated (Prakash, 2010). This paper will conduct a systematic literature review to understand patients experience concerning waiting times. Statement of Research Problem or Purpose of the Proposed Research Medical practitioners cannot minimize waiting times in the emergency rooms if they do not understand the factors that contribute to the delay. Addressing factors like the absence of specialists and coming up with a proper triage can go a long way towards minimizing waiting time in emergency rooms. The objective of this research is to identify the varied approaches that healthcare providers can use to minimize waiting times. Delays in the emergency room may result in fatalities or complications. A majority of the patients that visit the emergency rooms are normally on the verge of losing their life. Apart from identifying how health practitioners can minimize waiting times in emergency rooms, the research also seeks to identify the dangers of spending a lot of time in the waiting room. A patient’s wait time begins as he/she enters an emergency department and extends until the patient is assessed and admitted or discharged. The factors leading to long queues vary depending on each emergency department. The patient’s visit comprise of various steps or services that are termed as patient flow. These services involve triage, registration, assessment, consultations, and treatment. Therefore, a delay in one or two of these steps lengthens the patient’s stay and can lead to loopholes in the emergency department. Research by Crow et al. (2002) suggests that activities outside the hospital often influence the emergency department wait period. These effects include things such as how fast and effective in-patient beds are vacated and prepared for the next patient to occupy. Additionally, the order and time taken to assess a patient vary on the urgency of the patient’s condition. However, these dynamics have caused confusion and inefficiency within the emergency department (Ding et al., 2010). Therefore, this paper seeks to address these issues and generate an effective formula to minimize the wait time that a patient needs to spend before a physician attends to him. We will write a custom Research Paper on Waiting Time Reduction in the US Emergency Rooms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research Methodology This study conducted a comprehensive search of relevant literature to identify many scientific articles related to the issues of emergency department and crowding. This review utilized the Goldschmidt’s Information Synthesis as a conceptual framework for the literature review. This research identified thirty references but only ten studies were found most suitable because they had undergone peer review. This review used Medline, PubMed, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost databases to search for relevant sources. The key words included patient satisfaction, emergency rooms, wait times, patient flow, and EMTALA. The search for related sources took one month. The inclusion criteria considered original peer-reviewed articles and published in English. This study excluded articles that did not tackle issues of the emergency department. This study consulted two colleagues to review the selected topics and abstracts for the relevance of the article. The information is readily available and of good quality because it has undergone peer assessment. This secondary information is used to clarify the research questions by comparing data from various sources. This secondary method offers answers to the uncertainties and narrows down the subject hence creating a basis for future research. Patient Satisfaction as Proxy Gauge of Healthcare Quality Society with functioning or healthy citizens is ideal to attain the maximum potential for development in many fields and aspects such as labor work and services. In response, many institutions, including private and public institutions, have been created to make sure that the poor health of the society does not hinder development. Hospitals are one of these primary institutions among many that ensure that the citizens are healthy, and they must continue to operate effectively to provide necessary healthcare (Crow et al., 2002). There are many requirements imposed on a hospital to continue operating. One of these requirements includes the overall well-being of an outgoing patient. No hospital would continue operating when most of their patients continue to suffer from bad health despite the efforts that were made. An inability to make patients better will render the primary goals of hospitals to make citizens productive and healthy moot. Likewise, the improvement of their patients serves as a gauge for the measurement of the quality of health care that hospitals provide (Crow et al., 2002). Aside from the overall well-being of a patient, patient satisfaction is also an important gauge for the measurement of the quality of the healthcare that hospitals provide. This is because “patient satisfaction does not only reflect the mood of the patients but also on their retention, clinical outcomes, and medical malpractice claims” (Crow et al., 2002, p. 48). Moreover, if the patient satisfaction proved to below, it may affect the hospital even if they provide an effective patient-centered delivery of excellent healthcare. Unsatisfied patients tend to be more problematic as hospitals may be using up all their time and efforts in disproving their malpractice claims. Likewise, no hospital would continue to operate if most of their patients were not satisfied despite their healthcare quality (Prakash, 2010). In summary, a hospital must satisfy their patients to keep on providing healthcare services and focus on improving the healthcare services they provide. Reducing Waiting Time in Emergency Rooms to keep Patients Satisfied After establishing the relevance of patient satisfaction, it is essential to devise schemes that will see to it that patients that respective hospitals serve will be satisfied. In a report released by the Institute of Medicine in 2001, “they set forth six goals for quality health care system patient safety: (a) equitable, (b) safe, (c) evidence-based, (d) efficient, (e) timely; and (f) patient-centered” (Ding et al., 2010, p. 817). Being efficient, timely and patient-centered were said to influence patient satisfaction. Moreover, timeliness is important when dealing with patients, especially in emergencies. If time is not an issue and patients can wait since their concern is not urgent, patients usually set appointments; however, from time to time they require immediate attention that emergency rooms promised to provide. Moreover, if a hospital fails to address emergencies because of time constraints, it is no doubt that no patient will be satisfied, and their health will be put into jeopardy. Simple measurement of waiting time of the patients in the emergency room cannot provide a conclusive data for since many factors in the emergency departments need to be taken into account. Therefore, using Quantile Regression model can be of huge benefit in estimating the service completion experience of the patients (Arya et al., 2013). After extracting information about the time spent in emergency rooms as well as other important information about the patients, Quantile regression is used to evaluate the service given by the hospital staff members through the amount of time that the regular and new patients have spent in the emergency room. Not sure if you can write a paper on Waiting Time Reduction in the US Emergency Rooms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Quantile Regression is used so that the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of each of the service times of the different types and levels of healthcare provided in the emergency are estimated room. The different Quantile Regression obtained based on the data are then compared and put into observation. From the observation and data provided, mathematical models of different service times will be formed. This method is expected to produce highly accurate results as opposed to the current methods regarding the patients’ experience in the emergency rooms (Ding et al., 2010). Efforts Done to Minimize Waiting Time in the Emergency Rooms Many hospital management teams did several efforts to address the problem involving waiting time in the emergency rooms of the hospitals. Some hospitals now provide online booking services for their emergency rooms through an application that can be downloaded online. Patients can schedule appointments regarding the urgencies just by paying the right amount of charge. However, many debate this kind of proposal. This is because time is vital in emergencies, and if emergency slots are reserved, then the importance of time will not be valued and such cases will not be emergency anymore (Sadick, 2014). As the emergency slots become less as many books them, patients with more urgent needs that walk right into the emergency rooms that have failed to make their reservations will more likely be neglected as a result. The importance of a minimized waiting time, especially in emergency rooms to guarantee patient safety has been emphasized by many hospitals. In response to this, many hospitals in the United States have embarked on campaigns to improve services in their emergency departments. As part of their effort to make the institution successful, they advertise their waiting time, which proves to be inaccurate at certain times. Accuracy is hard to attain because emergencies cannot be planned for since they occur unexpectedly. Some emergencies are intense than others and may require much time compared to less intense situations. When the advertised wait times are exceeded, patients become agitated and lose trust in such organizations (Ding et al., 2010). It has also been reported that one of the greatest concern to patients is their long door-to-doctor waiting times (Eller, 2009). Seeing that the inflow of patients greatly affects a hospital’s standard emergency room wait time it is important to focus on the inflow of patients among many other factors. To manage this, emergency departments, doctors and hospital management have devised strategies to cope effectively with the increasing flow of incoming patients to prevent overcrowding and increase patient satisfaction. One strategy to reduce the waiting time for patients is the triage-driven bed placement. This strategy minimizes the wait time for patients by taking patients directly to areas where they will be given immediate treatment after triage and a “mini” registration. This mini registration, unlike the most common registration practices, asks minimal necessary information like their social security number, name, and age. Complete information is later asked once the patient had settled down. Asking minimal information proves that a hospital’s priority is not gathering insurance information but to take care of its patients. This strategy improves the wait times for patients and demonstrates a hospital’s ability to cater to one’s health needs. In turn, greatly increase the satisfaction of patients (Karpiel, 2004). Another method used to manage patient inflow is the use of Split Emergency Severity Index 3 Patient Flow Model, or simply Split 3. Patients are distinguished based on the level of acuity and utilization. Patients assigned at levels 1 and 2 require more medical attention and emergency response is severely needed, which includes diagnosis and other preliminary tests. This is because patients in levels 1 and 2 have unstable vital signs and prolonging their wait time will have serious repercussions. Patients assigned at levels 3, 4 and 5, on the other hand, relatively require less attention as their vital signs are relatively stable compared to those at levels 1 and 2. They are considered less acute and can be responded to and treated with quick analysis, such as an immediate check-up. This strategy allows a more customized and more capable process by reducing wait times and increasing the responsiveness to patients about their needs. Aside from that, it also reduces the accumulation of patients in the emergency room. This strategy, among its many benefits, had been proven to increase patient satisfaction (Arya et al., 2013). Aside from advocating and promoting certain medical reform and categorizing patients by their needs, most emergency departments are now are training their staff on management skills. Likewise, these tools and principles from production companies had been used to assess better the processes that have proven to be ineffective and flawed. Toyota Production System uses LEAN in its manufacturing process and it has delivered quality cars that are produced in a timely and efficient manner. This methodology, LEAN, improve process efficiency by reducing wastes or parts of the operation that do not contribute to making the process efficient. This methodology may be applied in a hospital setting by relying on hospital staff and management in identifying the said wastes. They identify the waste by observing the wait time, registration, triage, and physician time. Through the identification of the wastes that aggravate the whole process, standardization may be achieved. Besides, quality service that promotes patient satisfaction may also be guaranteed (Eller, 2009). From a basic knowledge and understanding of the matter at hand, the literature review must be directed towards specific goals. Thus, research questions that need to be addressed had been formulated. The following are some of the research questions that the research seeks to address: What problems does a longer waiting time in the emergency room pose? How can waiting times in emergency rooms in the hospital minimized? Literature Review Findings The studies used in this research are credible based on the analysis given on the summary table. A Proposal for Jump-Starting National Health Care Reform The study by Atkinson (2009) sought to persuade everyone, including politicians, policymakers, the medical community, and patients to believe that reforms in medical operations, particularly in Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) will lower the costs of healthcare and improve patient care. Ideally, this author defines EMTALA and other available reforms that were implemented. EMTALA was enacted to address emergencies and requires hospitals to provide a proper medical screening exam to anyone who walks in with emergency health concerns. Without the said medical screening, the hospital cannot issue the transfer of a patient to another hospital or facility that can address the issue better (Atkinson, 2009). EMTALA fails to provide guidelines for how a hospital should perform the medical screening exam and what constitutes an appropriate exam. Thus, EMTALA promotes confusion when trying to address emergency health concerns (Atkinson, 2009). This consequently results in a longer medical screening examination that lengthens the patients’ waiting time and reduces patient satisfaction (Atkinson, 2009). To address this, Atkinson (2009) suggested that the Congress make reforms to EMTALA. This is to give hospitals the flexibility to triage patients with not so emergencies and refer them within the shortest time possible to assure their satisfaction and safety. This scholarly work, specifically the new Emergency Medical Services, may be used by most of the hospitals to address their long and inefficient waiting time that may lead to more serious implications. However, the work lacks substance as it failed to present data that may support the aforementioned claims (Crow et al., 2002). An extensive review of related literature that focuses on minimizing the wait times of emergency departments in hospitals and patient satisfaction could be done to strengthen one’s claims. Thus, this research will try to supplement this work by selecting works that could contribute to the understanding of the operations of emergency departments and the current reforms that are proposed to address issues of longer wait times in patients. What problems does a longer waiting time in the emergency room pose? Long wait times hurt patient outcomes, and they increase the risk of death (Jouriles, Simon, Griffin, Williams,
Post University Virgin American Case Study.

I’m working on a marketing multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

For this question, review the Virgin America short case study at the end of Chapter 5. Prior to 2016, Virgin America was consistently rated as one of the top U.S. airlines. It served 20 destinations out of its main hub in San Francisco. Known for its leather seats, cocktail-lounge-style lighting, on board Wi-Fi, in-seat power outlets for electronics devices, full-service meals, and spacious legroom, the key competitive issue the company has been facing is that it is a niche player in a much larger industry where low-cost carriers such as Southwest Airlines and Jet Blue are putting constant pressure on prices and crowding out routes with multiple flights a day. After reviewing the full case, please answer the following questions. What was Virgin America’s segmentation strategy? Whom did it serve?Regarding its core segment, what did Virgin America offer its customers?Using the Porter model, which generic business-level strategy was Virgin America pursuing?What actions, taken at the functional level, enabled Virgin America to implement its strategy?
Post University Virgin American Case Study

BBA4951 Columbia Southern University Unit II Business Policy and Strategy Essay.

InstructionsOver the course of this unit, we have discussed the importance of mission
and vision statements. As a part of that discussion, we analyzed mission and
vision statements for their effectiveness. For the Unit II Essay, you will
expand on this topic. Using your favorite search engine, research the mission and vision
statements of different fortune 500 companies. Then, you will write an essay
in which you compare and contrast the mission statements of two companies and
the vision statements of two companies. You may use the same companies for
both the mission and vision comparisons or separate companies. Within your essay, include the information below. Explain the principle value of two vision statements. Explain the principle value of two mission statements. Compare and contrast vision statements of each organization in terms
of composition and importance. Compare and contrast mission statements of each organization in
terms of composition and importance. Do you think organizations that have comprehensive mission
statements tend to be high performers? How do mission and vision
statements assist in selecting an industry-specific strategy? Explain why a mission statement should not include monetary amounts,
numbers, percentages, ratios, goals, or objectives. Your essay should be a minimum of three pages in length or approximately 750
words, not including the title and reference pages. You must also include an
outside source from the CSU Online Library to support your explanations.
Follow APA standards for formatting and referencing.
BBA4951 Columbia Southern University Unit II Business Policy and Strategy Essay

Using Artificial Intelligence for Cost Management

Using Artificial Intelligence for Cost Management. I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.

“Artificial intelligence” is a ubiquitous but often misunderstood term when we discuss the future of business. Leaders are increasingly deciding to control cost and evaluate personnel using artificial intelligence tools. This trend will only become more important during your career. The goal for this assignment is to help you understand and contribute to this trend.
For this assignment, you will explore how AI tools, including machine learning, natural language understanding, and robotics, are helping today’s leaders control cost and increase efficiencies.
To do this, please select an area of interest within the BI portal. Read at least four relevant articles and write a 400-500 word blog that describes how companies in your area of interest are using AI tools to control cost and increase efficiencies.
Include hyperlinks to the relevant articles so that your peers can develop their own knowledge.
Using Artificial Intelligence for Cost Management

Campbellsville University Liebeck v McDonalds Restaurants Case PPT & Paper

write my term paper Campbellsville University Liebeck v McDonalds Restaurants Case PPT & Paper.

Below is the topic and I need to work on “LEGAL ISSUES” on the same topic. I am also sharing what other team members are working on for an idea.TOPIC: already suggested my name for legal issue1) fact pattern – sneha2) legal issue – Kinjal3) rules/law/case – kranthi4) analyze the rule- khanjan5) conclusion- KishorEI NEED LEGAL ISSUES IN 4 PAGES AND PPT ON THE SAME. FOR PPT I NEED TO EXPLAIN IN THE CLASS, SO I NEED EXPLANTION IN SIMPLE LANGUAGE IN A WORD DOCUMNT.EVERYTHING IN AN APA FORMAT AND REFERNECES ALSO IN APA FORMAT. DO NOT DO LESS THAN 4 PAGES IN WORD AND 4 TO 5 SLIDES IN PPT.
Campbellsville University Liebeck v McDonalds Restaurants Case PPT & Paper

This formal essay is a research project where you will make an argument about a particular issue related to artificial technology. Here, you will make your own argument about the particular topic you have chosen.

This formal essay is a research project where you will make an argument about a particular issue related to artificial technology. Here, you will make your own argument about the particular topic you have chosen.. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

Part 1: Annotated bibliography
This is the same kind of assignment as the research summary you did for the first paper. Find six to eight websites that are relevant to your topic. Again, use sources that are reliable and appropriate. For each website, present a summary of the relevant information and explain how you will use it in your essay. Provide the source in MLA format, a link, and then a good paragraph for each source. The annotated bibliography should be 500 words minimum.
Part 2: Paper Outline
Please write an outline for your essay. Prepare the outline to include each paragraph of the essay you will write: two introductory paragraphs, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion. In writing the essay, you may depart from the outline if it seems logical to do so. Make the outline as detailed as possible, though, so that you have a working plan for the paper. The paper outline should be 500 words minimum.
Part 3: Essay Draft
Please write a draft for your essay. A famous piece of writing advice is that the top three things you can do to write a good essay are to write a draft, write a draft, and, you guessed it, write a draft. The closest you can make this to the final essay, the better.
Part 4: Final Essay Draft
This second formal essay is a research project where you will make an argument about a particular issue related to technology. In the first formal paper, you made an argument where you agreed or disagreed with the author of one of our assigned readings. Here, you will make your own argument about the particular topic you have chosen. Let’s say you want to write about self-driving cars. Your argument could be something on the order of safe vs. not safe; a particular kind of technology linking the cars vs. another kind of technology; special cars vs. modifying older cars. Of course, you can do more complex versions of this and work through shades of gray. The argument can also be more abstract or philosophical. The key thing is to make this an argument not an opinion piece or a report. Do this by using the argument technique of going from one idea to another with a “however” in the middle to show the transition. This essay should be a minimum of 3,000 words.
Find the full details for “Part 4: Final essay draft” in the attached document below!
This formal essay is a research project where you will make an argument about a particular issue related to artificial technology. Here, you will make your own argument about the particular topic you have chosen.

Financial management question

Financial management question.

MIRRA project has the following cash flows:012345-$300$227-$X$203$300$404This project requires two outflows at Years 0 and 2, but the remaining cash flows are positive. Its WACC is 14%, and its MIRR is 15.36%. What is the Year 2 cash outflow? Round your answer to the nearest cent.
Financial management question

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