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Does Society “Dig” Volleyball as a Subculture? I. Introduction The individuality within diverse subcultures has given so much to society already. Subcultures such as volleyball have been given a chance to grow in our society and spread to other cultures connecting nations across the globe. It takes time for a subculture to be accepted by our society today. Once it is accepted, membership in subculture grows as more people feel comfortable joining a mainstream subculture such as volleyball. However, to be a part of this particular subculture there are a few guidelines and some complicated jargon.

Perhaps, since volleyball is not a subculture that greatly defies social norms, it may not be stigmatized or critically stereotyped by society. I have personally seen how this subculture has affected society and how society has affected the subculture of volleyball. II. Subculture Description Volleyball began as a leisure sport created in 1895 by William G. Morgan, a YMCA instructor from Massachusetts who originally called the game mintonette. The game, a combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball, was designed for his businessmen as a game with little physical contact.

(NCVA) Having stemmed from other large sport subcultures, volleyball has grown into its own subculture of equal size and strength in the sports industry. Mintonette was played with one ball and players on two sides of a raised net. The object of the game was to keep the ball off the floor on your side of the court. Points would be given to the team who did not allow the ball to hit the floor, and they would also be the team to serve the ball next. (NCVA) The name “volleyball” was given to the game when one of Morgan’s players remarked that the object of the game seemed to be “volleying” the ball over the net.

Rules and regulations of the game were then applied by Morgan. (NCVA) Originating in a YMCA, the game was played by male businessmen as Morgan had designed the game this way. However, once it was discovered to be a hit, the game quickly spread to colleges and high schools where both men and women enjoyed the game. (Sports Know How) Before rules were even set, the game had spread to Japan and Asia then to the Philippines where additions to game strategies were made. During World War II, the game spread from Japan, Russia, and the United to the rest of Europe.

(NCVA) In fact, volleyball contributed to ending the Cold War tensions between Russia because of the respect and sportsmanship displayed towards other players from other nations. (United States Olympic Committee) As volleyball has strengthened as a subculture, newcomers will need to adjust to the norms within the subculture. On the competitive end of the game, any member of the volleyball team needs a competitive drive and endurance to participate in the sport. Drive and endurance helps the individual with their athleticism which is helpful for the game.

Any newcomer would need to practice their skills of the game to fully involve themselves in the subculture. Members of this subculture vary in appearance and dress. Uniforms, matching tops and tight spandex shorts, are worn during the games. Casual versions of the uniform, usually consisting of a T-shirt and the tight spandex shorts, are worn during practices. A part of the uniform that is not required are the knee pads to protect the knees. Another way to determine if someone is a member or not is to listen to them speak the game of volleyball.

Members of the subculture use jargon constantly to talk about the game. A “spike” is when someone jumps to hit the ball over hand to the other side of the net with the intension to score a point. If a point is scored from a spike directly hitting the ground within the boundaries, it is known as a “kill. ” If the spike is not a kill and the opponent can keep the ball in play, this is known as a “dig,” “bump,” or “up. ” These can either be done with both hands linked together and passing the ball from your forearms or over the player’s head with two hands slightly spaced apart.

Once the ball has been dug, a “set” needs to be made. A set is done, as already mentioned, over the player’s head with two hands slightly spaced apart. Then, the players and opponents repeat the actions as such: bump, set, spike. I became of part of this subculture when I was in 3rd grade, but became a serious member in 7th grade when I played with a competitive volleyball team. We would meet to practice for about an hour everyday, and we would play other opponents once a week.

The longer I was a part of this subculture, the more involved I became with it, and the more serious I became about being a part of the group. III. Subculture Analysis As a leisure sport, volleyball is part of the middle class society, where most Americans tend to consider themselves falling in the social class system. Volleyball interests most middle school and high school girls, but little interest is shown by boys of that age. I was personally a part of the subculture of volleyball involving middle school and high school girls. Participating in this subculture proves athleticism and strength.

Also, being a member of the subculture can give the individual a feeling of responsibility and success, helping to gain confidence in themself. Volleyball is part of the mainstream culture, mostly popular among girls. As many schools only have women’s teams, men are a minority in the subculture, even though the game was designed originally for men. Also, because the subculture involves physical activity and athleticism, it usually restricts older generations from participating in the game, although they are still able to watch and talk the game. IV.

Subculture Critique In school, involvement in an activity like volleyball draws attention to the individual, especially if they are a valuable player on the team. Teachers tend to either favorite these “oh-so-talented” individuals or give them leeway in the educational system with grades they do not deserve. Members of the volleyball subculture may be getting cheated out of a proper educational experience. Like the male mainstream subcultures of athletics, volleyball players might also be stereotyped as a “dumb jock” because they receive this special treatment.

As women are supposed to portray feminine characteristics, partaking in leisure activities like volleyball would go against social norms set by society. When she is involved in that subculture, she is portraying an aggressive and competitive attitude, which are things society tells women they should not do. A woman does not sweat and a woman does not physically exhaust herself. However, there are other sports subcultures that societiy values as less feminine than volleyball such as football, basketball, and wrestling, which are male dominated sports.

Volleyball players receive the softer end of the criticism. A visual stereotype given to volleyball players is that all are tall and long limbed. Although this is an advantage for the game, it is not a necessary characteristic to be a part of the volleyball subculture. Short girls have the ability to play volleyball, but it may just be a matter of the position they play. As a short player, I was placed in a different position than the taller girls, but I was not considered any less of a player or a member to the subculture.

Young adult males or teenage boys may view members of the volleyball subculture as “sexy” because the stereotype of a volleyball player as the ideal woman: tall and long legged. This “sexy” stereotype can also arise from the uniform of the players: tight spandex shorts. This is not baggy clothing by any means. Men are seeing what they want to see in these uniforms. This push from men to be a “sexy” volleyball player makes some players who don’t fit the tall and long legged stereotype feel uncomfortable with themselves.

On the other end, men in this subculture are a minority. Having become a female dominated subculture, volleyball is being categorized as a “women only sport. ” This puts men who participate in the sport in a position where they are being criticized by society as being feminine. Society needs to remember that volleyball used to be played by both genders, and both genders are to be equally accepted into this mainstream subculture. V. Conclusion From invention to evolution, volleyball has developed into a subculture that

shifted from the majority of participants being men to the majority being female. Being depicted as a member of the culture can mean you are either playing the sport or are very familiar with the terms and sport itself. It is a lifestyle that has both its perks and downfalls of special treatment or negative social stigma. Many members are mistreated in the educational system or stereotyped as “sexy” volleyball players, and this only harms members of the subculture. However, the subculture’s individual characters and jargon add to the healthy diversity in society.

We can learn from volleyball just as we learn from different races, genders, or larger cultures. Volleyball is a growing subculture for girls and women, but acceptance of the male gender being a part of this subculture is still on the line. As a member of the subculture, I experienced most of society’s positive reactions and views on volleyball. I cannot speak on behalf of teammates and friends for that matter. This inequality only shows that society is not sure how to treat this subculture yet, but the growth of this subculture as a whole shows that society has accepted it. VI.

Early trauma intervention

Early trauma intervention.

Early trauma intervention


Paper details:

Write page brief review of one approach to an early intervention for trauma. Use two reviewed research articles on the specific early intervention for trauma you select. Indicate strengths and weaknesses of the approach you find. Early interventions can include: TFCBT (Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), CISD (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing), PFA (Psychological First Aid), Psychoeducation, etc. Be sure and carefully critique the approaches you choose

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