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Virus-host Receptor Interactions in Biology

Virus-host Receptor Interactions in Biology. Abstract Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and, as such, must penetrate a suitable host cell in order to replicate their genomes and disseminate. Most viruses are limited to a specific set of cells or tissues in which they can successfully replicate, and this may be in one or more particular species. When viruses are able to bind a variety of cells, the pathogenesis and overall effect on the organism may differ. The main determinants of viral tropism differ between different virus families, but in order to take the first, and arguably most important step, in the infection of a host cell, the virus must attach via specific interactions between cell surface molecules and viral proteins. Enveloped viruses usually have proteins embedded in their envelope, assembled at the host cell surface prior to budding. In the case of some viruses (such as HIV-1), these may even consist of cellular proteins from the host cell itself. Non- enveloped viruses are usually internalized in some way and uncoated in an endosome in a pH-dependant manner. Many viruses require a number of cell surface receptors for cell entry, and it is this combination, added to other factors such as replication proteins, that determine whether or not a virus can penetrate and replicated within a certain cell. Introduction As obligate intracellular parasites, the life cycle of viruses depends on an intracellular replication phase and they are thus dependant on living cells. The first essential interaction a virus makes with a host cell is with a cell-surface receptor. A viral receptor may be defined as any cell surface component that mediates recognition of a cell and facilitates entry of the virus and subsequent infection. Receptors serve to ensure infection by overcoming repulsion between the virus and cell. (Baranowski, Flint, Jindrak, modern virol) Cellular receptors are generally proteins, although other types of receptor, such as carbohydrates, may be used (see table 1). These molecules are essential components of the cell or extracellular matrix and functions may include cell adhesion, signalling e.g. chemokine and growth factor receptors. (Baranowski 2003) While some viruses require only one receptor, binding to one cellular receptor alone may not be sufficient for initiation of infection for other viruses. Viruses may bind two or more receptors in sequence in order to initiate endocytosis or membrane fusion. For some viruses, the first contact with a cell is through a low-affinity interaction with a ubiquitous molecule, which allows the primary receptor-virus interaction to take place. The primary receptor is generally unique to certain cells and therefore partly defines the tropism of that particular virus, as cells are rendered susceptible to infection by a certain virus if the receptor required for attachment and entry is present. The primary attachment receptor may induce a conformational change in the viral envelope protein bound, to induce further interaction with the cell. (Modern Virology) A further interaction may then be required to initiate infection, performed by a coreceptor.The definition of the term “coreceptor” may sometimes be ambiguous, but generally, it is taken to be the molecule that induces fusion or penetration of a cell. This may be a further determinant of tropism, for example the interaction of HIV-1… Virus entry into a cell is the first step in the life0cycle of a virus; various mechanisms of viral cell enrty are shown in figure 1. The mechanism of entry varies between viruses, but all begin with the binding of a cellular receptor by a viral protein. Binding of a cellular receptor may induce endocytosis or formation of an endosome, the acidic environment of which induces uncoating; this may be dependent upon cellular proteins clathrin or caveolin. Enveloped viruses may require an acidic environment that will induce conformational changes in envelope proteins required to induce membrane fusion, while others, including the measles and HIV viruses, can fuse directly with the plasma membrane at neutral pH. (Baranowski) Fusion at the plasma membrane releases the nucelocapsid into the cytoplasm, where the virus can make its way to the nucleus or begin replication in the cytoplasm. The differences in these entry pathways are due to the nature of the molecular interactions between the viral components and target-cell receptors, for example, viruses that mimic the natural ligand of receptors for signalling molecules interefere with their signalling to promote viral entry into the cell and spread of infection. (Bomsell) Conformational changes resulting from the binding of a primary receptor that allow the binding of a fusion receptor are a common mechanism among various types of virus, including influenza and HIV type 1, … examples and brief description. Similar to Influenza . Multiple receptors could be coreceptors and act together either to modulate each other or to contribute complementary functions. Alternatively, the receptors might act sequentially. Binding of the virus to the first receptor could cause changes in the virus or host that are necessary before the second receptor can bind (50). For those viruses in fluids with flow, such as blood or respiratory secretions, the initial binding must be able to effect rapid docking of the virus to its host cell. (Haywood) As previously stated, some viruses recognise more than one cellular receptor. The same receptor may also be used by more than one type of virus. (see table 1) Often, these are highly abundant in many tissues, for example, heparan sulfate can serve as a receptor for many viruses, including Human immunodefiecieny virus, Hepatitis C and Dengue Virus and as a co-receptor for Herpesviruses (excluding EBV). (O’Donnel) CAR, acts as a receptor for both coxsackie and adenoviruses. (Schneider) Table 1 illustrates the diversity of cell surface molecules which viruses have adapted to recognise. Some viruses use more than one type of molecule as a primary receptor e.g. reoviruses bind to the beta-adrenergic receptor as well as NAN. (Flint) While the presence of certain receptors on host cells is vital to initiate infection, these interactions are not always sufficient to explain all aspects of cell, tissue and species tropism. (Flint)(Haywood, Schneider) Binding of a viral protein to a cell surface receptor does not necessarily mean a productive infection will follow, since a co-receptor may be absent or functional domains of the receptor may be blocked. (Baranowski) Absence of specific cytoplasmic or nuclear molecules may hinder the replication of some viruses, despite their permissivity. However, even a non-productive infection may induce pathogenic effects, for example, binding to specific receptor may induce the secretion of cytokines. (Schneider) A virus generally cannot infect a cell successfully in the absence of its specific receptor, so the distribution around the body of the receptor will act as a restriction on the range of tissues that can be infected and hence on the number of systems in the body where signs and symptoms of infection might be experienced. (Flint) In the true sense of the word, Tropism refers to the specific cells a particular virus is able to replicate in, although the use of receptor by a virus is increasingly a valid definition in the field of virology. Additional factors the cause viral tropism will not be considered in the context of this essay, although they may be mentioned briefly where relevant, since the focus of this review is the link between specific receptor usage and virus tropism and pathogenesis. (Kuhmann) The primary topics explored here are the virus-receptor interactions with cells that allow viruses to enter cells and initiate infection and how this relates to the tropism of the virus at a cellular and organismal level. I am to demonstrate how viral attachment and entry is often a complicated multi-step process, sometimes requiring many different cell and virus molecules. The viruses largely used to illustrate these points, Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1), Influenza A and Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) are human viruses of medical significance, but the tropism of these particular viruses in other animals, along with other viruses specific to other animals will be discussed where relevant. The structure and genomic organisation of these viruses is irrelevant and is only discussed where it relates to the glycoproteins that interact with cellular receptors. Viruses of plants, fungi and bacteria are not discussed The presence on the cell surface of a protein that has been identified as the receptor for a given virus may not be sufficient for a productive viral infection, and there may be multiple mechanisms behind such restrictions: functional domains of the receptor may be blocked in some cellular context, additional proteins (or other cofactors) may be needed, or cells may exhibit impediments for completion of the infection cycle, despite an initial successful interaction with a functional receptor. HSV- Demonstrates how viruses may use a large number of viral proteins and receptors to bind and enter specific cells. (Hayashi and Yoon) and how the interactions are a complex multi-step process. Influenza – multiple steps. binds many cell types Tropism is dependent on other receptors and interactions. Of the many examples, the interaction of the human influenza A virus hemagglutinin with N-acetylneuraminic acid, and the ensuing conformational alterations involved in pH-dependent membrane fusion, are one of the best characterized at the structural and functional levels (11) (Baranowski 2001) example of proteolytic cleavage to aid spread and pathogenesis. Conformational change required for fusion HIV A well-documented case of use of multiple receptos is that of HIV-1 viruses and related viruses. Illustrates how a virus may use multiple coreceptors to mediate entry to different types of cells and thus influence the tropism of this virus. Uses some of the same receptors as other viruses (parallels between HIV, HSV and influenza) Multi-step process The interaction of the virion with the attachment receptor leads to the first conformational changes in the envelope proteins. This step enables the interaction with co-receptors, or entry mediators and further conformational changes at the plasma membrane. In enveloped viruses (top), this may deliver the energy for the direct fusion of the viral envelope and cellular membrane. Some enveloped and non-enveloped viruses require the low pH in acidic endosomes to induce this conformational change. Enveloped viruses may require the low pH to induce membrane fusion (centre). These mechanisms lead to the release and possibly uncoating of the virus genome, and the initiation of the virus replication cycle. Role of Viral Receptor Destruction While non-enveloped viruses typically undergo relase through cytolysis. Influenza and HIV-1 Viruses also demonstrate the importance of receptor-destroying activity on the infectivity of some viruses. This is imperative for the efficient release and cell-cell spread of the virus by preventing the glycoproteins on the newly-emerged virus from binding to the host cell receptors. It is also important for preventing superinfection of cells by the same or different viruses utilising the same receptor, which may result in cell death. The efficient budding and release of Influenza A virus from the host cell relies on the removal of Sialic Acid residues by Neuraminidase. In contract, the HIV-1 virus gp120 envelope glycoprotein downregulates the CD4 receptor after infection of monocytes, by stimulating TNF-α production. Other cellular mechanisms contribute to down-modulation of CD4, including the gene product Nef, which causes CD4 internalisation respectively. The precursor of gp120 and gp41, gp160, has also been found to bind CD4 intracellularly in the presence of viral protein Vpu, resulting in retention of CD4 in the Endoplasmic Rectilium. Enveloped particles leave the infected cell inconspicuously by budding and secretion. Nonenveloped viruses are usually thought to undergo release through cell lysis, but some may escape by secretory mechanisms after budding into membrane bound compartments and then losing their membrane (Altenburg et al., 1980). Others may subvert cellular autophagy pathways to gain access to exocytic organelles (Jackson et al., 2005). (Marsh) Virus-host Receptor Interactions in Biology
Intermediate Accounting.

(1 point each) Prepare AJEs that should be made on 12-31-15, the end of the accounting year, for each of the following situations. If no AJE is required, indicate “none.” Assume the company only makes AJEs at the end of the accounting year. In addition, identify the impact, if any, on the financial statements if you failed to make the appropriate AJE. Indicate NE for no impact, U for understatement, and O for overstatement. Use the following format to indicate the impact of failing to make the required entry for each situation.(5 points) X Company’s financial records showed the following during 2014:(3 points) N Company’s capital structure consists of 200,000 shares of common stock. N’s retained earnings balance at 01-01-15 was $3,100,000. Assume N had a 30% income tax rate. At 12-31-15, N’s records showed the following:Prepare an income statement in good form for 2015.Compute N’s retained earnings as of 12-31-15.(3 points) Information (in dollars) related to Lobnitz Service Company for 2016 follows.(4 points) Changes in all balance sheet account balances of E during the current year, EXCEPT the change in E’s retained earnings account follow. Compute E’s net income (or net loss) for the current year assuming the only 2 entries E made to her retained earnings account during the current year were for a cash dividend declared and paid of $75,000 and her net income (or net loss) for the current year. (This is NOT a statement of cash flows problem – do NOT format it like a statement of cash flows problem.)(4 points) Because of a flood, Josephus Corporation lost most of its accounting records. The CFO kept certain data related to the income statement. The data follow:(5 points) The following accounts appeared on the trail balance of B Company at December 31, 2017. Assets Liabilities Expenses Revenues Net Income Owners’ Equity XX XX XX XX XX XX On July 1, 2015, the company rented a machine for 9 months and paid $18,000 in advance. The journal entry to record the payment included a debit to a permanent account.On March 31, 2015, the company collected $600 of rent for 12 months in advance. The journal entry to record the receipt included a credit to an income statement account.On September 1, 2015, the company collected $6,000 as rent for 6 months in advance. The journal entry to record the receipt included a credit to a balance sheet account.On October 1, 2015, the company borrowed $24,000 for 1 year at 3%. Interest and principle are due on October 1, 2016.On February 1, 2015, the company invested in a $50,000, 10-year bond that pays 3% interest every three months starting May 1, 2015.On August 31, 2015, the company rented equipment for 10 months and paid $15,000 in advance. The journal entry to record the payment included a debit to a temporary account.On September 1, 2015 the company borrowed $4,000 for one year at 2%. The principle will be repaid on September 1, 2016. Interest is paid semi-annually starting March 1, 2016. Payments made for office supplies $50,000 Insurance premiums receipts $520,000 Interest expense on money borrowed $40,000 Office rental revenues $210,000 Wages & salaries paid $80,000 Advertising receipts $460,000 X follows the accrual basis of accounting. The following were taken from X’s balance sheets: 12-31-14 12-31-13 Office rental receivables $34,000 $32,000 Advertising-related receivables 21,000 18,000 Prepaid advertising 25,000 29,000 Prepaid office supplies 18,000 23,000 Wages & salaries payable 21,000 22,000 Interest payable 6,000 12,000 Unearned insurance premiums 12,000 19,000 Unearned office rental revenue 6,000 14,000 Unearned advertising revenue 34,000 43,000 What was office supplies expense during 2014?How much cash was paid out for interest during 2014?What was wages & salaries expense during 2014?What were insurance premiums revenues during 2014?What were office rental receipts during 2014?What were advertising revenues during 2014? Merchandise sales $950,000 Cost of goods sold 240,000 Selling and administrative expenses 260,000 Loss on the sale of a fixed asset 11,000 Inventory 25,000 Interest expense 8,000 Dividend income on equity investments 12,000 Accumulated depreciation 210,000 Dividends declared during the year 30,000 Restructuring charges relating to a closing N’s factory in Indianapolis* 100,000 * The restructuring did NOT represent a strategic shift that had or will have a major effect on N’s operations. Sales revenues 790,000 Selling, general, and administrative expenses 270,000 Investment income 18,000 Gain on the disposal of the tax preparation division * 150,000 Operating loss of the tax preparation division up until its disposal * 224,000 Interest expense 9,000 Miscellaneous expenses 4,000 * The tax preparation division was considered a component Prepare an income statement in good form for the year 2016. Assume a 28% tax rate and that 80,000 shares of common stock were outstanding during all of 2016. Cash decreased $ 50,000 Accounts receivable increased $ 33,000 Inventory decreased $ 74,000 Fixed assets increased $200,000 Accumulated depreciation increased $ 45,000 Accounts payable increased $ 80,000 Salaries payable decreased $ 30,000 Unearned revenue decreased $ 11,000 Notes payable decreased $100,000 Common stock increased $ 50,000 Sales returns and discounts were $15,000Interest expense was $16,000Cost of goods sold was $300,000Selling, general, and administrative expenses are 25% of cost of goods sold but only 10% of gross salesJosephus’ income tax rate is 30%Josephus had 50,000 shares of common stock outstanding during the year From the previous data, prepare an income statement in good form. Notes Payable (short-term) $192,000 Accounts Receivable $518,000 Accumulated Depreciation – Bldg. 83,000 Prepaid Insurance 56,000 Retained Earnings 544,000 Additional Paid-in Capital 1,125,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 34,000 Common Stock 163,000 Income Taxes Payable 156,000 Buildings 991,000 Cash 170,000 Inventory 1,580,000 Bonds Payable Due 1/1/2025 1,200,000 Land 465,000 Allowance for Doubtful Accts. 7,000 Accounts Payable 409,000 Notes Receivable (due in 6 months) 138,000 Interest Payable 5,000 Compute each of the following: 1. Total current assets 2. Total property, plant, and equipment 3. Total assets 4. Total current liabilities 5. Total stockholders’ equity
Intermediate Accounting

CMGT 410 University of Phoenix Cost Model and RACI Chart Project.

RACI charts can be used as a tool to manage the key roles and responsibilities of a project. Creating a RACI chart can be a challenge and takes practice. In this assignment, you will create and submit a RACI chart. As the project manager, you have been tasked with determining the roles of team members. There are no “right” or “wrong” answers, but several ways to interpret how the tasks and resources should be allocated. Create a RACI chart for a website reveal based on the tasks listed below. You may use the provided RACI Excel template. Project: Launching new website at company picnicTask: Taylor, the company’s Senior Vice President (SVP), told you that you’ll be surprising the 100+ employees of your company with the launch of the new website at the company picnic next month. She said she trusts your judgement but would like to run the final plan across A.J., the head of HR, who is in charge of the picnic. Everyone in the company has been working on some part of the website for over a year. You need to work the exciting reveal into the company picnic. Your committee – made up of project managers from across the company – needs to complete the following tasks:Create signage.Create a fun way to reveal the new website.Write up FAQs about the new website.Create a teaser to send out prior to the picnic.Schedule time to work together.Create a timeline for the reveal.Committee Members: You, Zarina, Erika, Jonas, and MikeAssignment ContentProject Cost ManagementOpen a new Microsoft Word document, Microsoft Excel document, or use the provided template to complete the following tasks.Tony Prince and his team are working on the Recreation and Wellness Intranet Project. They have been asked to refine the existing cost estimate for the project so they can evaluate supplier bids and have a solid cost baseline for evaluating project performance. Recall that your schedule and cost goals are to complete the project in 6 months for under $200,000.Use the Cost Estimate template and Cost Baseline template to assist with this assignment.TasksPrepare and upload a 1-page cost model for this project using spreadsheet software. Use the following work breakdown structure (WBS), and document your assumptions in preparing the cost model. Assume a labor rate of $100 per hour for the project manager and $60 per hour for other project team members. Assume that none of the work is outsourced, labor costs for users are not included, and there are no additional hardware costs. The total estimate should be $200,000.
Project managementRequirements definitionWebsite designRegistration for recreational programsRegistration for classes and programsTracking systemIncentive systemWebsite developmentRegistration for recreational programsRegistration for classes and programsTracking systemIncentive systemTestingTraining, rollout, and supportUsing the cost model you created in the first task, prepare a cost baseline by allocating the costs by WBS for each month of the project.Assume that you have completed 3 months of the project. The BAC was $200,000 for this 6-month project. You can also make the following assumptions:PV=$120,000EV=$100,000AC=$90,000What is the cost variance, schedule variance, cost performance index (CPI), and schedule performance index (SPI) for the project?Use the CPI to calculate the estimate at completion (EAC) for this project. Is the project performing better or worse than planned?Use the SPI to estimate how long it will take to finish this project.After completing your charts, write a 150-word follow-up in which you complete the following:Explain how the project is doing based on the CPI and SPI. Is it ahead of schedule or behind? Is it under budget or over?Describe the strategies or steps that should be taken for human resource management to avoid additional costs.Describe the strategies or steps that should be taken for resource activity management to avoid additional costs.Recommend 2 tools to support these strategies and explain why these tools would be beneficial.
CMGT 410 University of Phoenix Cost Model and RACI Chart Project

t6dq1 Response to classmate’s post

t6dq1 Response to classmate’s post. Help me study for my Management class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Initial Question:
How do you plan to use financial statements in your projected financial statement analysis? Provide rationale for your approach.
Respond to this:
Projected financial statement analysis is a method that allows a firm to examine how a strategic policy is evolving (David & David, 2017). In my financial statements, I plan on analyzing my monthly finances to see how well or poor we are doing. Since my strategic initiative is expansion, I must delineate the exact new service from the rest of the income statement. I must track everything related to this initiative on a monthly timeframe. Including facilities used, equipment purchased and employee salaries. Incorporating the help of the accounting section will be critical on determining the success of this plan.
In addition since we have been doing well in business for a good amount of time, I have plenty of capital built up. This will give me leverage on this plan. I also have plenty of facilities available for any firm that is interested in our initiative. Since my initiative involves collaboration, installation and monitoring on a continuous basis, I will need assistance from our partnering agencies. I will also need new dedicated staff available to only work on this project. After the first year, I should have a better understanding of how my strategic plan is evolving. Subtle adjustments will be made during this this first year. After this time, I should be able to make the determination on how to move forward. This initiative plan is something that I would truly like to initiate and I could see it being successful.
Reference:
David, F. R. & David F.R. (2017). Strategic management: A competitive advantage approach, concepts & cases (16th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
t6dq1 Response to classmate’s post

University of the Cumberlands Big Data Analytics and Business Discussion

essay helper free University of the Cumberlands Big Data Analytics and Business Discussion.

Discussion 1 (Chapter 8): Excel is probably the most popular spreadsheet software for PCs. Why? What can we do with this package that makes it so attractive for modeling efforts?Write a “Post” with a content of 200-300 words, & paste in a Word doc. Follow the APA format.Discussion 2 (Chapter 9): What are the common business problems addressed by Big Data analytics? In the era of Big Data, are we about to witness the end of data warehousing? Yes/No Why?Write a “Post” with a content of 200-300 words, & paste in a Word doc. Follow the APA format.Please follow APA 7 format and in-text citations are mandatory
University of the Cumberlands Big Data Analytics and Business Discussion

UC Influence Different Types of People Leadership Training Susanne Madsen Review

UC Influence Different Types of People Leadership Training Susanne Madsen Review.

Directions for completion of Video review assignment: minimum of 10 pages, not including bibliography This assignment involves the review of no less than 180 minutes of videos relating to the topics taught in this class (movies, politics-related videos & comedy of any form are NOT acceptable).At least 3 TEDTALK videos must be included & all videos must be of a caliber relative to TEDTALKS videos. Attached is a list of approved videos; do not seek to deviate from this list. List for EACH video:1- the strengths & weaknesses of the topics discussed (at least 2 strengths & 1 weakness) 2- how you, as a manager, would need to change your management/leadership qualities to incorporate what was discussed in the video.3- what a company would need to have in place to use the methods discussed (training programs, hiring practices, formal evaluations, customer input, hourly employee evaluations of the effectiveness of their managers, etc.)4- the bibliography must list the title of the video, internet site of the video, presenter, date & total time of video. * Please find the attached List of approved videos.
UC Influence Different Types of People Leadership Training Susanne Madsen Review

Prejudice and Innocence in To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee

The Destructive Thought Prejudice is simply a thought, yet has the ability to do more damage to a society and its citizens than any other force. The novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee follows the story of young Scout Finch and her growing understanding of the prejudice in the small southern town of Maycomb in which her brother Jem and her come of age. Lee’s use of symbols illustrates how societies prejudice has the ability to sabotage innocence, childhood, and friendship, and despite it being involuntary, prejudice destructs the lives of everyone who is exposed to the unjust reality it creates. Innocence is all some people have, yet prejudice is able to take this innocence away from them, destructing their lives. From the beginning, prejudice surrounds one of the most innocent figures in the novel, Boo Radley. With no knowledge of the truth about Boo, Scout describes him in detail by saying “he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, […] what teeth he had were yellow and rotten” (Lee, 16). Later, Lee uses the gifts that Boo leaves in the tree for Scout and Jem to symbolize the innocence of Boo and how Scout’s prejudice towards him is far from the truth. This prejudice built around Boo destroys his innocence by making people assume he has none, forcing Boo to live a lonely life. The Cunningham family is another symbol of innocence sabotaged by Maycomb’s prejudice. Despite their ability to see Tom Robinson’s innocence at the trial, Aunt Alexandra still deems that “you can scrub Walter Cunningham till he shines, […] but he’ll never be like Jem” (300). Aunt Alexandra, along with the rest of Maycomb, is incapable of putting aside prejudice and only judges the Cunninghams based off of their poorness. The Cunninghams are proven innocent by being able to put prejudice of Tom aside, but their innocence goes unnoticed due to the prejudice others have of them. Tom Robinson’s innocence also goes unnoticed due to prejudice. A symbol of Tom Robinson’s innocence is Tim Johnson, the rabid dog. Tim Johnson is labelled as a dangerous dog, yet is only “lookin’ for a place to die” (126), and is not causing any harm. This is similar to Tom Robinson because he is also falsely prejudiced in a dangerous manner. The unjust prejudice against Tim and Tom are both the destructive forces that kill them. The use of symbolism emphasizes how prejudice can take away innocence and alter innocent people’s lives. The theme that prejudice causes is loss of childhood innocence which is seen as Scout, Jem and Dill slowly realize how much the prejudice of the town affects lower class citizens. This loss of childhood innocence is much like the symbol of killing a mockingbird, since innocence is destroyed in both cases. Scouts childhood innocence is lost when she realizes the unjust prejudice that many whites have of Tom Robinson. After the incident with the lynch mob outside of Tom’s jail cell, Scout declares that “the full meaning of the night’s events hit [her] and [she] began crying” (208). When the unjust prejudice against Tom Robinson struck Scout, a piece of her childhood innocence is lost, making her cry. Likewise, Jem loses childhood innocence when he sees cement in the Radley tree, where Boo would leave them gifts. After Jem sees the cement in the knot-hole, Scout claims that “[she] saw he had been crying” (84). Jem is more mature than Scout, allowing Boo’s kindness to make him realize that the prejudice of Boo is not true. This makes Jem sympathetic towards Boo because the tree symbolizes his connection to the world, which is now destroyed. Jem’s realization that Boo is wrongly prejudiced causes him to lose childhood innocence. On the other hand, Dill is the least mature and symbolizes childhood through his daintiness. When Dill cries at the trial, childhood innocence is lost not only within him, but the entire novel. After Mr. Gilmer’s cross-examination, Dill begins sobbing and has to step outside. Outside Scout and him talk to Mr. Link Deas and Dill takes a sip of his cola thinking it is alcohol. This sip proves Dill’s desperation to feel better after realizing the unjust prejudice in the courtroom. Dill’s childhood innocence is lost in this scene, symbolizing the loss of childhood innocence as a whole, and therefore the killing of a mockingbird. Childhood innocence within Scout, Jem and Dill is lost throughout the novel because of their realization of the effect of prejudice on other people. Lee uses several symbols to emphasize how Boo symbolizes friendship and how societies unjust prejudice of him makes it a struggle to have friendship. Boo has little form of communication, yet is able to leave gifts in the knot-hole for Scout and Jem as an act of friendship. When Scout informs Jem that she ate the gum from the tree on the Radley lot, prejudice forms Jems response of “spit it out right now!” (45), since Jem is still naive and thinks anything on Boo’s property is poisoned. The gum symbolizes Boo’s attempt at friendship, and when shot down by Jem, one of his only possibilities of friendship is sabotaged because of prejudice. Later, Boo does another selfless act of friendship as he wraps a blanket around Scout when he sees she is cold. When Scout and Jem realize that Boo put the blanket on Scout, she feels sick. Lee uses the blanket to symbolize the warmth and goodness in Boo, and how he tries to give warmth to Scout. Scout and Jem are unable to acknowledge this due to the prejudice of Boo scaring them away, leaving Boo’s friendliness unnoticed. Only when Scout can form her own opinions and overrule prejudice, can she allow a friendship with Boo. After Boo heroically risks his life to save Scout and Jem, Scout reflects on all of the things Boo did for her and says that “[she] had given him nothing, and it made [her] sad” (373). This proves that Scout no longer fears Boo and can finally have a friendship with him since she has overruled prejudice. The friendship that Boo symbolizes struggles to exist due to prejudice and therefore creates a lonely life for Boo. In conclusion, throughout the use of symbols, Lee argues the ability that prejudice has to sabotage many of the themes throughout the novel, and explains how this involuntary assumption destructs the lives of everyone who is exposed to the unjust reality it creates. This is seen as prejudice sabotages peoples innocence, childhood, and friendships. This evidence lacking opinion that we call prejudice, is the most destructive thought. Works Cited Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird New york: Grand Central Publishing, 1982. Print.

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