Telephone conversations are also useful ways to communicate but it is important always to use a combination of methods. For example ‘Subway ‘can use verbal communication through telephones in order to update each other knowledge about finance such as Profit and loss figures, cash flow information and the costs of running the business. This is an internal source because ‘Subway’ would receive its information from within the company rather than receive information outside the company.
An advantage of verbal is that staff and customers can communicate effectively. For example if a customer’s calls on a telephone to make an enquiry, the staff can use word of mouth to give out information which will help the customer to understand whatever is been discussed however verbal information is not formal and both staff and customer can forget what was discussed. Written Graphs and charts and all types of visual representation including all forms of numerical representation can be included under this heading.
Written information may come from a wide variety of sources including newspapers, books, trade journals and government publications. Without this we could never reach the present state of technological development. For example ‘Subway’ can use graphs to display their financial standing in terms of whether their making more profit or less profit than their rival companies in 6 months. This is also an internal source because ‘Subway’ would receive its written type of information within the company Finance department.
An advantage of verbal is that written information is formal and helps to create a good and smart presentation of information however it is time consuming to sit and type information on the computer. On-Screen Information may be produced on-screen. This can be seen in multimedia TV and CD which combines text, graphics, animation, audio and video. For example ‘Subway’ can make adverts on TV to advertise their fresh good quality readymade food. This method is expensive but very good for good business that aims to increase their number in customers.
This would again internal source because ‘Subway’ will get information within ‘Subway’ sales department about their sale records of ‘Subway’ existing products. An advantage of onscreen information in store is that it helps to minimize queues. For example in Tesco the self-service shows how customers can pay for items bought however the disadvantage is that customers with disabilities cannot access information onscreen. Multimedia Multimedia simply means multiple forms of media combined together.
Media can be text graphics, audio, animation, video, data, and so on. An example would be a webpage about ‘Subway’ ready-made food which has text about it along with the pictures of different types of food which ‘Subway ‘produces. This would again go with internal source of information because ‘Subway would receive its information within ‘Subway’ customer service which would give information of what the customers are thinking of ‘Subway’ and their existing products. An advantage of multimedia is that it helps to send information quickly.
For example ‘Subway’ shows their advert on the TV to attract customers however competitive businesses like Asda and Tesco uses multimedia making it difficult for ‘Subway’ to attract large customers Web based Web-based information displays many benefits of multimedia technology. Using today’s fast broadband connections, it is possible to stream stylish content to a computer anywhere in the world. This is an advantage for many people as the information can be received and read wherever and whenever it is suitable for them which can be a crucial factor for a busy executive.
A lot of interactive multimedia content is now delivered through the Internet. For example ‘Subway’ can use a PowerPoint presentation about their good quality ready-made food and send it to subscribed customers on email which will update their knowledge about ‘Subway’ new products and add to that guide them with the right food if the customer has allergies etc. This can be an external source because other business can use ‘Subway’ information about their products and improve on it which could make ‘Subway’ lose its customers because of their rival organisations excellent market research.
An advantage on web based is that it helps the business to store information on their website. Customers get to know more about the business when they visit a business website. Web based information shows them the price of an item online and where to search for items, however frequent system breakdown can be a disadvantage to web based information because when it happens, customers or the business cannot access their website which can lead to decrease in sales. Purposes of information
Reliable and valid information is essential to all businesses and organisations because they do not know where they are going and if they get to where they want to be it is more by luck than by good planning. Organisations use information for a variety of purposes and these are as follows: * Updating knowledge * Strategic direction and SWOT analysis * Communicating sales promotions Updating Knowledge It is important that businesses keep up to date with changes within their markets. Information is required so that businesses know: • How their markets are developing How labour markets are changing • What the economy is doing • What new laws are being passed that might affect the way they operate. All of this information helps organisations to make accurate decisions based on full knowledge. Incorrect decisions are likely to be the result of insufficient information. Strategic direction and SWOT analysis Strategic management is the method by which organisations determine their purpose, objectives and desired levels of achievement. It helps an organisation decide on actions for achieving these objectives in an appropriate period.
It also allows the organisation to make a decision and then evaluate progress and results. Actions can be changed or improved whenever and wherever required. In order to start strategic direction businesses require large amounts of information from both external and internal sources. Once this information is gained a very useful method known as SWOT analysis is used. SWOT means Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats. A SWOT analysis can be used as a tool for checking an organisation and its environment. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key problems.
Strengths and weaknesses are internal causes. Communicating Sales Promotions Businesses use a different information and methods to communicate sales promotions to customers. They put information about products, services and special offers on their websites and have newspaper and journal adverts and television and radio adverts. Good market research information will offer a notice into the behaviour causes of customers and their buying motivations. Information can therefore help businesses to promote their goods and services and increase their sales.
Analysis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” by Louis Althusser
Analysis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” by Louis Althusser.
Part of preparing for class will be occasional but frequent assignments that help you to using the act of writing to firm up some of the ideas we’ll be reading. For most primary texts (except those scheduled for response paper due dates), some portion of the class will be responsible to come to class with a short written assignment, 350-600 words, which summarize some of the main ideas of the reading. Each entry should be drafted as a letter to me, and you should really treat it more as a conversational check-in rather than as a formal writing assignment (save those for the response papers). In it, you should: Detail what you take to be the main ideas of the article. This should be the bulk of the response. Note concepts that you struggled to grasp, or still don’t feel like you fully understand. Suggest ways to think outward from the text: ways that its ideas make you think of other ideas, ways it connects to other ideas discussed in class, primary literary texts that you think it might open up. This task is just to suggest—fully exploring these ideas would likely take pages, and could form the basis for a response paper later. You may want to tell me about your experience reading—whether you’re struggling with the prose, or making unexpected headway. Please consider these ways to ask for help, tricks, or tips if you think that would be useful. This is not the place to critique an argument. Let us take as a given that the ideas advanced here are significant enough that they are worth understanding thoroughly before we launch into picking them apart. Try instead to understand the theory from the vantage point of its author. Each response must be complete and available at the beginning of the dedicated class, and is worth 20 points, and will earn full credit if the assignment is treated fully and seriously. Assignments that are lacking in a significant way will earn 15 points, and significantly incomplete assignments will earn either 10 or 0, depending on their contribution. For these, late work defeats the purpose significantly, and will receive only 10 points if submitted fully and satisfactorily within 2 weeks of the deadline. Extraordinary entries may be assigned extra credit.
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