Leapfrogging involves the technical aspects of implementing new technologies in the existing technological environments, involving the economic, including financial aspects, the power and broader social interests related to existing and new technology systems, and a wide range of other socio-economic factors. Mobile phones are frequently held up as a good example of technology’s ability to decrease the development disparity between MEDC’s and LEDC’s.
In the economically lower developing world – places with poor infrastructure, few forms of transport and dangerous land lines; mobile phones substitute for travel, allow price data to be distributed more quickly and easily, enabling traders to reach wider markets and generally make it easier to do business. The mobile phone is a prime example of a “leapfrog” technology: it has enabled developing countries to skip the fixed-line technology of the 20th century and move straight to the mobile technology of the 21st. In Afghanistan, the country’s landline network has been torn to bits by 20 years of war.
What is left is now out of date and extremely unsafe. To put new wires in the ground would take decades and be prohibitively expensive. Instead, installing a modern mobile phone network is cheaper, quicker and easier. From having limited phones, the wealthy Afghan people are using one of the latest western communications devices. When the mobiles first went on sale in Afghanistan earlier in the year, nearly 400 people have spent $350 for a handset in order to stimulate their businesses or simply to increase their social life.
Although the mobile phone technology is cheaper, it is still quite costly and only the rich citizens of the nation’s poverty stricken population can afford the technology. Therefore it is only benefiting the wealthy, who probably could have afforded to repair the landline technology. The term GM food are most commonly used to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content.
Genetically modified plants have been widely publicised as the future in agriculture. Many believe that it may help improve crop harvests and farm productivity by developing genetically modified crops that can either resist pests or chemicals. But despite the promise that GM crops may offer, there are still doubts that linger among a number of people as well. There are concerns that the introduction of GM crops in developing countries might lead to a reduction in biodiversity, particularly in areas where a crop originated and a wide range of natural genetic variation is found.
There might also be unexpected consequences of gene transfer (between plants, for example an uncontrollable ‘escape’ of genes into neighbouring wild plants by pollen. There are also concerns that pests or weeds could acquire resistance to crops. Therefore their effectiveness is questioned and would probably hinder the development process, as developing countries would have to deal with further environmental issues. Furthermore, five agricultural biotechnology corporations now control most of the technology needed to develop GM crops.
There are concerns that these companies and those who own property rights have undue influence over the availability of GM crops and the research involved currently only serves the interests of large-scale farmers in developed countries meaning it has very little productivity for the development process – thus increasing the development gap further. However, there are benefits of GM crops that support the development process.
Sub Saharan Africa, well known for its arid climate and also known for its development decline can benefit from GM crops as a technological leapfrog. A gene from a plant which can survive prolonged water stress in desert conditions has been introduced into rice, this allows rice to produce a sugar that protects the plant during dehydration, allowing it to survive periods of drought. In addition, crops can be genetically modified to contain additional nutrients that are lacking from the diets of many people in developing countries.
One example is Golden Rice, which has been modified to have enhanced levels of Beta-carotene, in order to help to prevent vitamin A deficiency which 14 million children under five suffer clinically from, which can cause childhood blindness. Thus, the GM crop will assist Sub Saharan African countries with the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating poverty and hunger and general deficiency issues, which will therefore contribute to the development process.
In conclusion, technological leapfrogging has assisted many developing countries to decrease development disparity with the Global North. Both the mobile phone and GM crop technologies are modern and advanced, allowing developing countries to gain economic, social and environmental benefits. Although there are some issues – because it is 21st Century technology there will always be upgraded technology, which means the leapfrogging will only decrease the development gap, not actually balance the core and periphery.
Immigrant or Immigration
Immigrant or Immigration.
1. The final essay is a topic of your choice that is relevant to immigrant experiences, events or policies. 2. Minimum 1200 words 3. Has to have 4 sources
Essay Help “>Essay Help